Responding to Horticulture Inquiries

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Responding to Horticulture Inquiries

  1. 1. Responding to Horticulture Inquiries Weeds/Invasive plants Mark RenzExtension Weed Scientist mrenz@wisc.edu
  2. 2. 2012 weather and predictions• Record breaking spring – Warmest March on record – Typical to colder spring after (several frosts• How will this impact weed populations? – Early warm-up will favor biennials and perennial weeds – Some annuals got a 2-4 week headstart
  3. 3. Average date of first Days earlier Weed emergence as of Weed species emergence 1998-2000 emergence 4/4/2012 (range observed in days) than average^ ANNUAL GRASS WEEDS Barnyardgrass May 3rd (8) N Fall panicum May 5th (6) N Giant foxtail April 27th (2) Y* 23 Green foxtail May 3rd (3) N Large crabgrass May 14th (9) N Shattercane May 13th (10) N Wooly cupgrass April 30th (6) Y* 26 Yellow foxtail April 30th (7) Y* 26 ANNUAL BROADLEAF WEEDS Bur cucumber April 29th (5) N Common ragweed April 7th (28) Y* 3 E. black nightshade April 30th (16) Y Giant ragweed April 8th (32) YCommon Lambsquarter April 18th (22) Y* 14 Redroot pigweed May 9th (2) Y* 35 Waterhemp May 5th (1) Y* 31 Wild cucumber April 16th (10) Y* 12 th
  4. 4. Pest management steps1. Pest identification = WHAT IS IT?2. Population size = HOW MUCH?3. Select appropriate control tactic = WHAT CAN I DO?4. Monitor and adapt management over time = WHAT CAN I DO BETTER?
  5. 5. Lots of resources to aid in identification• Books• Field guides• Websites• Ask an expert• Interactive tools – CDs, Websites
  6. 6. Resources I Frequently Use• Books – Weeds of the Northeast • 300 species, including woody species, with four or more colored pictures • short cut identification tables • a narrative (including a useful description of how to distinguish from similar weeds) – Ontario Weeds • black and white line drawings of 315 species with 28 pages of color plates, each with six pictures • a narrative (including a useful description of how to distinguish from similar weeds • Available on-line at: http://pubont.stores.gov.on.ca/pool/.• Websites – WeedID@wisc.edu – UW-Herbarium http://www.botany.wisc.edu/wisflora – Virginia Tech http://www.ppws.vt.edu/weedindex.htm – Missouri plants http://www.missouriplants.com/index.html – Ontario weeds www.ontarioweeds.com
  7. 7. Currently what do you use to identify unknown weeds Select as many as apply1. Books/field guides 12% 12% 12% 12% 12% 12% 12% 12%2. weedid.wisc.edu3. UWEX YouTube videos4. Other web-based tools5. UW extension (agent/specialist)6. Non extension expert os es s r rt d u .. ne ol ed ee pe id a. de to de ci gu c. w ex vi ed pe ar is e7. Don’t identify them e d n th w rG as /s ub el io d. nt ify /fi -b ns ut te di ge ks eb nt as Yo te ee (a o de ex w M w Bo EX n er ti n io n’ UW No th ns Do O te ex UW 0 of 5
  8. 8. New Weed ID TOOL http://weedid.wisc.edu• 355 of the most common weeds of Wisconsin entered• Allows for selection of known traits to reduce the potential weeds that fit this criteria
  9. 9. Step 1: Select the type of weed you are trying to identify.• BROADLEAF (269 species): – These herbaceous (non-woody) plants typically produce noticeable flowers. Leaves are often broad with netted veins, but they may also be narrow and veinless.• GRASSLIKE (51 species): – These herbaceous (non-woody) plants lack noticeable flowers. The leaves are ribbon-like with parallel veins, and are often tightly rolled.• WOODY (54 species): – Trees, shrubs, and sub-shrubs with obvious woody stems that persist year after year.
  10. 10. Step 2: Begin your search by answering just a few questions you are confident are correct and are distinct for this weed. If your selections result in too many plants, continue to answer additional questions to narrow the number of results. WARNING: Avoid answering too many questions as one incorrect answer can eliminate your desired weed from the results. Therefore, it is better to answer FEWER questions that are UNIQUE to your weed (such as if your weed has spines, thorns, or prickles).
