1.) Validation/Motivation - explore the critical aspects of RtI2 & how they relate to overall improved secondary achievement.2.) Practical strategies/resources to apply within your school setting to ensure ALL students receive effective Tier 2/3 interventions who need them.3.) Information/resources to investigate/inquire/ explore beyond today as you continue to refine your RtI2 program.
What is RtI2?(and what’s with the “squared” business?) Response to Intervention Response to Instruction “Really Terrific Instruction”
What do we mean by “intervention”? “Insanity: doing the same things overand over and expecting DIFFERENT results” or“If you keep doing what you’ve been doing, you’ll keep getting what you’ve been getting...”
RtI2 Organizes Interventions in TiersIf progress isinadequate, mo Tier 1: Primary Interventionve to next level. Enhanced general education, improve core instruction Tier 2: Secondary Intervention - additional time (e.g. 1 period.) - matched to assessed needs. Tier 3: Tertiary Intervention - even more time, (e.g. 2 period) - more specialized curricula, etc. Clear exit criteria - avoid “lifers” if possible! www.rti4success.org
75-80% Should Be Meeting Benchmark in Tier 1 - CORE 3-5% 15-25 % AT- RISK 75-85 % MEETING BENCHMARKS “Gut Check”: As of this Winter where is your school by grade level (% in Tier 1 at benchmark?)
Bottom Line: Improving SecondaryLiteracy Requires Some Viable Form of: 1) School-wide Content Literacy Focus - “responsive instruction” used across the curriculum (Tier 1) - academic vocabulary, academic writing across the curriculum - comprehension strategies taught across the curriculum 2) Provide Literacy Intervention Classes - - matched to assessed student needs - Tier 2: 1 period supplemental “strategic” classes - Tier 3: 2 period, often replacement or “intensive care” 3) Focused Collaboration (PLC) - data/evidence based cycle of inquiry - change practices based on student progress/results - regular data-based meetings/plan-revise-improve
Research Informed Resources for Improving Adolescent Literacy1) Research reports, summaries & program evaluations:√ What Works Clearinghouse: http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/√ Best Evidence Encyclopedia: http://www.bestevidence.org/√ Center on Instruction: http://www.centeroninstruction.org/√ RTI National Center: http://www.rti4success.org/2) Instructional Strategies/Tools/Resources√ SIM – U of Kansas Strategic Instruction Model: http://www.ku-crl.org/sim/√ Project CRISS: http://www.projectcriss.com/√ Teach Like a Champion: http://uncommonschools.org/√ Explicit Instruction (Archer & Hughes): http://explicitinstruction.org/√ All About Adolescent Literacy: http://www.adlit.org/√ Doing What Works: http://dww.ed.gov/
A Simple TruthThere is NO intervention or ELD programpowerful enough to make up for an ineffectiveGeneral Ed program - the heart of improvingstudent achievement in RtI2/ERIA is inimproving Tier 1 Gen Ed instruction.
A Comprehensive Literacy Solution forMiddle and High School – Dr. Joe Torgesen 1. Remember that the thinking and knowledge demands for literacy increase every year Content area teachers must be part of the solution (Tier 1 – Content Enhancement) 2. Remember the most struggling readers are far behind their peers in many areas Reading teachers must teach them basic and advanced reading skills as intensively and skillfully as the school can manage
Latest Research Summary:Secondary Literacywww.centeroninstruction.org
Self Assessment re: IES RecommendationsAcross Content Areas in grades 4-121) Provide explicit vocabulary instruction2) Provide direct & explicit comprehension strategy instruction Tier One3) Provide opportunities for extended discussion of text/content meaning and interpretations4) Increase motivation and engagement in literacy learning (e.g. connections, choice, applications, etc)5) Make available intensive individualized interventions for struggling readers that can be provided by Tiers Two & Three qualified specialists. (i.e. “tiered interventions”)* We know what to do... our challenge is mustering the will, courage, and coherent focus to do the job...
