Invasive plant management milton


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Invasive plant management milton

  1. 1. Invasive plant management<br />Mark Renz<br />Extension Weed Scientist<br />UW-Madison<br /><br />
  2. 2. Pest Management Steps<br />Pest identification = WHAT IS IT?<br />Population size = HOW MUCH?<br />Select appropriate control tactic = WHAT CAN I DO?<br />Monitor and adapt management over time = WHAT CAN I DO BETTER?<br />
  3. 3. What is the goal of management?<br />Compliance with NR40<br />Eradication of populations<br />Improve cover of desirable species<br />Improve ecosystem services land<br />Prevention of invasion<br />
  4. 4.                                                         <br />Understand the biology of weeds!<br />How do they reproduce and spread?<br />Annuals<br />Biennials <br />Creeping Perennials<br />Simple Perennials<br />
  5. 5. Field bindweedresults 1 month after treatment<br />Mowing<br />Sprayed with glyphosate<br />
  6. 6. Annual plant lifecycle<br />
  7. 7. Biennial lifecycle<br />
  8. 8. Perennial lifecycle<br />
  9. 9. Perennial weeds<br />Many types, important to know if<br />Creeping<br />Ex Russian olive, Canada thistle<br />Simple (root crown)<br />Ex Multiflora rose, dandelions<br />
  10. 10. Tools<br />Manipulation of the environment (e.g. Plant competition)<br />Physical management (e.g. mowing)<br />Herbicide<br />Prevention<br />Burning<br />Biological control<br />Grazing<br />TECHNIQUES ARE SPECIES SPECIFIC<br />
  11. 11. Manipulation of the environment<br />Competition/prevention in establishment<br />Desirable plants compete with weeds.<br />Established plants better competitors<br />
  12. 12. Manipulation of the environmentan example<br />Increasing grass cover in fall can reduce germination of weeds<br />Mowed to 8” in October = 75% light interception in spring<br />= few to no weeds germinating<br />
  13. 13. Limit disturbance<br />Most weed species need disturbance to establish<br />Prescribed burn<br />Promotes some competitive species<br />If timed correctly can kill young plants/seedlings<br />Manipulation of the environmentOther things you can do<br />
  14. 14. Mowing<br />Can effectively reduce production of seeds<br />Specific to weed species<br />Annuals and Biennial: <br />reduce population sizes if timed correctly and conducted for multiple years<br />Perennials: <br />typically need additional management to reduce populations<br />
  15. 15. Applications of herbicides<br />Broadcast applications<br />Pre-emergent (PRE)<br />Post-emergent (POST)<br />Directed methods<br />Spot treatment<br />Basal bark applications<br />Cut stump<br />Ropewick<br />Timing specific<br />
  16. 16. Herbicide typesSelectivity<br />Nonselective (Example glyphosate/Roundup)<br />Will injure any plant it contacts<br />Selective (2,4-D)<br />Won’t harm grasses<br />Won’t harm broadleaved species<br />Random selectivity<br />
  17. 17. Herbicide typesPersistence<br /><ul><li>No residual (hours- 1 day)
  18. 18. Example: Roundup (glyphosate)
  19. 19. Short residual (days to weeks)
  20. 20. Example: 2,4-D, Banvel, Garlon, Weedmaster
  21. 21. Long lasting=soil sterilant (months – years)
  22. 22. Example: Tordon (Picloram), Arsenal (Imazapyr)</li></li></ul><li>Herbicide Use Tips<br />Read and follow label directions on all chemicals. <br />Use correct rates<br />Calibrate your sprayer<br />Be sure that chemicals are mixed thoroughly <br />Never spray when it is windy<br />Spray only the targeted area<br />Be aware of properties of herbicides<br />Some volatize when air temperatures are > 80F.<br />Some persist in the soil for extended periods<br />Some are selective herbicides others are not<br />Some may leach into the water table<br />
  23. 23. Prevention<br />Washing equipment to remove soil and plant parts from infested areas<br />Use of weed free inputs:<br />hay and straw<br />free gravel, fill, top soil<br />compost<br />Keep adjacent areas weed free<br />
  24. 24. Cleaning procedures<br />Remove plant parts, seeds, and dirt that may contain plant parts from anything transported off infested site<br />Many types of equipment available:<br />Pressure washers<br />Pressurized air<br />Brush<br />
  25. 25. Biological control of weeds<br />Definition: the use of natural enemies to reduce the damage caused by a pest population <br />GOAL: Reduce the populations (not eliminate)<br />Introduced agents: Not native to area (REGULATED)<br />Natural agents: native to area (NOT REGULATED)<br />
  26. 26. Grazing<br />Can suppress growth of weeds if timed correctly<br />Same timing and effectiveness as mowing except for palatability<br />Palatability is dependant on stage of growth, animal<br />BUT ANIMALS CAN BE TRAINED<br />Promotes grasses to be more competitive <br />
  27. 27. Control information for WI<br /><br />FACTSHEETS AVAILABLE<br />Wild parsnip<br />Japanese knotweed<br />Japanese honeysuckle<br />Bush honeysuckle<br />Dame’s rocket<br />Creeping bellflower<br />Buckthorn<br />Garlic mustard <br />Spotted knapweed<br />Black Swallow-wort<br />Teasels<br />Hedge-parsley<br />Canada thistle<br />Perennial pepperweed<br />Poison hemlock<br />Hill mustard<br />OTHER MANAGEMENT INFO<br />Brush management in WI<br />Thistles in pastures and beyond<br />Herbicide effectiveness table<br />
