Questions and review: Instructional strategies


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Questions and review: Instructional strategies

  1. 1. Question and Review Mission Kids often do ‗say the darndest things‘! In the video notice how Art Linkletter poses questions that elicit humorous responses. Think about how a teacher can use questioning and reviewing to encourage high level thinking and to ensure that students can understand and apply knowledge
  2. 2. FIRST IMPRESSIONS•When should questioning be implemented in the classroom?•How should one determine which question levels should be used?•How can I create a classroom environment where students feel comfortable andconfident to ask and answer questions?•How could one implement Teams-Games-Tournaments as a review strategy?
  3. 3. EXPLORATIONSObjectivesAfter completing the entire Exploration section and reviewingthe accompanying activities, you should be able to: • Determine when it is appropriate to ask questions during a lesson • Create questions at each of the thinking levels of Bloom‘s Revised Taxonomy • Create a classroom environment where students feel comfortable and confident asking and answering questions • Create a Teams-Games-Tournaments lesson as a review
  4. 4. Review of Questions and Review StrategyIn order to fully understand this lesson you need to complete theQuestioning and Teams- Games-Tournaments Island of the declarativelevel I.S.L.E.S. Module or review the information within it. You can find thereview here:Question-and-Review.pdf
  5. 5. How to Select StrategiesBefore selecting a strategy the teacher must make several other decisions, e.g., what toteach, how to assess learning, etc. Click on this link to see a list of 10 considerations ateacher must make before selecting the right instructional strategy: TQP SELECTINGINSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES CHECKLIST
  6. 6. Part 1:Planning Considerations for Questioning
  7. 7. What’s This?Defining QuestioningMost of us don‘t think about thinking; we just do it. Due to increasedaccountability for student achievement, our focus has turned more towardthinking about thinking and thinking about how teachers can teach ourstudents to think.These kinds of thinking require what is called ―Higher Order Thinking‖ or ―HOT‖for short. Some or all of these kinds of Higher Order Thinking may be easy forsome students, but difficult for others, but with practice, HOT skill level can beimproved for all students. One of the ways to increase these skill levels isthrough HOT questioning.HOT questions are those which ask the student to use previously learnedinformation to create an answer or to support an answer with logical supportingevidence. HOT questions are also called open-ended, interpretive, evaluative,inquiry, inferential, and synthesis questions. (Cotton, 2001)
  8. 8. Bloom’s Revised TaxonomyBloom‘s Revised Taxonomy originated in 1956 and was later updated inthe 1990‘s to reflect thinking required for 21st Century work. TheTaxonomy is a framework that provides a way to organize different typesof thinking into six levels: Remembering (lowest), Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating, and Creating (highest).
  9. 9. When should questioning be implemented in the classroom?Believe it or not, teachers have been known to ask their studentsas many as 400 questions each and every school day. Typically320 of those 400 questions require only the basic levels ofthinking in order to produce a correct response; therefore requiringno higher level thinking (Fredericks, 2005). More times than not,these questions are used to assess students‘ learning; however, itis important to note that this is just one function of questioning.Questioning can be used as an effective teaching strategy thathelps students to learn necessary information and material.Therefore, questioning should be used in each portion of a lessonrather than just as an assessment tool. Teachers should beginposing questions early in the lesson and then continue askingquestions often throughout instruction.
  10. 10. High level, open-ended questions leadTake A Look to better understanding Using questioning Reasons Set high types that Teachers expectations require a and promote variety of Should Use critical and thinking Questions in creative levels spices Instruction thinking up a lesson Teachers can challenge every student by differentiating with effective questions
  11. 11. How should one determine which question levels should beused?A common mistake in thinking is that lower level questions should beasked of younger age students and high level questions should beused only for older students. This is not necessarily the case. Peopleof all ages can effectively benefit from learning to think on a high level.Asking questions especially at the higher levels, promotes creativityand thinking. Teachers may begin by asking lower level questions andwork their way to higher levels of thinking. Teachers must vary thequestion levels in order to train the students to think on high levels.Students tend to read and think based on the kinds of questions theyanticipate receiving from the teacher. It does not serve a student wellto constantly be asked questions that require only low levels ofintellectual involvement. Students who are given questions based onhigher levels of thinking will tend to think more creatively anddivergently. (Fredericks, 2005)
  12. 12. Certainly, there are times when lower level questions are needed; thisis particularly true at the start of units or lessons, when students havea limited knowledge of the content. However, the extensive use oflower cognitive levels of questions leads to some problems,such as…1.When students are asked to simply recall information, they are notactively involved in the learning process; much of the workconsists of memorization.2.Most lower level questions have one specific answer; this does notlead to divergent responses that lead to discussions in the classroom.3.The students ability to express themselves verbally is notenhanced when there is too much reliance on one or two wordresponses (Orlich, 1998).
