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  1. 1. Internet Server Platforms <ul><li>Server Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Server Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Server Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Purpose Servers </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Server Architectures <ul><li>SMP Architecture </li></ul>
  3. 3. Server Architectures <ul><li>MPP Architecture </li></ul>
  4. 4. Server Architectures <ul><li>VM Architecture </li></ul>
  5. 5. Server Architectures <ul><li>VMWare (from EMC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Virtual Server “Images” on Single Physical Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 15-to-1 Consolidation Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Pause an Image, Move It on the Fly to another Physical Server (same drivers, same hardware) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation of apps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encapsulate image to disk, retrieve as needed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Server Architectures <ul><li>Clusters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple nodes managed as a single system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault tolerant, high availability, scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manageability – software upgrades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared Device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All nodes have access to all hardware devices (i.e. disk) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires DLM (Distributed Lock Manager) to resolve sharing conflicts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared Nothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each node owns its own disks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active-Active versus Active-Passive </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Server Architectures
  8. 8. RAID <ul><li>Redundant Array of Independent Disks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fault tolerant, high availability, scalability, redundancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No need to let disk failures cause system failures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Striping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mirroring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. RAID <ul><li>Striping – improves performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread the data across multiple physical disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid I/O bottlenecks, “hot spots” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster parallel I/O activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mirroring – provides redundancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write to multiple physical disks redundantly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread the data across multiple physical disks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parity – provides redundancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can rebuild data upon disk failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If X + 2 = 5, what is X? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. RAID <ul><li>Raid 0 = Striping </li></ul><ul><li>Raid 1 = Mirroring </li></ul><ul><li>Raid 0 + 1 = Mirroring plus Striping </li></ul><ul><li>Raid 5 = Striping plus Parity </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hardware Selection <ul><li>TPC benchmarks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TPC-C OLTP (Online Transaction Processing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TPC-H OLAP (Online Analytical Processing - Decision Support) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Server Architectures <ul><li>History of UNIX </li></ul><ul><li>1971 First Edition from AT&T Bell Laboratories </li></ul><ul><li>1975 BSD 1 was derived from version 6 in </li></ul><ul><li>1983 System V released by AT&T </li></ul><ul><li>1984 X/Open formed in (Single specification) </li></ul><ul><li>1987 AT&T joined with Sun to market System V </li></ul><ul><li>1991 Linus Torvalds creates Linux </li></ul><ul><li>1993 AT&T sold UNIX Labs to Novell </li></ul><ul><li>1995 Novell sold UNIX labs to SCO </li></ul><ul><li>1996 The Open Group formed (OSF and X/Open) </li></ul><ul><li>1997 Single UNIX specification V2 </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Linux 2.2 kernel released </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Single UNIX Specification V3 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Server Architectures <ul><li>What about LINUX? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX: Many vendors, no standard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enter MS NT – competing on large scale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enter LINUX – Linus Torvalds in 1991 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cloned UNIX for his PC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posted it on an FTP site </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source, Free </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancements and bug fixes donated by community </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Server Architectures <ul><li>UNIX versus Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing costs of ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical support, upgrades, patches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative Staffing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managing multi-users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Storage management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Server Architectures <ul><li>UNIX versus Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability - reboots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance – under stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apps written for Windows versus Apps written for UNIX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Server Architectures <ul><li>UNIX versus Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often comes down to FAMILIARITY </li></ul></ul>Hotmail , a free Web-based e-mail service, runs a mixture of Sun Solaris and FreeBSD. Apache 1.2.1 is the Web server software. After Microsoft purchased the company in December 1997, they tried to migrate to NT, but &quot;. . . the demands of supporting 10 million users reportedly proved too great for NT, and Solaris was reinstated.”
  17. 18. Internet Server Platforms <ul><ul><li>Database Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Purpose Servers </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Internet Server Platforms
  19. 20. Internet Server Platforms <ul><li>Database Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select a DBMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oracle, DB2, Sybase, SQL Server, Informix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MySQL (open source) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select an OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX, Windows, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select a hardware platform </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Internet Server Platforms <ul><li>Oracle versus SQL Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RAC – Real Application Clusters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Guard – “Stand By” database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security (database and server) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workload Management </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Internet Server Platforms <ul><li>Application Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides platform to isolate the business logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides Development tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides common reusable code objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oracle, IBM Websphere, Iplanet, BEA Weblogic </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Internet Server Platforms <ul><li>Web Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides http processing engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides Security (encryption) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides web authoring and publishing tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apache, MS IIS, SunOne, NCSA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special Purpose Servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offload Encryption – CPU Intensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides Load Balancing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring Services for Performance and Traffic </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Server Architectures 1748 149349 322198 Netscape-Enterprise 0 318330 358353 Oversee 44 190013 574607 Zeus 410 1074697 1555458 Sun-ONE-Web-Server 2422 2085394 2773787 unknown 39822 8546895 15910246 Microsoft-IIS 68620 27998228 53287298 Apache 126534 41761685 77568868 TOTAL edu com TOTAL Web Server Survey
  24. 25. Server Architectures Market Share for Top Servers Across All Domains August 1995 - November 2006                                                                
  25. 26. Internet Server Platforms <ul><li>Methodology for Making Server Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define Scope & Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare Scorecard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long List of Potential Vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain Vendor Information (RFP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare RFP Scorecard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short List of Candidate Vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor References, Site Visits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-Site Demonstrations, “Bake Off” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Trial & Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost/Benefit Analysis, Impact Analysis, TCO Estimate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendation </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Internet Servers References: Source for web server usage stats, most requested sites 05.08.97/cover/linus-9719.html Great article on Linus Torvalds John Kirch’s thorough comparison of UNIX versus MS Windows (NT) Tons of info on various types of servers Home for apache open source web server