The Power
of the
Image
2011
Cartographic Language
and Portrayal
Dr Alex Kent
Canterbury Christ Church University
Cartographic Language
and Portrayal
● Defining cartographic expression
● Stylistic diversity in European state
1:50,000 to...
The Power
of the
Image
2011
There is no neutral naturalism. The artist, no
less the writer, needs a vocabulary before he
c...
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Kraak and Ormeling (1996)
Robinson et al. (1995)
Keates (1996)
1:10 000
1:25 000
1:50 000
1:100 000
1:250 000
General Staff of the
Soviet Union Armed Forces
(1964-1986)
Olson and Whitmarsh (1944)
Department of Transport (1995)
Shooting Range
(Denmark)
Castle
(Belgium)
Radio Mast
(Finland)
Police Station
(Ireland)
Sewage Treatment Plant
(Latvia)
Wi...
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Ordnance Survey, 2004
The Power
of the
Image
2011
The Power
of the
Image
2011
The Power
of the
Image
2011
IGN, 1981
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Why should there be stylistic diversity?
● Terrain, climate, and vegetation
The Power
of the
Image
2011
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Lantmäteriet, 2001
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Topografische Dienst, 1999
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Landesvermessungsamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, 2004
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Bundesamt Für Eich- und Vermessungswesen, 1998Uprava Republike Slovenije, 2003
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Why should there be stylistic diversity?
● Terrain, climate, and vegetation
● Culture and soci...
Inuit terms for snow and ice
(Hall, 1997)
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Investigating Stylistic Diversity
● Consistency of Scale and Purpose
(20 European state 1:50 0...
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Czech Republic France Slovenia
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Road
0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0
Belgium
Great Britain
Netherlands
Portugal
Ireland
Switzerland
Czech Republic
France...
Hydrology
0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0
Iceland
Norway
Slovenia
Germany
Austria
Sweden
Belgium
Denmark
Portugal
Switzerland
...
Star Plot of Level III Symbol Counts
(Poland Example)
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Cluster Analysis: Level III Classification
The Power
of the
Image
2011
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Ordnance Survey, 2004
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Ordnance Survey Ireland, 2003
Political Independence and Cartographic Language
‘Geopolitical blocks’
(after Dingsdale,
1999; 2002)
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Yugoslav National Army, 1970
Uprava Republike Slovenije, 2003
The Power
of the
Image
2011
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Rīga – Before and After Independence
(GUGIK, 1980) (LGIA, c. 1998)
General Staff of the Soviet Union Armed Forces, 1988
Latvian State Land Service, 1998
Latvian State Land Service, 2001
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Contrasting Cultures of Map Use
 In Yugoslavia, surveying was devolved and 1:5,000
aerial pho...
Common Ground, 2000
The Power
of the
Image
2011
OpenStreetMap, 2010
USGS-International Map of the World, 1949 (1:1 000 000)
Vi parolas Esperanton?
The Power
of the
Image
2011
The limits of my language mean the limits of
my world.
Wittgenstein (1922)
The Power
of the
Image
2011
Thank you!
alexander.kent@canterbury.ac.uk
Cartographic language and portrayal
Cartographic language and portrayal
Cartographic language and portrayal
Cartographic language and portrayal
Cartographic language and portrayal
Cartographic language and portrayal
Cartographic language and portrayal
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Cartographic language and portrayal

  1. 1. The Power of the Image 2011 Cartographic Language and Portrayal Dr Alex Kent Canterbury Christ Church University
  2. 2. Cartographic Language and Portrayal ● Defining cartographic expression ● Stylistic diversity in European state 1:50,000 topographic mapping ● The role of cartographic language in Slovenia and Latvia
  3. 3. The Power of the Image 2011 There is no neutral naturalism. The artist, no less the writer, needs a vocabulary before he can embark on a ‘copy’ of reality. Gombrich (1960) The limits of my language mean the limits of my world. Wittgenstein (1922)
  4. 4. The Power of the Image 2011
  5. 5. Kraak and Ormeling (1996)