  13. 13. Question Sequencing and patternsQuestion Sequencing = each question builds upon the answer to the previous questionExtending and Lifting - This questioning pattern involves asking a number of questionsat the same cognitive level—or extending—before lifting the questions to the next higherlevel (Taba, 1971). The first four questions are all at the same cognitive level(extending); the fifth question requires students to think at a higher level (lifting).Circular Path…This pattern involves asking a series of questions which eventually leadback to the initial position or question (Brown & Edmondson, 1989). A classic example ofthis circular path pattern is, "Which came first, the chicken or the egg?" A classroomexample of this might be the question, "Were Hitlers actions against the Jews amanipulation of—or a reaction to—peoples prejudice? Explain."Same Path - This questioning pattern involves asking questions at the same cognitivelevel (Brown & Edmondson, 1989). For example, a physics teacher questioning studentsabout motion and speed could ask the following: "What is motion? What is speed? Whatis instantaneous speed? What is constant speed?" This pattern typically uses all lower-level, specific questions. (Vogler, 2008)
  14. 14. How can I be sure that the questions I am asking require highlevels of thinking?Keep in mind that high level questions are those that requirecomplex application, analysis, evaluation or creation skills. Thesequestions are most appropriate for encouraging students to thinkmore deeply and critically, problem solving, encouragingdiscussion, and stimulating students to seek information on theirown. The following chart gives a list of question starters that willassist you in creating questions at each of the six levels of Bloom‘sTaxonomy.INSTRUCTIONAL RIGOR CHART
  15. 15. How can I create a classroom environment where students feelcomfortable and confident to ask and answer questions?In order for questioning to be most effective, the teacher must provide aclassroom environment that allows the participants to feel confident andcomfortable to take learning risks in front of their peers. There are severalways to assure this type of low risk environment. 1. Teacher should provide extended think, wait and planning time. Once the teacher poses a question, he/she should wait several seconds to allow the student to process the question and plan an answer to be shared with the class. 2. The students should receive direct instruction on how to formulate and answer high order thinking questions. 3. The students should ask each other high order thinking questions
  16. 16. 4. The teacher should provide appropriate feedback • Feed-up – teacher presents preparatory set • Feedback – teacher responds to student‘s work • Feed Forward – Modify instruction accordingly5. The students should be directed to expand and use correct responses6. The teacher should elicit students’ reactions to and about the posed questions
  17. 17. Differentiating When Using Questioning•Pair student who can help each other with language, such as ELL, lowvision, hearing impaired, autism.•Allow wait time for students to think through their answer. Do not moveon to another student until one student has given his/her response.•Probe for thoughtful answers.•Provide genuine feedback regularly.•Allow students, who have mastered answering questions, to create andask the questions.
  18. 18. • Post the questions so students will have a visual to refer to when preparing their answers.• Allow students to Think-Pair-Share. This provides think time to generate an answer. It also gives students an opportunity to share their thoughts with a partner prior to presenting it to the class.• Allow the students to have a list of questions prior to the discussion time. This enables them to be familiar with and prepared for what is expected of them.
  19. 19. Think About:Third Grade North Carolina Standard Course of StudySocial StudiesCompetency Goal 7The learner will analyze the role of real and fictional heroes in shaping theculture of communities.Objectives:7.02 Assess the heroic deeds of characters from folktales and legends.This activity will provide practice in CREATING questions that require differentlevels of thinking.
