Is brain behavior

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  • Arrows show direction of behaviour change
  • Is brain behavior

    1. 1. Is brain-behavior behavior?If so, it can beconditionedjust like otherbehaviors
    2. 2. Definition of Learning Learning is an adaptive1 permanent change2 in behavior or behavior potential 3 that is produced as a result of prior experience4 1 occasionally maladaptive such as depressed mental set, obsessions 2 not due to fatigue, injury 3 includes tendencies to respond that might not have been tested 4 excludes maturation, disease, instinct
    3. 3. Two forms of conditioning Classical conditioning Hard-wired linkage between stimulus and response (e.g., food and saliva) Anything acting as signal of food can produce response Operant conditioning Training linkage between stimulus and response through reinforcement behavior strengthened if followed by reinforcement behavior weakened if followed by punishment Law of Effect (Thorndike) • Rewarded behavior is repeated
    4. 4. Components of conditioning Acquisition initial stage of learning, during which a response is established and gradually strengthened Effective pairing of reinforcement
    5. 5. Extinction diminishing a conditioned response occurs when an response is not followed by a reward
    6. 6. Extinction and spontaneousrecovery Acquisition Strong (response + reward) Spontaneous Extinction recovery of (no reward) response Strength of CR Extinction (no reward) Weak Pause Time
    7. 7. Operant Conditioning Spontaneous recovery reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response Generalization tendency for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses Discrimination Identify specific stimulus from set of similar stimuli to evoke similar reinforced responses
    8. 8. Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner (1904- 1990) Built on Thorndike’s Law of Effect Discovered schedules of reinforcement
    9. 9. Operant Conditioning Operant Chamber (“Skinner Box”) chamber with a bar that an animal can press to obtain a food reinforcer Frequency of responses are recorded
    10. 10. Operant Conditioning Reinforcer any event that follows a behavior AND strengthens the behavior Shaping procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward a desired goal
    11. 11. Principles ofReinforcement Primary Reinforcer an innate reinforcer satisfies a biological need Secondary Reinforcer a conditioned reinforcer an event that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
    12. 12. Schedules ofReinforcement Continuous Reinforcement reinforce desired response every occurrence learning occurs rapidly extinction occurs rapidly Partial Reinforcement Reinforce response only part of the time learning occurs slowly But connection resists extinction
    13. 13. Extinction curves due to continuousand partial reinforcement
    14. 14. ADHD and responding topartial reinforcement
    15. 15. Different Partial Reinforcement schedulesNumber ofresponses Fixed Ratio 1000 Variable Ratio 750 Fixed Interval Rapid responding near time for 500 reinforcement Variable Interval 250 Steady responding 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Time (minutes)
    16. 16. Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed Ratio (FR) behavior is reinforced only Fixed Interval (FI) after behavior occurs a behavior is reinforced only specified number of times after a specified time has (e.g., 1 in 3) elapsed the faster you respond, the frequency of behavior more rewards you get! increases when the time for different ratios reward draws near very high rate of responding like piecework pay Variable Interval (VI) behavior is reinforced at Variable Ratio (VR) unpredictable time intervals behavior is reinforced ON produces slow, steady AVERAGE after behavior responding occurs a specified number of like pop quiz! times (e.g., 1 in 3 on average) like gambling, fishing very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability
    17. 17. Reinforcement ScheduleexamplesBuying a lottery ticket and winning VRWatching & seeing a shooting star VIReceiving allowance Saturday for having clean room FIHotel maid gets 15-min break after cleaning four rooms FR
    18. 18. Shaping Can leave lab once rat touches lever three times in 10 seconds
    19. 19. Shaping Successive approximations to goal behavior
    20. 20. Punishment An aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows
    21. 21. Operant Conditioning Appetitive Aversive Presented Positive Punishment reinforcement Discomfort follows Positive event follows response e.g. response e.g. reward punishment Removed Punishment Negative Positive state reinforcement removed after Discomfort removed response e.g. time-out after response e.g. or omission training escape or avoidance learning
    22. 22. Problems withPunishment Punished behavior is not forgotten, its suppressed--behavior returns when punishment is no longer present Causes increased aggression- shows that aggression is a way to cope with problems Creates fear that can generalize to undesirable behaviors, e.g., fear of school Does not necessarily guide toward desired behavior--reinforcement tells you what to do, punishment only tells you what not to do Punishment teaches how to avoid it
    23. 23. Biofeedback
    24. 24. When one becomes awareof: Breathing Hand or foot temperature Heart rate Muscle Tension - You can change it. This is the essence of biofeedback.
    25. 25. When you become aware of your ownbrain activity –you can change it also.
    26. 26. Therapist and client/game screen Therapist Monitor EEG SensorsFeedback Screen

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