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Essential Components ofReading/Literacy for AdolescentsALL struggling students need direct and explicit instruction in: Vocabulary Comprehension Motivation and Engagement Speaking & WritingSOME struggling students need direct and explicit instruction in: Advanced Word Study (a very few basic phonics/decoding) Fluency (to promote comprehension)
Direct & Explicit Instructionis Unambiguous – Clear - Focused Ask Anita Archer! I do it We/Y’all do it You do it
Structured Engagement “tool kit”: Ensure ALL Are Responding1) Choral Responses -pronounce it together - teacher cues students to respond (e.g. hand signal, voice, eyes) - physical responses too; fingers under the word, chart,etc. - “thumbs up when you know” (think time) 2) Partner Responses/Small Group (if warranted) - teacher assigns - provide a label/role “1’s tell 2’s” - alternate ranking (high with middle, middle with lower) - thoughtful questions/prompts/up & down Bloom’s taxonomy 3) Written Responses - focused prompts increase thinking, accountability, focus - structure academic language (e.g. sentence starters) 4) Individual Responses (AFTER rehearsal/practice) - randomly call on individuals, use “public voices” - complete sentences, using new vocabulary
Reading instruction in the resource room:Set up for failure.Exceptional Children, Moody, S. W., Vaughn,S., Hughes, M. T., & Fischer, M. (2000). 66, 305–316.Why? How is it set up for failure? Groups far too diverse (i.e. diff. levels with diff. needs) Too many students at once (lack of small group inst.) Too much silent seat work, work sheets, while research consistently finds to close the gap, students require:- Intensive, Interactive, Instructional Level TEACHING
While it is true we have little replicated researchre: secondary RtI...we have an emerging databasere: Adolescent Literacy–Including Struggling Readers. What is currently known about proving effective remedial interventions for older students with serious reading difficulties?
KEYS to Effective ReadingInterventions: Research Conclusions “It’s ALL About the Match”1) TIME - allocated & engaged 2) GROUPING - based on assessed needs/group size 3) CURRICULUM - matched to assessed student needs & research based “tools” 4) INSTRUCTION - active, language rich, Responsive - “I do it, We do it, You do it”** Driven by Assessment to Guide Your Decision Making
Reading Intervention Domains for Adolescent Struggling ReadersWord StudyFluency Basic Intervention Options:Vocabulary 1) Targeted intervention of one or more domains (Tier 2)Comprehension 2) Comprehensive interventionWriting addressing ALL domains (Tier 3)Motivation/Engagement
Matching Intervention to Assessed Needs: Targeted & Comprehensive Levels - Adapted from Drs. Anita Archer & Mary Gleason Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 10-5. Comprehensive inter. 5-8 Targeted Inter. 8.0 Content Enhancement√ Intense Word Recognition √ Strategies for decoding √Study Skills - basic phonics longer polysyllabic words - word study/spelling . - affixes . √ Content Reading Strat.√Phonemic awareness - complex vowel patterns - text structure - summarizing √ Fluency Building √Passage Reading/Fluency - inference √Vocabulary/Academic Lang √ Academic writing - preteach vocabulary √Comprehension Strat. √Test taking strategies √ Independent reading √ Academic vocab. √ Academic Writing √ Writing √ Study skills/note taking √ Research/Project skills 2-3 periods 1 period Embedded Core Formative assessments/progress monitoring are the “coin of the realm” - data drives the train!
A Few Practical Distinctions for Tier 2 & 3(note: generalizations NOT rigid rules) Tier 2 Tier 3Time 1 – period 2 periods Targeted instruction Comprehensive Focus instruction - may 1-2 specific areas * always supplemental be an ELA replacement to ELA Core Program for ELA (w/credit HS)Progress every 4 weeks every 2-3weeksMonitoring
E. G. Creekside Middle School RTI Literacy Support ModelTier 3: INTENSIVE √ 2 period block - replaces Lang. Arts √ READ 180 Curriculum √ Smaller classes *English CreditTier Two: (A) STRATEGIC - #1 √1 period supplement to Lang. Arts √ Targeted Programs (e.g. REWARDS, RN)Tier Two (B): STRATEGIC - #2 √ 1 period supplement to Lang. Arts √ Skills for School Success curriculum √ REWARDS plus, What’s Happening?
