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Virtual Neighborhoods Architecture of Online Communities  Reuven Aviv Zippy Erlich Gilad Ravid  [email_address] http://www...
Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Design, Mechanisms, Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>...
Design of network mechanisms Architecture Collaborative Knowledge construction Content Analysis Social Interdependence the...
SNA viewpoints <ul><li>Global SNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohesiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><...
 
The Social Capital Mechanism <ul><li>Hunt for Knowledge (social capital)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using  efficient  interact...
Cognitive balance Emergence of transitive triads cohesiveness Creation of knowledge support cliques
<ul><li>The architecture of a network can be describes in terms of three components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One or more rela...
Virtual Neighborhoods Transitive triad Cyclic triad link Mutual dyad In star Mix star Out star
Method of Analysis <ul><li>Reveal Architectural Components </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Relevant Theories </li></ul><ul><li>...
Method <ul><li>Analyze the recorded responsiveness data of two online forums of learners with different design </li></ul>
Example: Two Communities <ul><li>16 weeks each;  19, 18 participants </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of  Open U “Business Ethics” ...
Social Capital & Transaction Costs <ul><li>Burt  1992, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge over Holes with minimal cost </li></u...
Collective action <ul><li>Coleman, 1973, 1986; Marwell & Oliver 1993; Fulk et al. 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Inducements to co...
Exchange <ul><li>Willer & Skvoretz, 1997; Hommans, 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange resources directly, depending on partne...
Generalized exchange <ul><li>Bearman, 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange resources via mediators, depending on partner &  net...
Contagion Exposure <ul><li>Burt 1980; Contractor et al., 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Leading to social influence & limitation i...
Cognitive Consistency <ul><li>Heider 1958; Festinger, 1957; Cartwright et al., 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>Drive for balance in...
Uncertainty reduction <ul><li>Berger 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce uncertainty by gaining </li></ul><ul><li>Attract respon...
Exogenous factors <ul><li>Residual personal tendencies o respond or trigger only to actors with pre assigned roles </li></...
 
 
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  1. 1. Virtual Neighborhoods Architecture of Online Communities Reuven Aviv Zippy Erlich Gilad Ravid [email_address] http://www.ravid.org/gilad
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Design, Mechanisms, Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul>
  3. 3. Design of network mechanisms Architecture Collaborative Knowledge construction Content Analysis Social Interdependence theory Matching the predictions of network emergence theories Network statistical analysis of Markov models
  4. 4. SNA viewpoints <ul><li>Global SNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohesiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equivalence (role groups) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power of actors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range of influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brokerages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local SNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyads and triads </li></ul></ul>Aviv, R., Erlich, Z., Ravid, G., & Geva, A. (2003). Network Analysis of Knowledge Construction in Asynchronous Learning Networks. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks
  5. 6. The Social Capital Mechanism <ul><li>Hunt for Knowledge (social capital) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using efficient interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. bridging others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community works with broadcast medium: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most efficient connection: No interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive members (Lurkers) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Cognitive balance Emergence of transitive triads cohesiveness Creation of knowledge support cliques
  7. 8. <ul><li>The architecture of a network can be describes in terms of three components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One or more relations are the fundamental glue between the actors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A partition of the actors and the relations into 2 level hierarchy of groups of actors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of mechanisms shaping the relations to the creation of the neighborhood </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Virtual Neighborhoods Transitive triad Cyclic triad link Mutual dyad In star Mix star Out star
  9. 10. Method of Analysis <ul><li>Reveal Architectural Components </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Relevant Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Mechanisms </li></ul>
  10. 11. Method <ul><li>Analyze the recorded responsiveness data of two online forums of learners with different design </li></ul>
  11. 12. Example: Two Communities <ul><li>16 weeks each; 19, 18 participants </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of Open U “Business Ethics” Course </li></ul><ul><li>Team community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for Knowledge Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tested positively by Content Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forum Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for support by Q & A </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Social Capital & Transaction Costs <ul><li>Burt 1992, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge over Holes with minimal cost </li></ul><ul><li>Few single links </li></ul><ul><li>link <0 </li></ul><ul><li>Supported for both networks </li></ul>
  13. 14. Collective action <ul><li>Coleman, 1973, 1986; Marwell & Oliver 1993; Fulk et al. 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Inducements to contribute under peer pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to several others </li></ul><ul><li>If large density & centralization & size then out star > 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Supported for team network. </li></ul><ul><li>Not supported for forum network because condition in not fulfilled </li></ul>
  14. 15. Exchange <ul><li>Willer & Skvoretz, 1997; Hommans, 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange resources directly, depending on partner & network status </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to reciprocate to resource promising partners </li></ul><ul><li>mutuality > 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Not supported for team network because there are no a-priory resource promising actors </li></ul><ul><li>supported for Forum network because Tutor is a-priory resource promising actors </li></ul>
  15. 16. Generalized exchange <ul><li>Bearman, 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange resources via mediators, depending on partner & network states </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to respond cyclically to resource promising partner </li></ul><ul><li>cyclicity > 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Not supported in both networks. Probably because no need for information exchange via mediators </li></ul>
  16. 17. Contagion Exposure <ul><li>Burt 1980; Contractor et al., 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Leading to social influence & limitation in attitudes, knowledge & behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to same as other equivalent actors </li></ul><ul><li>Out star > 0; in star > 0; mixed star >0; transitivity >0 </li></ul><ul><li>Not supported in both networks. Probably because contagion process could not develop in the short lifetime of networks </li></ul>
  17. 18. Cognitive Consistency <ul><li>Heider 1958; Festinger, 1957; Cartwright et al., 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>Drive for balance in cognitions </li></ul><ul><li>Respond via several paths </li></ul><ul><li>transitivity > 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Supported in team networks. Not supported in the forum network. In both networks this is due to their designs </li></ul>
  18. 19. Uncertainty reduction <ul><li>Berger 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce uncertainty by gaining </li></ul><ul><li>Attract responses from several others </li></ul><ul><li>In star > 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Not supported in both networks. In the forum network the tutor clarified all uncertainties </li></ul>
  19. 20. Exogenous factors <ul><li>Residual personal tendencies o respond or trigger only to actors with pre assigned roles </li></ul><ul><li>For students (1) resp =0; (2) trigg =0; For tutor (3) resp >0; (4) trigg >0 </li></ul><ul><li>1,2 supported for both networks; 3 un supported for team network, supported for forum network; 4 un supported for both networks </li></ul>
  20. 23. Thank You Questions? Comments? Remarks ?

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