How context affects behaviour

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How context affects behaviour

  1. 1. How context affects behaviour<br />Photo by torrelaveguensis http://www.flickr.com/photos/11055010@N04/1030557440/sizes/l/<br />
  2. 2. Lets start with a story…<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/orcaman/3735225205/sizes/l/<br />
  3. 3. The Lab<br /> What it looks like<br />
  4. 4. The Lab<br /> What it feels like<br />
  5. 5. The Lab<br /> What it feels like<br />It changes all three types of context : <br /><ul><li>the physical context
  6. 6. mental context
  7. 7. and social context</li></ul>Changing any one of the types of context changes the persons cognitive ability. (Stephen J. and Antonio Roazzi)<br />
  8. 8. Brazilian street kids…<br />… in the movie “The city of God”<br />
  9. 9. Child selling bananas on the streets of Brazil<br />Research by Stephen J. and Antonio Roazzi<br />Image credit: http://www.educima.com/foto-trabajo-infantil-vendedor-ambulante-i7486.html<br />
  10. 10. Child selling bananas on the streets of Brazil<br />98% accuracy rate of doing maths<br />Research by Stephen J. and Antonio Roazzi<br />Image credit: http://www.educima.com/foto-trabajo-infantil-vendedor-ambulante-i7486.html<br />
  11. 11. What happens when you put these street kids into a formalised test environment, where they solve the same maths problems?<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/dave_mcmt/187432802/sizes/l/<br />
  12. 12. Performance drops significantly!<br />Street context<br />Formal context<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/dave_mcmt/187432802/sizes/l/<br />
  13. 13. Video game play in the lab vs. real world<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/34396501@N00/58694182/sizes/l/<br />
  14. 14. Results<br />Video game context<br />Lab task context<br />Source: “The effects of context on cognition: postcards from Brazil” Stephen J. Ceci and Antonio Roazzi, in “Mind Context” Sternberg R. J. and Wagner K. eds. (1994), page 78<br />
  15. 15. http://www.flickr.com/photos/13923263@N07/1471150324/sizes/l/<br />
  16. 16. 4<br />Even numbers are unlucky<br />
  17. 17. Michael Schumacher recently changed his racing number with a team mate.<br />Michael now has number 3, and his team mate number 4.<br />
  18. 18. The lucky sock of an American Football player<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/chipgriffin/2208361966/sizes/l/<br />
  19. 19. “Despite the holes, it sticks around through the Super Bowl. My son tried wearing new ones during the Giants game and things went poorly until he switched back.”<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/chipgriffin/2208361966/sizes/l/<br />
  20. 20. Superstitions are typically viewed as:<br />inconsequential creations of irrational minds <br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/13923263@N07/1471150324/sizes/l/<br />
  21. 21. But it turns out that:<br />Superstition improves performance <br />through increasing self confidence.<br />Paper reference: Keep your fingers crossed!: how superstition improves performance.<br />Damish L, Stoberock B, Musswiler T (2010)<br />Performance<br />Image credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/13923263@N07/1471150324/sizes/l/<br />
  22. 22. You think differently when speaking a different language<br />Changing the way we talk to people, changes the way we think.<br />If you learn another language, you learn another way of looking at the world.<br />
  23. 23. Marketing actions – such as pricing – affect the efficacy of the pills<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/erix/142789779/sizes/l/<br />
  24. 24. Weird people<br />People from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic societies. <br />Image credit: http://www-psych.stanford.edu/~learninglab/team.html<br />
  25. 25. Diversity in contexts is just as important as diversity of samples.<br />Stephen J Ceci, Dan M. Kahan, and Donald Braman<br />
  26. 26. The brain does not exist in a vacuum.<br />It operates in the context of the real world.<br />Jonah Lehrer<br />
  27. 27. PRYSVL Modelof person-context interactionRobert J. Sternberg<br />PERSON<br />(who)<br />ROLES<br />(what)<br />SITUATION<br />(where, when)<br />VALUES<br />(why)<br />LUCK <br />(whoops!)<br />Abilities<br />Knowledge<br />Styles<br />Personality<br />Motivations<br />Leader vs. Followers<br />Entrepreneur vs. Manager<br />Thinking vs. Doing<br />Staff vs. Line<br />High stress vs. Low stress<br />Close Supervision vs. Far Supervision<br />Short term goals vs. long term goals<br />Physical comfort vs. physical discomfort<br />People vs. Productivity<br />Process vs. Product<br />Conformity vs. Independence<br />Individualism vs. Group Orientation<br />Altruism vs. Self Interest<br />Innovation vs. Stability<br />Appearance vs. Reality<br />Status variables<br />Event variables<br />
  28. 28. Human decision making is like a pair of scissors: one blade is the brain, while the other blade is a specific environment in which the brain operates. <br />Herb Simon<br />Nobel prize winning psychologist<br />Image credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dannyboyster/835620369/<br />
  29. 29. Human behaviour is like a pair of scissors: one blade is the brain, while the other blade is a specific environment in which the brain operates. <br />Herb Simon<br />Nobel prize winning psychologist<br />If you want to understand the function of scissors, then you have to look at both blades simultaneously.<br />For that end, we have to venture out of the lab and into the real world.<br />Jonah Lehrer<br />Image credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dannyboyster/835620369/<br />
  30. 30. Send your researcher out there to mix with the wild, and find out how they use your design in their real environment.<br />
  31. 31. Send your researcher out there to mix with the wild, and find out how they use your design in their real environment.<br />There are a variety of methods you can use to that end:<br />Ethnography<br />Contextual Enquiry<br />Remote Ethnography<br />Remote online user research<br />
  32. 32. 30<br />Thank you.<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. 32<br />James Page<br />Director<br />@jamespage<br />Sabrina Mach<br />Director<br />@sabrinamach<br />Follow @webnographer on Twitter<br />www.webographer.com<br />

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