One Example: Mountain RidgeMiddle School - Paradise (Chico, CA.) Structure: Added a 7th period to the day by cutting 7 min. from the other 6 periods - WHOLE SCHOOL is in a “reading class”. Content: 4 Levels Based on Assessed NEEDS - NOT labels Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1Intensive Strategic -1 Strategic -2 Benchmark√2 periods is √ advanced √ REWARDS + √ Contenttheir ELA decoding (content lit) elaborations√ decoding (REWARDS) √ academic √ vocabulary (Language!) √ fluency writing √ writing√ fluency √ comp. strat √Study skills √ research√ oral comp. √ vocabulary √ vocabulary projects√ vocabulary
Assessment is A KEY to An Effective RtI System 3 Key Questions Assessment Must AddressScreening: Who needs help? - set your “cut point” for support (e.g. statelocal scores, Credits/Grades) - use data you already have (State/Dist tests, Grades, Credits) Brief Diagnostics: What help do they need? - rule in/out decoding (Is decoding impairing comprehension?) - use ORF – 3 passages, mid score, meaning distorting errors?Progress Monitoring: “is the help helping? - evaluate the effects of our instruction via data - Is it working? If not - Do Something Different!!
Big Idea: Rule In or Rule Out Q: Does the student need Word Level intervention; i.e. decoding/fluency work?No silent test (e.g. State Tests, AR, SRI, Gates, etc)can tell us this – we must listen to them read...
Sources for ORF Passages Gr. 6-8 * Use 8th Gr. for 9-12 *√ Benchmark Fluency Assessor www.readnaturally.com√ Aimsweb http://www.aimsweb.com/√ CORE - Assessing Reading Multiple Measures http://www.corelearn.com/
Compare Score to ORF NormsGrade %tile Fall Winter Spring *Expected Growth √ Is there a fluency problem? Severe or Moderate? √ Is there a decoding problem (lots of errors, esp. meaning distortion errors (not ELLs dropping a tense marker like /ed/) ? - if an issue, may add Phonics/Decoding AssessmentWhy 8th Gr. Passage for HS ? - Fluency/Decoding difficulty is notsignificantly different in 9-12 (diff. is all vocab/sentence complexity)
Differentiate Interventions Based on Brief Diagnostic (Rule in/out process)Rule In – Need Word Study (decoding/fluency) Most severe – Tier 3 Intervention 2 per. (e.g. READ 180, L! etc.) - 12 students combined w/existing SpecEd *need it all; decoding/fluency/vocab. & comp Moderate A – Tier 2 Intervention (e.g. REWARDS, RN, etc.) - 55 students need 1 period - decoding/fluency w/vocab/comp focusRule OT – Does NOT Need Word Level Intervention Moderate B – Tier 2 Intervention (SIM, RT, L, etc.) - 12 students need 1 period - vocab/comp/writing strategy focus
Word Reading/Decoding Diagnostic Assessments Assessing Reading Multiple Measures www.corelearn.com - San Diego Quick/Core Phonics Survey - Vocab/Comp/Fluency & more Quick Phonics Screener www.readnaturally.com - 3 forms, detailed decoding diagnostics TOWRE (Test of Word Reading Efficiency) -www.proedinc.com
Progress Monitoring Assessment for Secondary Students Data Source Question Answered√ ORF (Oral Reading Is the gap closing? Fluency) – Decoding needs Is the rate of progress√ MAZE (Cloze vocab/comp adequate -should we keep measure) “doing what we are doing?”√ Scholastic Reading Inventory STAR - other quick comp measures* Some interventions (e.g. READ 180) have PM tools built in * Best source: www.rti4success.org - click on tools
Grouping Students by Instructional Need “It’s all about the match”Key Question/Decision: (Rule in- Rule out)“Do they need word study/fluency intervention?”How many students demonstrated serious fluency(ORF) & decoding (errors- number & type)? * below 120 WCPM suggests fluency/decoding issues * below 95% accurate suggests decoding issues * error type – if EL and dropping ed/ing/es NOT changing meaning – is a English structure issue NOT decoding
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What Kind of Support Can Specialized Teachers Provide to Struggling Readers?Specialized teachers (e.g., intervention teachers, reading specialists, special education teachers) can use the strategies covered in this Meta-analysis with struggling students during small-group instruction or intervention classes. (Tier 2/3)Specialized teachers can also coordinate/co- teach with content-area teachers to provide guidance on instructional strategies that may assist struggling readers in their content-area classes as they learn to read expository text. (Tier 1)
Selecting Research Validated Intervention Tools & Programs•First assess & determine student needs•Examine efficacy data using objective sources: √ What Works Clearinghouse http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/ √ National RTI Website http://www.rti4success.org/instructionTools √ Best Evidence Encyclopedia http://www.bestevidence.org/reading/mhs/top.htm √ Florida Center for Reading Research http://www.fcrr.org/fcrrreports/creportscs.aspx?rep=supp
Please remember....Well designed and research supportedprograms matter, but in the final analysisit is PEOPLE not programs that make thedifference... √ does it match the student’s needs? √ right teachers for the job? √ adequate time allocated? √ fidelity of implementation? √ “tweak” based on PM data?
