A century of geographical names: toponymic evolution in Somalia


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- by Caroline Burgess, UK Permanent Committee on Geographical Names

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A century of geographical names: toponymic evolution in Somalia

  1. 1. Mappingthe Global Village FUNCTION PCGN is an interdepartmental group whos e function is to formulate and coordinate policies and procedures for the proper writing of geographical names for places and features outs ide the United Kingdom and ens ure the implementation of thos e policies acros s the UK Government.
  2. 2. Mappingthe Global Village Continuity of reference El Barsciagle El Basciaglei Elbasháqley Celbashaqley Ceel Bashaqley
  3. 3. Mappingthe Global Georgia Village Russian Georgian (Ossetian) Тбилиси → თბილისი Ленингор (Tbilisi) (Tbilisi) (Leningor) Ленингори → ახალგორი (Leningori) (Akhalgori) Turkmenistan Russian Turkmen Cyrillic Turkmen Roman Ашхабад Ашгабат Aşgabat (Ashkhabad) (Ashgabat) Красноводск Красноводск Türkmenbaşy (Krasnovodsk) (Krasnowodsk)
  4. 4. Mappingthe Global Village
  5. 5. Mappingthe Global Village British Somaliland Somalia Italiana Somali Republic Somali Democratic Republic Soomaaliya Somali Republic Republic of Somaliland Puntland Jubaland Maakhir Northland
  6. 6. Mappingthe Global Village © UK MOD Crown Copyright, 2012 Crown copyright material reproduced with the permis s ion of the Controller of HMS O Topographic map data © Collins Bartholomew Limited, 2010
  7. 7. Mappingthe Global Village
  8. 8. Mappingthe Global Village Geology and Water Supply of the Sawl Haud, British Somaliland c. 1:475,000, W. A. MacFadyen, 1951
  9. 9. Mappingthe Global Village Africa 1:1,000,000, Alula, Instituto Geografico Militare, 1936
  10. 10. Mappingthe Global Village Gadabuursi (Borama) script 1933 www.omniglot.com
  11. 11. Mappingthe Global Village Cadaale cadaad = Gum Arabic trees le = place Geedka Galoolka Galool = a type of acacia Geed can mean both tree and whatchamacallit
  12. 12. Mappingthe Global Village Sōmāliya 1:1,500,000 Milan Undated (1960s)
  13. 13. Mappingthe Global Village The word for “big” Italian Somaliland Uen Uein Uin British Somaliland Wein
  14. 14. Mappingthe Global Village Osmanya (Cismaanya) script 1922 www.omniglot.com
  15. 15. Mappingthe Global Village Roman script Officially adopted 1972 www.omniglot.com
  16. 16. Mappingthe Global Village
  17. 17. Mappingthe Global Village Extract from Badhaadhe, 1:100,000, 1976
  18. 18. Mappingthe Global Village Republic of Somaliland Puntland Galmudug State Maakhir Northland Jubaland Khatumo State Awdalland
  19. 19. Mappingthe Global Village THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOMALILAND IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE COMPASSIONATE AND THE MERCIFUL CHAPTER ONE Description of the State, General Principles & Fundamental Rights Part One General Description Article 1: The State of the Republic of Somaliland 1. The country which gained its independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on 26th June 1960 and was known as the Somaliland Protectorate and which joined Somalia on 1st July 1960 so as to form the Somali Republic and then regained its independence by the Declaration of the Conference of the Somaliland communities held in Burao between 27th April 1991 and 15th May 1991 shall hereby and in accordance with this Constitution become a sovereign and independent country known as “The Republic of Somaliland”. 2. Sovereignty resides in the people who shall exercise it in accordance with the Constitution and other laws.
  20. 20. Mappingthe Global Village TRANSITIONAL CONSTITUTION OF PUNTLAND REGIONAL GOVERNMENT In the Name of Allah, the Merciful and gracious , we the Puntland people, have the determination to initiate a new era, in order to recover from the tragedy consequent effect and the legacy left behind by the civil wars. Part I 1st Section General Provisions Article 2. The name and the system of the Government 1. The official name of the Regional Government is Puntland State of Somalia. 2. Puntland is an independent Regional Government of Somalia based on the system of idea sharing, democracy and multi-party system. 3. The system of the government is decentralized, while the highest power is entrusted to the people with the exception of Allah’s will, using the power directly in conformity with the Constitution and the laws; and no party of the people, nor any individual may claim sovereignty to assume the right to exercise it. 4. Puntland is an independent integral part of Somalia and has the obligation to restore and maintain the unity of Somalia on the basis of a Federal System.
  21. 21. Mappingthe Global Village The internal boundaries shown on this map are as of 1986 and may no longer be relevant. There are several unofficial political regions within Somalia: Somaliland, with its centre in Hargeysa; Puntland, with its centre in Garoowe; Galmudug with its centre in the southern part of Gaalkacyo; and Jubaland (Azania) centred on Kismaayo.
  22. 22. Mappingthe Global Timeline Town of Saylac Town of Xaafuun Village 1930 Zeila Dante Borama Migiurtinia British Somaliland Italian Somaliland 1965 Seyla‘ Ḥāfūn North-Western Province Majērtēn Somali Republic Somali Republic 1975 Seylac Xaafuun Gobolka Woqooyi Galbeed Gobolka Bari Somali Democratic Republic Somali Democratic Republic 1991 Saylac Xaafuun Gobolka Awdal Gobolka Bari “Republic of Somaliland” Somali Republic 2012 Saylac Xaafuun Gobolka Salal Gobolka Karkaar “Republic of Somaliland” / Somali Republic “Awdalland” (Puntland)