  11. 11. What do we ask?• Broadleaf and woody weeds – Where was it found? – General characteristics – Leaf characteristics – Stem characteristics – Floral characteristics• Grasslike weeds – Where was it found? – General characteristics – Vegetative characteristics – Inflorescence/Floral characteristics
  12. 12. Demonstration• http://weedid.wisc.edu
  13. 13. Dandelion example• If just enter flower color – 76 matches• If also entered milky sap – 14 matches• If also entered perennial – 6 matches
  14. 14. What would like improved for weedid.wisc.edu? Select all that apply 17% 17% 17% 17% 17% 17%1. More help buttons2. Access to information for each species3. More/better ID pictures4. Better pictures es it ns o s .. re nf n. e ur tto us tu li io ct ro bu ic at ’t pi rp nt on rm lp D5. Linkage to control info co te D fo rI he et in tte to e B or to be e ag M s e/ es nk or6. Don’t0use it cc Li M A of 5
  15. 15. What do you do if you can’t identify this plant from the website?• Try to identify to family or genus then use other resources (next slide)• Take a picture and email it to an expert• Send a sample in for identification through an agent• Who agents will contact if they can’t identify – Annual Crops Vince Davis – Horticultural Crops Jed Colquhoun – Perennial Crops/Natural Areas Mark Renz – Turf: http://www.plantpath.wisc.edu/tdl/
  16. 16. When advising on management get as much information as possible1. Where is the weed growing?2. How much of it do you have?3. How long has it been there?4. What control options are you willing/able to conduct
  17. 17. Tools for Management• Manipulation of the environment (e.g. Plant competition)• Physical management (e.g. mowing)• Herbicide• Prevention• Burning• Biological control• Grazing
  18. 18. Understand the biology of weeds!• How do they reproduce and spread? – Annuals – Biennials – Creeping Perennials – Simple Perennials
  19. 19. Prevention• Washing equipment to remove soil and plant parts from infested areas• Use of weed free inputs: – hay and straw – free gravel, fill, top soil – compost• Keep adjacent areas weed free
  20. 20. Common Herbicides For Homeowners• Need to look at active ingredients• Common Active ingredients – Glyphosate – Bareground (glyphosate + Imazapic or Imazapyr) – Turf (2,4-D, Dicamba, triclopyr and/or MCPP) – Brush/Poison ivy (Triclopyr) – Pre (Trifluralin, Pendimethalin, corn gluten meal)
  21. 21. How to read a label• Active ingredient• Environmental restrictions/hazards:• Directions for use• Specific information for site
  22. 22. Herbicide Use Tips• Read and follow label directions on all chemicals. – Use correct rates – Calibrate your sprayer• Be sure that chemicals are mixed thoroughly• Never spray when it is windy• Spray only the targeted area• Be aware of properties of herbicides – Read environmental restrictions part of label • Some volatize when air temperatures are > 80F. • Some persist in the soil for extended periods • Some can leach into groundwater
  23. 23. Invasive plants Mark RenzExtension Weed Scientist UW-Madison mrenz@wisc.edu
  24. 24. Pest management steps1. Pest identification = WHAT IS IT?2. Population size = HOW MUCH?3. Select appropriate control tactic = WHAT CAN I DO?4. Monitor and adapt management over time = WHAT CAN I DO BETTER?
  25. 25. Invasive plant ID videos http://fyi.uwex.edu/weedsci– Black swallow-wort – Japanese hop– Bull thistle – Leafy spurge– Bush honeysuckles – Perennial pepperweed– Canada thistle – Plumeless thistle– Creeping bellflower – Poison hemlock– Dame’s rocket – Spotted knapweed– Garlic mustard – Teasels– Hill mustard – Wild chervil– Japanese hedge parsley – Wild parsnip
  26. 26. Factsheets on ID and control New FACTSHEETS AVAILABLE• http://fyi.uwex.edu/weedsci 1. Asian bittersweet 2. European marsh thistle FACTSHEETS 3. Musk thistle 1. Wild parsnip 4. Plumeless thistle 2. Japanese knotweed 5. Bird’s-foot trefoil 3. Japanese honeysuckle 6. Black locust 4. Bush honeysuckle 7. Common tansy 5. Dame’s rocket 8. Crown vetch 6. Creeping bellflower 9. Field bindweed 7. Buckthorn 10. Japanese hop 8. Garlic mustard 11. Japanese stiltgrass 9. Spotted knapweed 12. Leafy spurge 10. Black Swallow-wort 13. Multiflora rose 11. Teasels 14. Privets 12. Hedge-parsley 15. Purple loosestrife 13. Canada thistle 16. Quackgrass 14. Perennial pepperweed 17. Sericea lespedeza 15. Poison hemlock 18. Sweet clovers 16. Hill mustard 19. Tree of heaven 20. Wild chervil
  27. 27. What is on a factsheet?• Detailed control information that emphasizes: – Timing(s) to conduct method – Effectiveness in season and 1 year after – Caution/remarks on use• Warning, it contains management methods for NOVICES AND PROFESSIONALS
  28. 28. Introduction to the MIPN Control Database mipncontroldatabase.wisc.edu
  29. 29. Other Resources• http://fyi.uwex.edu/weedsci 1.Brush management in WI 2.Thistles in pastures and beyond 3.Herbicide effectiveness table 4.CRP mid-contract management 1.Mid-term/contract management cool season grasses (smooth brome) 2.Invasive plant management