RTI Interventions Self Audit1) Individually reflect upon, fill out the Self-Audit assessment form2) Share/compare rankings and perception...3) Agree upon 1-3 concrete “next steps” to improve the range of interventions implemented at your site.
Word Study is… Instructional practices that improve word-level reading. Research indicates that…Older students in need can benefit from word study instruction (Edmonds et al., 2009; Scammacca et al., 2007).
Why is Effective Word Study Instruction Important for Some Students? Some students have not reached the level of word-reading ability typical for their grade (Daane et al., 2005). Poor word-reading ability can consequently affect fluency rates and overall comprehension of text.
Word Study Successful Readers Struggling ReadersRead multisyllabic words and use strategies to Often read single-syllable words effortlessly butfigure out unknown words. have difficulty decoding longer, multisyllabic words.Make connections between letter patterns and May lack knowledge of the ways in which soundssounds and use this understanding to read words. map to print.Break words into syllables during reading. Have difficulty breaking words into syllable parts.Use word analysis strategies to break difficult or Often do not use word analysis strategies to breaklong words into meaningful parts such as words into parts.inflectional endings, prefixes, suffixes, and roots. (Bhattacharya & Ehri, 2004; Nagy, Berninger, & Abbott, 2006; Boardman et al., 2008)
Reasons for Word Study Difficulties Students might not have been effectively taught how to decode in the earlier grades. Students might not have been given adequate opportunities to practice. Students may struggle to understand letter- sound correspondences or the “rules of the English language.”
COI Meta-analysis Word Study Intervention FINDING IMPLICATIONInterventions For older studentsfocused on word struggling at the wordstudy had a level, specific word study intervention ismoderate overall associated witheffect. improved reading outcomes.
Highlighted Study:Bhattacharya & Ehri (2004) Participants 60 struggling readers (non-LD), grades 6 through 9Received one of two interventions Received provided by a researcher for current school four sessions totaling 110 minutes. instruction. Whole (Comparison Group) Syllable Word n = 20Chunking Reading n = 20 n = 20
Which Strategy do You Think was Most Effective? Why? Study FindingsSyllable training enhanced readers’ decoding ability on transfer tasks.Syllable training enhanced readers’ ability to retain spellings of words in memory.Whole word training was not found to help struggling readers on any of the decoding or spelling transfer tasks.
Conclusions About Word Study Instruction For adolescent readers who struggle at the word level, instruction in word study skills can improve word identification skills. There are a variety of instructional methods for this purpose, but most involve teaching students to decode words by recognizing syllables types or by analyzing parts of words (e.g. prefixes, suffixes, roots)Targeted Curricula Include:√ REWARDS - http://www.sopriswest.com√ SIPPS (Challenge Level) - http://www.devstu.org/sipps
For example: brief simulation The Most Common Prefixes in English Prefix Meaning % of prefixed example words un not; reversal of 26% uncover re again, back, really 14% review in/im in, into, not 11% insert dis away, apart, negative 7% discover en/em in; within; on 4% entail mis wrong 3% mistaken pre before 3% prevent pro in favor of; before 1% protect a not; in, on, without 1% atypical
Teaching PrefixesClarify the functionUsually changes the MEANING of the baseor root word. Read preread (before) reread (again) misread (wrong) pseudoread (fake)
Systematic Practice in Identifying, Reading,& Understanding Prefixed Words preview pre reform re misplace mis uncover un Find the word in the list above that means to put something in the wrong place. ___________
The Most Common Suffixes in EnglishSuffix Meaning % of suffixed example wordss, es more than one 31% characters verb markered in the past; quality/state 20% walkeding when you do something; 14% walking quality, stately how something is 7% safelyer, or one who, what/that 4% drummer whichtion, sion state, quality; act 4% action/missionable, ible able to be 2% disposable, reversibleal, ial related to, like 1% final, partial
