Canada thistle and forbs NAA

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Canada thistle and forbs NAA

  1. 1. Can Herbicides Broadcasted in the Fall Control Canada Thistle And Maintain Forb Cover In Establishing Prairies? Brendon J. Panke, John W. Albright, and Mark J. Renz University of Wisconsin-Madison
  2. 2. BackgroundBackground • Establishment of native prairies is popular for many reasons. • Perennial weeds, such as Canada thistle can severely hinder the establishment of planted prairies. • BMPs exist for the establishment of prairies. • Often, BMPs are not followed.
  3. 3. Problem and ObjectivesProblem and Objectives • Canada thistle suppression to enhance establishment of new prairie – Range of herbicides available for use on Canada thistle – Some native species senesce before Canada thistle – Some native species tolerant to herbicides OBJECTIVES: • Determine if herbicides applied in the fall 1. suppress Canada Thistle 2. Increase native grass and forb cover 3. Increase # of native grass and forb species
  4. 4. SitesSites • Horicon, WI • McFarland, WI
  5. 5. Horicon, WIHoricon, WI • HISTORY: Agricultural fields acquired • LAND PREP: Disked 2006 before seeding • PLANTING: – Planted in July 2006 – Wildlife planting (5 grasses + 21 forbs)
  6. 6. McFarland, WIMcFarland, WI • HISTORY: Fallow for several years • LAND PREP: – 2006: gly+2,4-D summer + fall – 2007 • gly +2,4-D summer • Disked 2007 in fall before seeding • PLANTING: – Fall seeded November 2007 – Prairie restoration (61 forbs + 3 grasses)
  7. 7. Native plants present when treatedNative plants present when treated Species Common Achillea millefolium yarrow Andropogon gerardii big bluestem Arnoglossum atriplicifolium pale indian plantain Artemisia ludoviciana prairie sage Aster ericoides heath aster Aster novae-angliae New England aster Astragalus canadensis Canada milkvetch Baptisia alba wild white indigo Desmodium canadensis Canada tick trefoil Echinacea purpurea purple coneflower Elymus canadensis Canada wild rye Euphorbia corrollata flowering spurge Monarda fistulosa beebalm Oenothera biennis common evening primrose Panicum virgatum switchgrass Potentilla arguta prairie cinquefoil Rudbeckia hirta black-eyed susan Solidago rigida rigid leaf goldenrod Sorghastrum nutans indian grass Species Common Asclepias syriaca common milkweed Aster ericoides heath aster Aster novae-angliae New England aster Elymus canadensis Canada wild rye Euphorbia corrollata flowering spurge Monarda fistulosa beebalm Oenothera biennis common evening primrose Panicum virgatum switchgrass Rudbeckia hirta black-eyed susan Silphium integrifolium rosinweed Silphium terebinthinaceum prairie dock Solidago rigida rigid leaf goldenrod Zizia aurea golden alexander McFarland (1 YAP)McFarland (1 YAP) Horicon (2 YAP)Horicon (2 YAP)
  8. 8. Herbicides evaluatedHerbicides evaluated applied Fall of 2008applied Fall of 2008 Herbicide Rate used Typical Rate 2,4-D 1 pt/A 2-4 pts/a Escort (metsulfuron) 0.3 oz/A 0.5-1.0 oz/a Banvel (dicamba) 1 pt/A 2-4 pts/a Milestone (aminopyralid) 1 fl oz/A 7 fl oz/a Milestone (aminopyralid) 5 fl oz/A 7 fl oz/a Roundup (glyphosate) 7 fl oz/A 22 fl oz/A UTC - -
  9. 9. Canada thistle status HoriconCanada thistle status Horicon SEPTEMBER EARLY OCTOBER LATE OCTOBER
  10. 10. Canada thistle status McFarlandCanada thistle status McFarland SEPTEMBER EARLY OCTOBER LATE OCTOBER NOVEMBER
  11. 11. How did we measure success?How did we measure success? • Decrease in cover of CT • Increase in cover of native plants – Total vs Forbs vs Grasses – Planted vs unplanted • Increase in # of plants – Total vs Native vs Planted
  12. 12. 6 MAT Canada Thistle Cover6 MAT Canada Thistle Cover * * * * * * • No differences in CT cover among timings
  13. 13. 1 YAT Canada Thistle Cover1 YAT Canada Thistle Cover * **** ** • Late October was the best timing at McFarland
  14. 14. 2 YAT Canada Thistle Cover2 YAT Canada Thistle Cover • No differences in CT cover • CT cover reduced compared to previous years
  15. 15. 1 YAT native plant cover1 YAT native plant cover McFarlandMcFarland • No differences
  16. 16. 1 YAT native plant cover1 YAT native plant cover HoriconHoricon * * * * * *
  17. 17. Roundup September
  18. 18. Milestone 5 fl oz/A Late Oct Milestone 1 fl oz/A Late Oct
  19. 19. 2 YAT native plant cover2 YAT native plant cover McFarlandMcFarland * * ** * * * * • 2009 cover 25%
  20. 20. 2 YAT native plant cover2 YAT native plant cover HoriconHoricon * • 2009 cover: total = 50%; forb= 20%
  21. 21. Tolerance of forbs present toTolerance of forbs present to Milestone (aminopyralid)Milestone (aminopyralid) • Compare proportion of tolerant vs susceptible forbs Tolerant Mildly Tolerant Mildly Susceptible Susceptible NA Tolerant Mildly Tolerant Mildly Susceptible Susceptible NA McFarland Horicon
  22. 22. Native Grass Cover 1 YATNative Grass Cover 1 YAT Horicon McFarland Sept. Early Oct. Late Oct. Sept. Early Oct. Late Oct. Nov. 2,4-D 50 25 38 4 4. 6 1 Escort 44 39 30 4 14 11 11 Banvel 58 45 41 2 5 9 4 Roundp 10 33 25 6 1 11 5 Mile 1 35 39 29 2 3 3 3 Mile 5 41 34 38 10 9 10 9 UTC 27 2
  23. 23. Glyphosate - September • Glyphosate applied in September had negative impacts on grass and forb cover
  24. 24. Escort September
  25. 25. Native Grass Cover 2 YAT Treatment Horicon McFarland Sept. Early Oct. Late Oct. Nov. 2,4-D 8 9 7 9 4 Escort 16 11 26 7 20 Banvel 7 8 16 16 10 Roundup 4 9 5 15 10 Milestone 1 6 9 5 7 9 Milestone 5 5 24 8 18 29 UTC 5 5
  26. 26. 1.5 YAT species richness / m1.5 YAT species richness / m22 P valuesP values Variable McFarland Horicon Plants Native plants/ m2 Planted plants/ m2 Plants / m2 Native plants/ m2 Planted plants/ m2 Herbicide NS NS NS 0.01 NS NS timing NS NS NS NS NS NS Herb x timing NS NS NS NS NS NS
  27. 27. Species richness 1.5 YAT * McFarland Horicon
  28. 28. ConclusionsConclusions • Canada thistle can be suppressed with reduced rates – Suppression was 6 months – 1 year – Milestone most consistent • Native cover may be improved – Site, tolerance of forbs likely plays a role – Milestone showed best native forb cover • No increase in # planted species observed
  29. 29. Management implicationsManagement implications • Disking is not recommended as a site prep tool for prairie establishment when Canada thistle is present. • Canada thistle management should be conducted prior to planting prairie plants • Management > 1 year after planting does not increase planted species density.
  30. 30. QUESTIONS?QUESTIONS?

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