  20. 20. The Runaway Wok A Chinese New Year Tale by: Ying ChangCompestineRead the book synopsis belowThis is a story of a poor Bejiing family that sends their son, Ming, outto trade their last eggs for rice which they will share with their familyand friends. On his journey Ming meets an old man with whom hetrades the eggs for an old rusty wok. To his surprise, the wok isable to sing. When Ming arrives home with what seems to be auseless metal pan, his mother is surprised to hear the wok chanting,―Skippity Hop Ho. To the rich man‘s house I go!‖ The wok returnswith food and money and toys that he has taken from the greedy Lifamily. Thrilled at their new found plentiful supply, the Zhang familyprepares a huge New Year‘s feast for all the townspeople to sharewhile the Lis are left empty handed, selfishly brooding over their loss
  21. 21. Now read the book synopsis again as printed below. Stopping ateach STOP sign, create a question using Bloom’s RevisedTaxonomy. Then click on the STOP sign to view some samplequestions.This is a story of a poor Bejiing family that sends their son, Ming, out totrade their last eggs for rice which they will share with their family andfriends. On his journey Ming meets an old man with whom he trades theeggs for an old rusty wok. (1 Create a question that requires studentsto think at the ANALYZING level ) To his surprise, the wok is able tosing. When Ming arrives home with what seems to be a useless metalpan, his mother is surprised to hear the wok chanting, ―Skippity Hop Ho.To the rich man‘s house I go!‖ The wok returns with food and money andtoys that he has taken from the greedy Li family. (2 Create a questionthat requires students to think at the EVALUATING level ) Thrilledat their new found plentiful supply, the Zhang family prepares a huge NewYear‘s feast for all the townspeople to share while the Lis are left emptyhanded, selfishly brooding over their loss. (3 Create a question thatrequires students to think at the CREATING level )
  22. 22. Think AboutBased on Bloom‘s Revised Taxonomy, the first three levels of thetaxonomy are considered lower levels of thinking and include:Remembering, Understanding, and Applying. Lower levelsgenerally ask that students generate one or two word answersand require convergent thought processes. The last three levelsare considered higher thinking skills and include: Analyzing,Evaluating, and Creating. Higher level questions usually requiremore breadth and depth of thinking and require divergent thoughtprocesses. Both lower level and higher level thinking are requiredfor effective learning. Educational practices of the past oftenstressed lower level thinking. However, to help students preparefor the 21st century job market, it is necessary to focus more onhigher levels of thought resulting in diversity of processes andproducts necessary for success in school and life.
  23. 23. Rewrite each lower level question below as a higher level question. Use theInstructional Rigor- Questions/Product Aligned with Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy asyour guide. Keep this in your notes.Example: Who is your favorite character?Rewritten as a Higher Order Question: How is your favorite character most likeyou and most different from you?1. What is a pentagon?__________________________________________________________________2. What is an example of a landform?__________________________________________________________________3. What would happen to vegetation in the event of an erupting volcano?__________________________________________________________________4. Demonstrate the order of the coins if they were grouped in value from least togreatest.__________________________________________________________________
  24. 24. 5. Can you list the names of the first five presidents? _________________________________________________________6. Show how photosynthesis occurs. __________________________________________________________7. What is the purpose of the italicized word in the selection? __________________________________________________________8. Describe the author‘s perspective. _________________________________________________________
  25. 25. Planning Considerations for Teams-Games-Tournaments
  26. 26. What’s This? Defining Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT)Teams-Games-Tournaments is a team learning strategy for review and masterylearning of material. The main idea behind TGT is to motivate students toencourage and help each other master skills presented by the teacher. Theteacher then organizes the games/practice. The games are composed ofcontent–relevant questions designed to test the knowledge students gain fromclass presentations and team practice.
  27. 27. Here’s how it worksThis strategy is best used as a review at the end of a lesson/unit. Teams-Games-Tournaments is most effective when used to review material for which there is a specificcorrect answer. Although TGT takes some preparation time, this strategy has been found tobe very effective. •Teacher presents information to be learned in any number of ways – direct instruction indirect instruction, etc. •When it‘s time to review, students are grouped into heterogeneous teams called study teams where they spend time studying the previously learned material. Students often feel a connection to this home team as the various levels of learners work together to assure knowledge and understanding of the information. •Students are then grouped homogeneously to compete in the Tournament, attempting to earn points to bring back to their original home/study team. •Back in the home/study teams, students combine all points earned to come up with a team total •All teams are recognized for their accomplishments ~ and all students are more knowledgeable of the content information. •Once materials are made, they can be stored and used again for future TGT sessions.