Teaching SuffixesClarify the functionA Suffix usually changes the part of speech,verb tense, plural, of the base word (sometimeschanges the meaning)to read (v) meaningless read-er (n) read-ing (n) read-able (adj) read-ability (n)
Systematic Practice in Identifying, Reading,& Understanding Suffixed Words viewing ing completeness ness comfortable able vacation tion Find the word in the list above that means to feel good or at ease: ___________
A Strategy for Reading Longer WordsDirectly teach students to apply this (after 10-15 “preskill” lessons”& fade to covert application... Release of responsibility)* Initial Strategy Instruction - Explicitly Taught -Overt to Covert 1.Circle any word parts at the beginning & end of a word: independent2. Underline the vowels in the rest of the word independent 3. Say the parts - looping your finger under each part in de pen dent 4. Say the whole word - make it a real word/does it make sense in the sentence? independent
Dr. Anita Archer Teaching Polysyllabic Decodingto 7/8th Graders in Intervention: REWARDS (SoprisWest)
Technology For Decoding/Word Study IF Students Need It Low tech, useful, effective http://www.lexialearning.com/ “SOS” - Strategies for Older StudentsSKILLS REINFORCED INCLUDE:• Levels 1, 2 and 3: Word-attack andcontextual strategies necessary for automatic word recognition (practice withone- to two-syllable words, sentences and paragraphs)• Level 4: Word-attackstrategies for multi-syllable words containing open and consonant -le syllablesas well as hard and soft "c" and "g"• Level 5: Word-attack strategies for refiningAnglo-saxon prefixes and suffixes, recognition of Latin prefixes and suffixes,division of words into prefix, root and suffix, advanced decoding andcomprehension skills (practice with two- to four-syllable words containingspecial accent patterns), vocabulary and word recognition and practice withcommon Greek combining forms
Why Technology w/ Secondary Intervention? Provide 1-1 on level instruction w/feedback, allowing teachers to differentiate - not a “one size fits all”, but personalized Adolescents tend to react positively to using technology - it’s “hip and happening” Don’t need to publicly “advertise” various limitations/lack of skill-knowledge Easy to track progress - show growth Avoids some class mgt. issues
Caveat: A Note About Fluency We currently do not have adequate research to recommend fluency instruction for adolescents. For this reason, we do not describe fluency instruction for older students with reading difficulties. (COI report) This does not mean that fluency instruction for older readers with reading difficulties is NOT effective. It means that we do not have adequate research to indicate that it IS effective. When additional research becomes available, the Center on Instruction will develop guidance on fluency instruction for struggling adolescent readers. * meanwhile we suggest....
Fluency: Differing Instructional Needs Adolescents whose oral reading rate on grade-level text is:Below 70 wcpm* need more practice with word recognition in addition to possible fluency practice;Between 70 and 120 wcpm* may benefit from some fluency instruction; andGreater than 120 wcpm* may benefit more from increased vocabulary and comprehension instruction rather than increased fluency instruction. * Ranges are approximations.
Wide Reading vs. Repeated Reading Which is More Effective?More research is needed in the area of fluency instruction for older students.Recommendation IF You Choose to Provide Fluency Instruction: Use a combination of repeated reading and wide reading. Repeated reading provides opportunities for students to improve and automate their sight vocabulary. Wide reading exposes students to new and different content, vocabulary, and text types.
Guided Oral Repeated Reading At Your Instructional Level 4 Elements That Must Be Present To Effectively Build Fluency Guided - Teacher, CD, Tape Oral - Not Silent Repeated - more than twice (“6 +/- 3”) Instructional level - in your “zone”
READ NATURALLY Steps 1. Pick a selection and get the tape/log on computer 2. Write a prediction/question. 3. Time yourself (cold) reading. 4. Mark your graph in blue. 5. Read along with the tape/CD ROM. 6. Practice reading without the tape/CD. 7. Answer the comp. questions. 8. Pass the story. 9. Mark your graph in red. 10. Write a retell or summary.