  28. 28. Management Plan Examples<br />
  29. 29. Steps to consider<br />Goal for Target Area.<br />Inventory your target area.<br />What is there?<br />What isn’t there?<br />Decide on realistic goals based on inventory and understanding of vegetation and site characteristics.<br />Set a timeline.<br />Carry out plan.<br />Reassess plan regularly.<br />
  30. 30. Prioritization<br />Think long-term!<br />Use goals/objective to drive management plan<br />DON’T BEGIN AT THE CENTER<br />
  31. 31. Develop a management plan<br /><ul><li>Local park area in blue
  32. 32. Yellow is garlic mustard presence
  33. 33. Goal is to reduce invasive plant cover and prevent spread</li></ul>ROAD<br />
  34. 34. Garlic mustard biology<br />Biennial<br />Seedlings become rosettes<br />Rosettes flower in year 2, then die<br />Plants spread by seed only <br />Equipment<br />Shoes<br />Animals<br />Water<br />
  35. 35. Prioritize each area<br />Small patches in NE manage aggressively to eradicate<br /><ul><li> GOAL: ERADICATION</li></ul>2. Large patch along <br /> roadside manage <br /> efficiently to prevent <br /> further spread<br />Focus on leading edge (perimeter) and edge of road<br />GOAL: Reduce area infested and reduce potential for further spread<br />
  36. 36. Garlic mustard control information<br />Nonchemical: Hand-pulling before flowering is effective<br />
  37. 37. Garlic mustard control information<br />Chemical: Foliar spot spraying in late fall or early spring is best<br />
  38. 38. An example plan for GM<br />Small patches in Northeast<br />Focus on flowering plants<br />Most seedlings die; many rosettes die<br />Monitor and hand-pull for 3 years in spring-summer before plants produce flowers<br />Monitor un-infested areas for new populations <br />Annually manage<br />Hand pull 2nd year plants<br />
  39. 39. An example plan for GM cont.<br />Large patch along roadside <br />Edge of roadside<br />Make sure roadside is mowed before seed production (reduce spread)<br />Perimeter of patch<br />Treat perimeter and working your way into the patch as much as feasible.<br />Spray in spring in years 1 and 3 after seedlings emerge<br />In year 2 hand-pull escaped flowering plants in years don’t treat<br />Update plan after 3 yrs<br />Remap infestation<br />Assess management options <br />
  40. 40. Knowledge of the source of an infestation can be important<br />
  41. 41. Green Bay site was surrounded by garlic mustardLocation floods every year bringing in seed from nearby infestations that results in a uniform carpet of garlic mustard seedlings regardless of treatment<br />
  42. 42. Develop a management plan<br /><ul><li>Local park area in blue
  43. 43. Yellow is buckthorn presence
  44. 44. Goal is to reduce invasive plant cover and prevent spread</li></ul>ROAD<br />
  45. 45. Buckthorn Biology<br />Perennial Woody shrub<br />Male and female plants<br /><ul><li>Plants spread by seed from female plants </li></ul>Birds and other animals<br />equipment<br />
  46. 46. Prioritize<br />Keep un-infested areas free of buckthorn<br />Begin management on south side of road and systematically manage north<br />Target isolated patches first<br />Focus effort on female plants<br />Ignore dense patch unless have resources to manage<br />
  47. 47. Buckthorn control information<br />Nonchemical: removal possible with small plants, larger plants need equipment<br />
  48. 48. Buckthorn Chemical control information<br />Foliar: Effective when plants have “leafed out”<br />Basal Bark: Effective year-round on small plants (<6”)<br />Cut-Stump: Effective year round on all sizes<br />
  49. 49. An example plan for buckthorn<br />Treat female isolated plants nearest the road moving north<br />Small plants: use weed wrench to hand-pull<br />Medium sized plants: Basal bark, cut stump, foliar<br />Large plants: Foliar or cut stump<br />After finish 1, treat isolated male plants as above.<br />Monitor un-infested areas for new populations and manage if they are found<br />Emphasize areas with lots of bird traffic<br />Fenceposts, Hedgerows, powerlines<br />
  50. 50. An example plan for buckthorncontinued<br />Large dense patch in NW<br />Fundraise $$$ so can manage effectively<br />Mow to remove dense canopy and plant material (Winter)<br />Burn plant material (winter-spring)<br />Treat resprouting plants with herbicide<br />Cut stump after mowing<br />Let resprout and foliarly treat<br />Revegetate/restore if desirable plants don’t return<br />Periodically re-visit plan and adjust as needed.<br />
  51. 51. Summary<br />Invasive plant management is species specific.<br />Develop a plan to manage invasive plants that fits with <br />Land management objectives<br />Biology of the species<br />Expertise of the people working on the project<br />Prioritize efforts to maximize effectiveness<br />Consult an expert or factsheets about selecting an appropriate control option<br />No one option will work under all situations, and often an integrated approach works the best.<br />