  28. 28. Things to Think About When Preparing for TGTThink of the thrills that a basketball tournament, a soccer tournament,even a chess tournament brings! Teams-Games-Tournaments elicits thisexcitement in the classroom while simultaneously helping students toreview material. As in the case with many Cooperative Learningstrategies, Teams-Games-Tournaments may take some time to prepareand implement; however, the rewards of this strategy are well worth thetime and effort. Keep these key factors in mind:•TGT is a strategy that can be used with all age/grade level students;however, it is most successful when used after teacher and students arecomfortable working in groups. Consider first having students work insmall groups for short, easy tasks – for example, Think-Pair-Share. Thenincrease the number of group members working together, the amount oftime, and the difficulty of the task. This will help ensure the success ofgroup work during TGT.
  29. 29. •In order to have a successful TGT, teachers must know their students well.They must take into consideration such things as learning abilities, specialneeds, personalities, cultural differences, etc.•The role of the teacher is also important as he/she spends much time inpreparing for TGT but then fades into the background and becomes more ofa facilitator, a coach and even a spectator during the actual process.•The teacher must give step-by-step instructions for the implementation ofTGT. It is also helpful to model the required steps prior to setting children ontheir own to take part in the Team-Game-Tournament.
  30. 30. •The classroom must be organized so that the students have a comfortablelearning space where group members can maintain eye-contact, and haveroom for materials. The classroom will also be abuzz with noise, but voicesshould be kept low so that all students can communicate without disturbingother groups.•The initial preparation for TGT materials can be time consuming, but if theteacher laminates and carefully stores these materials, they can be usedover and over again.•Teachers should not allow themselves to get easily discouraged with thisstrategy. Although it does take some preparation time, and some practiceon the part of both the students and the teacher, it has proven to be anenjoyable and effective strategy!
  31. 31. Differentiating When Using Teams-Games-Tournaments•Carefully consider needs of individual learners when forming groups. Placestudents who have language needs in groups with students who can offerassistance.•Vary members in groups as often as possible so as to eliminate stigmas.•Consider students strengths, and assign roles in groups such as time keeper,reader, organizer, and conversation monitor.•Give clear, specific step-by-step instructions prior to beginning TGT. Haveinstructions visible for students to refer to during each part of the activity.•Circulate during study session and competition. Offer assistance to teams thatrequire help.•Consider having an adult helper to work with the groups who might have difficultyreading and or staying on task
  32. 32. Take a Look: Preparing for Teams, Games, and TournamentsTEACH:Teacher teaches the lesson using an appropriate strategy.STUDY TEAMS :Teacher generates academically heterogeneous teams of equalability.1. Develop a class ranked list of students (ranked by academic ability in the subject at hand2. Divide the total number of students by 4 (example 32 students/4=8)3. Number the students on the list beginning at the top (1-8), then reverse the numbers (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,--8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1—1,2,3,4,etc.4. Group all number ones together, group all number two‘s together, etc.5. Teams review using a specific format, a review sheet, informally, quizzing each other, etc.
  33. 33. Tournament Generate academically homogeneous teams1. Teacher uses the same ranked list of students to form groups of three or four students of similar academic ability.2. Go down the list and cluster students in order (Team One is made up of students 1,2,3, and 4 – Team two is made up of students 5,6,7,8). This will result in the four strongest students working together and the three weakest students working together.
  34. 34. Set up for Tournament1. Have a deck of cards numbered 1-30 for each tournament team2. Make up a worksheet of 30 numbered questions to review the material3. Make up a numbered answer sheet.4. Each team picks up an envelope/deck of cards, a question sheet andan answer sheet.5. Students draw cards at each table. The highest number goes first.6. The 1st student pulls a card from the envelope and reads out the number.7. The 2nd student (with the question sheet) reads the question out loud.8. The 1st student answers the question.