Fluency Instruction: ConclusionsThe level of fluency required for secondary struggling readers to read effectively and understand text is not entirely clear.For some students, fluency may help build a link between decoding and comprehension, but fluency does not cause comprehension.Teachers should not spend a lot of time on fluency instruction and should pair it with instruction in decoding and/or vocabulary and comprehension- enhancing practices (e.g. REWARDS does this)
Vocabulary Successful Readers Struggling ReadersAre exposed to a breadth of vocabulary words Have limited exposure to new words.in conversations and print at home and at May not enjoy reading and therefore do notschool from a very early age. select reading as an independent activity.Understand most words (at least 90 percent) Read texts that are too difficult and thus are notwhen they are reading and can make sense of able to comprehend what they read or to learnunknown words to build their vocabulary new words from reading.knowledge.Learn words incrementally, through multiple Lack the variety of experiences and exposuresexposures to new words. necessary to gain deep understanding of new words.Have content-specific prior knowledge that Often have limited content-specific priorassists them in understanding how words are knowledge that is insufficient to support wordused in a particular context. learning.(Boardman et al., 2008)
COI Meta-analysis Vocabulary FINDING IMPLICATIONSVocabulary interventions We know that directly had the largest overall teaching students the effect size. meaning of words and how to use strategies to uncover meanings of words can improve students’ knowledge of the words taught. What we don’t know is whether or how vocabulary instruction influences global comprehension.
COI Meta-Analysis: Vocabulary FINDING Vocabulary interventions had the largest overall effect size. CAVEAT Standardized measures are not typicallyused for measuring vocabulary knowledge and use. Only researcher-developed measures were used in the studies in the meta-analysis.
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Direct instruction of specific words Direct instruction of strategies to promote independent vocabulary acquisition(Kamil et al., 2008)
Explicit Instruction of Specific Words What is it? Instruction on the meaning of specifically selected high leverage academic words Instructional Recommendations Devote a portion of time each day to instruction on specific words Provide repeated exposures to new words in multiple contexts (Beck et al., 1982) Supplement explicit instruction with opportunities to use new vocabulary in a variety of contexts (during discussion, while writing, during extended reading) (Kamil et al., 2008)
heuristic heu•ris•tic n. 0-1-2-3-4-5 Synonym Explanation/Example Imageframework process or model for problem solving(e.g. literacy), Greek root: guidelines, a method or heuriskein - to approach findTo effectively develop critical academic literacy skills with all typesof students, secondary educators need a powerful researchinformed/classroom tested ________. heuristic
Now it’s your turn....One example of a heuristicI commonly use is________________.
Analyze – Synthesize - EvaluateWhat did I do as a teacher in terms of:1) Specific attributes of direct/explicit instruction – engagement, etc. to increase the odds that learning would occur?2) Specific attributes of effective vocabulary instruction/academic language development? Implications for EVERY teacher 6-12 concerned w/improving literacy?
A Instructional Heuristicfor Explicitly Teaching a New Term1) Introduce (say together, syllables, identify part of speech, morphology, etc.)2) Explain BEFORE Define3) Provide Examples--------------- “Quick Teach”4) Deepen Understanding5) Review & Coach Use
Bottom Line Summary? Effective vocabulary/academic language instruction comes down to:Connection – new to the known, building that “semantic network” in the mind/brainUse – academic speaking and writing as we construct and apply knowledge (not simply memorize or match, multiple choice etc.) No single correct method or strategy – it will depend on how important the term is, how difficult it is to grasp, level of your students, content area etc. ...but the same essential architecture is there – Connect & Use
8th Grade Literacy Intervention: Tier 2Providing Explicit Vocabulary Instruction100% of the students are ELLs (Sara Tweist)
Additional Research on Vocabulary Instruction Teachers should provide explicit vocabulary instruction in all content- area classes. Strong evidence supports this recommendation (Kamil et al., 2008).*Optimal RTI scenario – close collaboration with intervention ANDGen Ed content area teachers... Tiers 2 & 3 can only do so much...can’t “move the dial” on whole school achievement without asignificant and relentless focus on Tier 1 improvement
Direct Instruction of Strategies toPromote Independent Vocabulary AcquisitionWhat is it?Instruction of word meanings through examination ofdifferent word parts and word familiesInstructional RecommendationProvide students with strategies/practice to make them independent vocabulary learners; e.g. affixes, roots, contextual analysis. (Kamil et al., 2008)
High Frequency Latin/Greek Roots (Stahl, 1999)Key: contextualized practice, connections to other wordsstudents know (e.g. spec – spectrum, inspect, spectacles)
Selecting Words for Direct/ Explicit Vocabulary InstructionCriteria to consider:1) Drive comprehension of key BIG ideas in the text/lesson (e.g. circadian)2) High Use academic words, needed for long term academic proficiency (e.g. evident, analysis)3) Words that are abstract and require thorough explanation – context alone is not sufficient.