  30. 30. We are asking for your help!• Please contribute invasive plant location data for Wisconsin – Focusing on species actively spreading in the state• Created a resource for you to add species location: GLEDN – Need • GPS or able to find GPS location from a map • Access to a computer
  31. 31. GLEDN Website www.gledn.org• WEBSITE FEATURES: – the ability for casual observers to report a sighting – a network of professionals to verify new sightings – email alerts of new sightings, including data from all data providers across the region – maps of species distributions across data providers – easy communication channels among stakeholders
  32. 32. Simple Report Form
  33. 33. Expert Verification• Recruiting verifiers to help verify submissions – Customizable by county and invasive plant species – An email will be sent to verifiers when a new species is ready for review• Once verified submission will be on the distribution map• If interested in becoming a verifier contact me – mrenz@wisc.edu
  34. 34. Signup for email alerts• Can get alerts for species of concern to specific geographic areas – Currently based on states and counties
  35. 35. What do we do with the data?• Share it with everyone – Contributing citizens – Other data management providers – Local, state, federal agencies – Researchers• Create habitat suitability maps – Predict potential spread – Improves survey work – Target high probability species for education/eradication
  36. 36. Wild Parsnip Black = Low Probability White = High Probability 1 inch : 50 miles
  37. 37. List of data management systems contributing dataTo get involved with the Great Lakes Early Detection Network or the Global Invasive Species Information Network, please email Alycia Crall (crall@wisc.edu)Funding and support provided by:
  38. 38. Are you interested in being involved with GLEDN? 20% 20% 20% 20% 20%1. Contribute invasive species location data2. Join early detection network/email3. View species distribution4. Become a verifier d er .. .. te5. Not interested i ... . n. rif rib s tio e re ve st iv te c di as a te in e v s de om ot in ie ec N r ly te ec sp bu ea B tri ew in on Jo Vi C 0 of 5
  39. 39. Early Detection Species in SE Wisconsin• Japanese hedge parsley• Poison hemlock• Black swallow-wort• Wild Chervil
  40. 40. Dan Tenaglia, Missouriplants.com, Bugwood.orgJapanese hedge-parsley (Torilis japonica) WI DNR Dan Tenaglia, Missouriplants.com, Bugwood.orgWI DNR
  41. 41. Spreading hedge-parsley (Torilis arvensis) Mark W. Bierner Mark W. Bierner Elizabeth Czarapata
  42. 42. Hedge-parsleys (Torilis sp.)• NR 40 Status – – Japanese hedge-parsley: Prohibited/Restricted. – Spreading hedge-parsley: Prohibited.• Areas Invaded – Disturbed uplands (ROWs, diteches).• Life History - Biennial.• Key ID – Grooved stem with noticeable joints. – Leaves are pinnately compound, fern like, and triangular. Clasp stem. – White flowers grow in loose, flat topped umbels. • Japanese has 2 or more small bracts growing beneath each umbel. Spreading lacks these bracts. – Fruit are bristly. Initially are rosy or white-green. They brown as they mature.
  43. 43. Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) Courtney LeClair, WI DNR Courtney LeClair, WI DNRMerel Black
  44. 44. Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum)• NR 40 Status – Prohibited/Restricted.• Areas Invaded – Moist sites (prairie, pasture, ROWs).• Life History - Biennial.• Key ID – Stems are stout, hairless, hollow, ridged. Lower stem and branches have distinctive reddish-purple markings. – Leaves triangular, alternate, pinnately compound 3-4 times, shiny, hairless, parsley like. – When crushed, emit a musty odor reminiscent of mice. – Flowers in white umbels.
  45. 45. Wild chervil (Anthriscus sylvestris) Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.orgLeslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
  46. 46. Wild chervil (Anthriscus sylvestris)• NR 40 Status – Prohibited/Restricted.• Areas Invaded – Open woods, pastures, ROWs.• Life History – Monocarpic perennial.• Key ID – Mature plants 1-5’, stem is branched, hollow, grooved, and hairy with a fringe of hairs around lower nodes. – Leaves pinnately compound, alternate, fern-like, triangular, and usually hairy on the underside especially along the veins. • Leaflets are pinnately divided and clasp the stem. • Petioles grooved on upper surface. – White flowers in flat umbels. Bloom very early in late spring.
  47. 47. Black Swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum nigrum) syn. Cyanchum nigrum, C. loviseae Related Invader: V. Rossicum
  48. 48. Black swallow-wort• Herbaceous perennial vine• Invades – riparian habitats – grasslands
  49. 49. Black Swallow- wort• Leaves: simple, opposite (3” long)• Stems: 2-6 ft in height• Flowers: 5 purple-black petals with yellow center• Fruit: slender pods 1.5- 2.5” long

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