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  1. 1. Internet Server Platforms <ul><li>Server Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Server Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Server Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Purpose Servers </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Server Architectures <ul><li>SMP Architecture </li></ul>
  3. 3. Server Architectures <ul><li>MPP Architecture </li></ul>
  4. 4. Server Architectures <ul><li>VM Architecture </li></ul>
  5. 5. Server Architectures <ul><li>VMWare (from EMC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Virtual Server “Images” on Single Physical Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 15-to-1 Consolidation Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Pause an Image, Move It on the Fly to another Physical Server (same drivers, same hardware) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation of apps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encapsulate image to disk, retrieve as needed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Server Architectures <ul><li>Clusters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple nodes managed as a single system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault tolerant, high availability, scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manageability – software upgrades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared Device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All nodes have access to all hardware devices (i.e. disk) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires DLM (Distributed Lock Manager) to resolve sharing conflicts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared Nothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each node owns its own disks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active-Active versus Active-Passive </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Server Architectures
  8. 8. RAID <ul><li>Redundant Array of Independent Disks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fault tolerant, high availability, scalability, redundancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No need to let disk failures cause system failures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Striping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mirroring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. RAID <ul><li>Striping – improves performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread the data across multiple physical disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid I/O bottlenecks, “hot spots” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster parallel I/O activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mirroring – provides redundancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write to multiple physical disks redundantly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread the data across multiple physical disks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parity – provides redundancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can rebuild data upon disk failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If X + 2 = 5, what is X? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. RAID <ul><li>Raid 0 = Striping </li></ul><ul><li>Raid 1 = Mirroring </li></ul><ul><li>Raid 0 + 1 = Mirroring plus Striping </li></ul><ul><li>Raid 5 = Striping plus Parity </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hardware Selection <ul><li>TPC benchmarks www.tpc.org </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TPC-C OLTP (Online Transaction Processing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TPC-H OLAP (Online Analytical Processing - Decision Support) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Server Architectures <ul><li>History of UNIX </li></ul><ul><li>1971 First Edition from AT&T Bell Laboratories </li></ul><ul><li>1975 BSD 1 was derived from version 6 in </li></ul><ul><li>1983 System V released by AT&T </li></ul><ul><li>1984 X/Open formed in (Single specification) </li></ul><ul><li>1987 AT&T joined with Sun to market System V </li></ul><ul><li>1991 Linus Torvalds creates Linux </li></ul><ul><li>1993 AT&T sold UNIX Labs to Novell </li></ul><ul><li>1995 Novell sold UNIX labs to SCO </li></ul><ul><li>1996 The Open Group formed (OSF and X/Open) </li></ul><ul><li>1997 Single UNIX specification V2 </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Linux 2.2 kernel released </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Single UNIX Specification V3 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Server Architectures <ul><li>What about LINUX? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX: Many vendors, no standard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enter MS NT – competing on large scale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enter LINUX – Linus Torvalds in 1991 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cloned UNIX for his PC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posted it on an FTP site </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source, Free </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancements and bug fixes donated by community </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Server Architectures <ul><li>UNIX versus Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing costs of ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical support, upgrades, patches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative Staffing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managing multi-users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Storage management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Server Architectures <ul><li>UNIX versus Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability - reboots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance – under stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apps written for Windows versus Apps written for UNIX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Server Architectures <ul><li>UNIX versus Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often comes down to FAMILIARITY </li></ul></ul>Hotmail , a free Web-based e-mail service, runs a mixture of Sun Solaris and FreeBSD. Apache 1.2.1 is the Web server software. After Microsoft purchased the company in December 1997, they tried to migrate to NT, but &quot;. . . the demands of supporting 10 million users reportedly proved too great for NT, and Solaris was reinstated.”
  17. 18. Internet Server Platforms <ul><ul><li>Database Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Purpose Servers </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Internet Server Platforms
  19. 20. Internet Server Platforms <ul><li>Database Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select a DBMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oracle, DB2, Sybase, SQL Server, Informix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MySQL (open source) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select an OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX, Windows, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select a hardware platform </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Internet Server Platforms <ul><li>Oracle versus SQL Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RAC – Real Application Clusters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Guard – “Stand By” database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security (database and server) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workload Management </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Internet Server Platforms <ul><li>Application Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides platform to isolate the business logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides Development tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides common reusable code objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oracle, IBM Websphere, Iplanet, BEA Weblogic </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Internet Server Platforms <ul><li>Web Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides http processing engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides Security (encryption) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides web authoring and publishing tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apache, MS IIS, SunOne, NCSA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special Purpose Servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offload Encryption – CPU Intensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides Load Balancing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring Services for Performance and Traffic </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Server Architectures 1748 149349 322198 Netscape-Enterprise 0 318330 358353 Oversee 44 190013 574607 Zeus 410 1074697 1555458 Sun-ONE-Web-Server 2422 2085394 2773787 unknown 39822 8546895 15910246 Microsoft-IIS 68620 27998228 53287298 Apache 126534 41761685 77568868 TOTAL edu com TOTAL Web Server Survey
  24. 25. Server Architectures Market Share for Top Servers Across All Domains August 1995 - November 2006                                                                
  25. 26. Internet Server Platforms <ul><li>Methodology for Making Server Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define Scope & Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare Scorecard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long List of Potential Vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain Vendor Information (RFP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare RFP Scorecard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short List of Candidate Vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor References, Site Visits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-Site Demonstrations, “Bake Off” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Trial & Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost/Benefit Analysis, Impact Analysis, TCO Estimate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendation </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Internet Servers References: www.netcraft.com Source for web server usage stats, most requested sites www.metroactive.com/papers/metro/ 05.08.97/cover/linus-9719.html Great article on Linus Torvalds www.kirch.net/unix-nt John Kirch’s thorough comparison of UNIX versus MS Windows (NT) www.serverwatch.com Tons of info on various types of servers www.apache.org Home for apache open source web server

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