Practice Word SelectionAlexander Graham Bell is known as the inventorof the telephone. His assistant was namedThomas A. Watson. Together, Bell and Watsondiscovered how sound, including speech, couldbe transmitted through wires, and Bell receiveda patent for such a device. In 1876, thetelephone was officially invented and the firsttelephone company was founded on July9, 1877.
Academic Vocabulary: Word Generation Projecthttp://wordgeneration.org/
Conclusions About Vocabulary Instruction Effective vocabulary instruction is not asking students to memorize definitions or teaching students unfriendly and complex descriptions of words. Effective vocabulary instruction: √ assures that students have opportunities to know what words mean and how to use them in oral and written language (i.e. connection & use) √ is explicit and includes 1) direct instruction of word meaning and 2) direct instruction of strategies to promote independent vocabulary acquisition. Teachers should carefully select specific words to target during vocabulary instruction based on student needs, goal of the lesson, and future academic success.
What is Reading Comprehension? “the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language” (RAND, 2002, p. 11) “Reading is an active and complex process that involves Understanding written text Developing and interpreting meaning; and Using meaning as appropriate to type of text, purpose, and situation” (NAEP Framework, 2009)
Word recognition, vocabulary,Text structure, vocabulary, genre background knowledge, strategydiscourse, motivating features, use, inference-making abilities,print style and font motivation TEXT READER ACTIVITY Purpose, social relations, Environment, school/classroom/peers/ cultural families normsHeuristic for reading comprehension (Sweet & Snow, 2003; Rand Reading Study Group, 2002).
Why is Effective Comprehension Instruction Important for All Students?Many adolescent students have a difficult time comprehending content-area textbooks.Many students are passive readers.Comprehension strategy instruction promotes active participation in the comprehension process, thus improving students’ ability to monitor their understanding while reading.
Comprehension Strategies Successful Readers Struggling ReadersContinuously monitor reading for Fail to use meta-cognitive strategies as they read.understanding. May not be aware when understanding breaks down.Link content with their prior knowledge. May lack subject-specific prior knowledge. Do not readily make connections between what they are learning and what they already know.Use a variety of effective reading strategies Have limited knowledge and use of strategies forbefore, during, and after reading. gaining information from text.Set a purpose for reading and adjust their Often do not enjoy reading and lackrate and strategy use depending on the text understanding of the utility of reading.and content. (Boardman et al., 2008. Adapted from Denton et al., 2007; Pressley, 2006.)
COI Meta-analysis Comprehension Strategies FINDING IMPLICATIONSThe effect for reading Reading comprehensioncomprehension strategy interventions can have a significant impact oninterventions was adolescent strugglingmedium to large. readers. Providing comprehension strategy instruction throughout the day provides opportunities for multiple exposures and use of strategies with a variety of texts.
What is a ComprehensionStrategy? “A Plan for Thinking”
Direct and Explicit Comprehension Strategy Instruction Asking and Main Idea & Answering Summarization Questions Using Multiple- Graphic Strategy Organizers Instruction(Kamil et al., 2008)
Active Student Engagement Many researchers think that it is not the specific strategy taught, but rather the students’ active participation in the comprehension process that makes the most difference in students’ comprehension.(Gersten et al., 2001; Pressley et al., 1987)
Direct and Explicit Comprehension Strategy Instruction Instructional RecommendationsCarefully select textShow students how to apply strategies to different texts (model thinking)Ensure that text is at appropriate reading levelsUse direct and explicit instruction (I/We/Y’all/You do it)Provide appropriate guided practice/feedbackPromote understanding of the text’s content (Kamil et al., 2008)
Main Idea & Summarization What is it? Strategies to help students identify the most important elements of what they read and synthesize those elements into a meaningful summary. Why is it important? Enhances ability to synthesize large amounts of information during and after reading.Enables students to process and learn new information from text.