  35. 35. 9. The 3rd student (with the answer sheet) tells if the answer is correct.If correct, the 1st student keeps the card. If incorrect, (2nd) student may challenge answer. If they get the answer correct, they may keep the card. If still incorrect, the card goes back in the pile.10. The game proceeds clockwise. After each question (whether corrector incorrect) each student changes ―jobs‖. It continues until the time is up or all questions are answered correctly.11. Each team member counts the number of cards he/she earned by answering questions correctly.12. Students return to their original home/study teams.13. All students in home/study teams add their points together to come up with a team total.
  36. 36. Team Recognition All teams are recognized with a certificate or other award for participating in the Teams-Games-Tournaments.
  37. 37. Think About ItConsider the implementation of Teams-Games-Tournaments witha group of second graders. Think about how you will implementthis strategy in your own classroom. What do you see as thechallenges of this strategy? What do you see as the strengths ofthe strategy?
  38. 38. Hot Links Strategy Name / URL Type of Content (i.e. scenario, podcast, video, article, teaching demonstration professional organization)Questioning Bloom’s Taxonomy video Part #1 Video 1.htmlQuestioning Questioning in Class Video Cooperative Learning: Theory Research and Practice by Robert E. Slavin. BookTournaments Published by Allyn and Bacon, 1990. Teams-Games-Tournmanets: Cooperative Learning StrategiesTeams-ames- Procedure forTournaments conducting TGTTeams-Games- Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) Cooperative Learning and Review TGT OverviewTournaments NABT_06_2.pdf
  39. 39. Part 2: Lesson Plans incorporating Questioning and TGTThink AboutRead Lesson 2 of the Social Studies Unit on European Exploration. Focusspecifically on the Higher Level Questions in the Present Content and Transfer. Forthe question in the Present Content, rewrite it using verb from Blooms Taxonomy onthe analysis level. For the question in the transfer, write a sample student response.Answer:Possible Answer:Present Content
  40. 40. Present ContentWhat can you infer about the Cherokee culture from this legend?TransferPre-scientific cultures like the Native Americans used myths andlegends to explain natural phenomena. Today we use science toexplain nature. The unit on forces and motion explains how things inthe world move. The main difference is that myth and legend are notnecessarily true, whereas as science is considered true.
  41. 41. Think AboutReview this Elementary math lesson .Why do you think a TGT was chosen forthis lesson? When should the teacher teach this lesson in a unit? Do you thinkthe teacher provided enough time for the TGT? Why or why not?
  42. 42. Part 3: ReferencesReferencesBedict, B. (Creator). (2010). Kids Say the Darndest Things 2 [Video file]. Retrieved from, M. (2006, October 14). Teams-Games-Tournament Cooperative Learning and Review.Retrieved June 1, 20111, fromchools website:, D., Harder,R., Callahan, R., Gibson, M. Teaching Strategies: A Guide to Better Instruction.Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Co. 1998. p. 80.TeacherVision:, A. (n.d.). Higher Order Thinking. Retrieved June 1, 20111, from Center for Developmentand Learning website:
  43. 43. Vogler, Kenneth E. (2008). Educational Leadership:Thinking Skills NOW. RetrievedJune 1, 2011 from Association for Supervision and Curriculum Developmentwebsite: 4: CreditsContent Experts: Blooms, O’MahonyModule Developers: Shelton and VenturaModule Production Team: Vinciguerra, Kester and Briggs
  44. 44. REVIEWThe initial mission challenged us to think about how a teacher can usequestioning and reviewing to encourage high level thinking and to ensure thatstudents can understand and apply knowledge. Here are some ways that thiscan be done: •Questions should begin early in a lesson and should be used often throughout the lesson not only to check for understanding but also to involve students in the learning. •Teacher should begin questioning at lower levels and then work up to questions that require higher levels of thinking. •The classroom must be a place where students feel safe to ask and answer questions; this promotes valuable learning discussions. •Teams-Games-Tournaments is a fun and effective way for students to work together to review material that has been previously taught while encouraging each other and building a classroom community of learners.
  45. 45. To access the full version of the TQP Model Units, click on the link below: Units Click here to access the Question and Review Quiz