1.1. henk meurs

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1.1. henk meurs

  1. 1. Pricing kilometres in The Netherlands Henk Meurs Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen/MuConsult
  2. 2. Current tax system <ul><li>Purchase tax on new cars (BPM): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2008: 25% of new price of cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenues: euro 3.4 billion annually </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vehicle ownership tax (average Euro 630 per year) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>yearly tax on ownership with regional surcharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation by weight, fuel type, province </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenues: euro 4.0 billion (including 1.1 billion reg. surcharge) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuel taxes (excluded from km-price system) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenues 6.9 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline/LPG taxes mild </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major revision in 2009 (up to 2012): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase taxes based on emissions (CO 2 , etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small shift from purchase taxes to ownership taxes </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Consequences of current tax system <ul><li>Taxes to large extent based on ownership of cars </li></ul><ul><li>Overconsumption of car kilometres </li></ul><ul><li>Car use causes main problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equity issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy users pay too little </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small users too much </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hence shift in tax system necessary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay different for mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pricing of kilometres rather than ownership </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives and preconditions <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce increase in congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce emissions (e.g. CO2) </li></ul><ul><li>Preconditions </li></ul><ul><li>No increase in revenues </li></ul><ul><li>Revenues to infra budget </li></ul><ul><li>No excessive administrational costs </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy guaranteed </li></ul><ul><li>Support in society </li></ul>
  5. 5. Formulation of charging levels <ul><li>Base level kilometre charge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget neutrality from government perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meso-level neutrality (market segments e.g person, freight); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All ownership taxes abolished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentation according to CO 2 emissions and fuel type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premium for diesel cars without particle filter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersion according to existing road taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Option for congestion charge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congested highways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower order roads in case of diverted traffic causing problems </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Charging levels (Av: 0,067 euro/km)
  7. 7. Expected effects base fare <ul><li>Mobility: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of kilometres driven: -12-15% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel time losses: - 40-60% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kilometres on public transport: + 6% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 : -10% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particulate matter: - 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOx : - 19% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic safety: + 7% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Car fleet: +2-3% </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. implementation <ul><li>GPS-based system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public and private track </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Careful implementation path: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility projects in urban areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large scale testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long transition period (6 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertain: elections and new government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure groups developed new alternative </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Conclusions <ul><li>Kilometre charge with multiple objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to develop pricing system meeting all requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congestion, environment, budget neutrality at meso level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy choices relevant: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived paradox: effectiveness or support? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation path important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support in society (pressure groups vs population) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological dependence (‘trust’); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Car market disturbances </li></ul></ul>

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