Main Idea & SummarizationStrategy Instruction: When & Where?WHEN?Main idea strategies can be used DURING reading to find the most important information from a short section of text.Summarization strategies can be used AFTER reading to synthesize larger amounts of text.WHERE? (Everywhere!! - Tier 1, 2 & 3)Reading/English/Language Arts classes (narrative texts and expository texts)Content-area classes (expository texts)
Identifying the Main Idea/Summarize One Validated Strategy “Paragraph Shrinking” Identify the most important “who” or “what”. Identify the most important information about the “who” or “what.” Write this information in one short sentence (e.g., 10 words or less).Fuchs & Fuchs; 1988
Another Version... U of Kansas SIM Project (Deshler et al.) The “RAP” Strategy R – Read a paragraph or section of text A – Ask yourself what was the BIG idea and 2-3 important details P – Put this into your own words – state the “gist”
Tier 3 Intervention (READ 180) w/Tonya Ward-Singer Teaching Vocabulary & Academic LanguageHow is Tonya taking care to structure engagement,thinking/comprehension, and academic language?
Same Strategy - Gen Ed - 8th Gr. HistoryTier 1 w/Dr. Anita Archer
Teaching Students to Ask & Answer Questions Level 3: Making Connections Cannot be answered by looking in text alone Level 2: Putting it Together Put pieces of information from text together to come up with answer Level 1: Right There Easier questions, one- or two-word answers(Simmons, Rupley, Vaughn, & Edmonds, 2006; UTCRLA, 2003; Blachowicz & Ogle, 2001; Bos & Vaughn, 2002;NIFL, 2001; NRP, 2000; Raphael, 1986)
Goals of Using Leveled Questions• Help students ask and answer increasingly sophisticated types of questions.• Help students become better consumers of text by being able to ask and answer both simple and complex questions.• Show students how to approach different types of questions. (Simmons, Rupley, Vaughn, & Edmonds, 2006)
Explicitly Teach Each Question Level “I do it, We do it, You do it” Introduce one level of question at a time. Model how to answer each level of question. Provide guided practice. Provide supported, independent practice. Provide immediate feedback to students. (Simmons, Rupley, Vaughn, & Edmonds, 2006; UTCRLA, 2003; Blachowicz & Ogle, 2001; Bos & Vaughn, 2002; NIFL, 2001; NRP, 2000; Raphael, 1986)
Multi-component CSR “Collaborative StrategicReading” (Vaughn & Klingner) Manual from www.sopriswest.comBefore reading CSR Map After reading1. PREVIEW 4. WRAP UP - brainstorm - ask/generate questions- preread - review- predict - record in learning log During Reading 2. CLICK & CLUNK 3. GET THE GIST - summarize/paraphrase - note hard parts - compare/contrast - fix clunks - note in learning log - clarify
Conclusions About Comprehension Instruction Reading comprehension instruction can have a significant impact on the reading ability of adolescent struggling readers. Teachers should provide adolescents with direct and explicit instruction w/plenty of practice & feedback – ** Not simply asking comprehension questions ** Students should have an active role in the comprehension process (e.g. thinking/speaking/writing/comparing/revising) Remember that the ultimate goal is to understand the text. Eventually, show students how to combine strategies and use them concurrently. (e.g. summarization & note taking)
Age/Level Appropriate Texts areEssential for Tier 2/3 Comp InterventionsMust haves: √ Non-fiction – issue based if possible √ Age appropriate (no “kiddy” or cute allowed!) √ Appropriate level (length and difficulty)Sources: (a very partial list of favs) √ Time for Kids (grades 4-8) √ Language 3D (Scholastic) √ What’s Happening (CA/US/World) – Gr. 7-12) √ Published curricula (e.g. REWARDS Science, Word Generation, Soar to Success, etc.)
Providing Tier 2 Instruction: What Might Instruction Look Like During a Typical Lesson/Day?Opening/Introduce lesson/review or warm up (10 min). Lecture/model/demonstration (modeland guided practice w/pairs – vocab/comp) (15 min). Small-group work/partner practice (guided or independent practice) (15-20 min). Wrap Up – review/re-teach/ etc. (5-10 min.)
Continue to Learn/CollaborateUse Center on Instruction resources to build yourbackground knowledge of reading instruction for olderstruggling readers. Academic Literacy Instruction for Adolescents: A Guidance Document from the Center on Instruction Adolescent Literacy Resources: An Annotated Bibliography Interventions for Adolescent Struggling Readers: A Meta-Analysis With Implications for Practice Effective Instruction for Adolescent Struggling Readers: A Practice Brief Continue to seek out other sources of support and knowledge. Visit www.centeroninstruction.org
Based on Your Experience Today:What? So What? Now What?
Thank You !Please send questions, concerns,etc. re: your Tier 2/3 Interventionsto me at: firstname.lastname@example.org