  6. 6. Robinson et al. (1995)
  7. 7. Keates (1996) 1:10 000 1:25 000 1:50 000 1:100 000 1:250 000
  8. 8. General Staff of the Soviet Union Armed Forces (1964-1986)
  9. 9. Olson and Whitmarsh (1944)
  10. 10. Department of Transport (1995)
  11. 11. Shooting Range (Denmark) Castle (Belgium) Radio Mast (Finland) Police Station (Ireland) Sewage Treatment Plant (Latvia) Windmill (France) Other Church (Poland) Alpine Dairy Farm (Austria) Watermill (Spain)
  12. 12. The Power of the Image 2011 Ordnance Survey, 2004
  13. 13. The Power of the Image 2011
  14. 14. The Power of the Image 2011
  15. 15. The Power of the Image 2011 IGN, 1981
  16. 16. The Power of the Image 2011 Why should there be stylistic diversity? ● Terrain, climate, and vegetation
  17. 17. The Power of the Image 2011
  18. 18. The Power of the Image 2011 Lantmäteriet, 2001
  19. 19. The Power of the Image 2011 Topografische Dienst, 1999
  20. 20. The Power of the Image 2011 Landesvermessungsamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, 2004
  21. 21. The Power of the Image 2011 Bundesamt Für Eich- und Vermessungswesen, 1998Uprava Republike Slovenije, 2003
  22. 22. The Power of the Image 2011 Why should there be stylistic diversity? ● Terrain, climate, and vegetation ● Culture and society Some features have more importance in certain cultures, thus:  The landscape may be classified differently: ▪ selection/omission of features ▪ detail (number of symbols per feature type or ‘class’)  Features may be symbolized differently: ▪ emphasis (e.g., shape, colour, size, texture) ▪ abstraction ▪ aesthetic value
  23. 23. Inuit terms for snow and ice (Hall, 1997)
  24. 24. The Power of the Image 2011 Investigating Stylistic Diversity ● Consistency of Scale and Purpose (20 European state 1:50 000 topographic maps) - Widespread accessibility and usage - Versatile (equilibrium of generalization) ● Preservation of Choice - Design limitations (paper) - Usage limitations (single visualization) ● Legend Symbologies - Independent of landscape covered on single sheet - Perceived to be useful to the user ● Classification of Discrete Symbols - 19 initial classes aggregated into broader classes - Colour, Lettering, Visual Hierarchy, ‘White’ Space
  25. 25. The Power of the Image 2011
  26. 26. Czech Republic France Slovenia
  27. 27. The Power of the Image 2011
  28. 28. Road 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 Belgium Great Britain Netherlands Portugal Ireland Switzerland Czech Republic France Sweden Iceland Spain Denmark Slovenia Germany Norway Austria Country Percentage of Whole Symbol Set
  29. 29. Hydrology 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 Iceland Norway Slovenia Germany Austria Sweden Belgium Denmark Portugal Switzerland Czech Republic France Spain Ireland Netherlands Great Britain Country Percentage of Whole Symbol Set
  30. 30. Star Plot of Level III Symbol Counts (Poland Example)
  31. 31. The Power of the Image 2011
  32. 32. Cluster Analysis: Level III Classification
  33. 33. The Power of the Image 2011
  34. 34. The Power of the Image 2011 Ordnance Survey, 2004
  35. 35. The Power of the Image 2011 Ordnance Survey Ireland, 2003
  36. 36. Political Independence and Cartographic Language ‘Geopolitical blocks’ (after Dingsdale, 1999; 2002)
  37. 37. The Power of the Image 2011
  38. 38. Yugoslav National Army, 1970
  39. 39. Uprava Republike Slovenije, 2003
  40. 40. The Power of the Image 2011
  41. 41. The Power of the Image 2011
  42. 42. Rīga – Before and After Independence (GUGIK, 1980) (LGIA, c. 1998)
  43. 43. General Staff of the Soviet Union Armed Forces, 1988
  44. 44. Latvian State Land Service, 1998
  45. 45. Latvian State Land Service, 2001
  46. 46. The Power of the Image 2011 Contrasting Cultures of Map Use  In Yugoslavia, surveying was devolved and 1:5,000 aerial photography existed for most areas of Slovenia  In Yugoslavia, access to topographic maps was less restricted (e.g. for orienteering)  In the USSR, topographic maps were secret documents and not available for public use  After independence, Slovenia’s state topographic maps were more articulate in expressing the national landscape
  47. 47. Common Ground, 2000
  48. 48. The Power of the Image 2011 OpenStreetMap, 2010
  49. 49. USGS-International Map of the World, 1949 (1:1 000 000) Vi parolas Esperanton?
  50. 50. The Power of the Image 2011 The limits of my language mean the limits of my world. Wittgenstein (1922)
  51. 51. The Power of the Image 2011 Thank you! alexander.kent@canterbury.ac.uk

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