Clinical Trials Strategy: The Clinical Development Plan


Published on

Part of the MaRS BioEntrepreneurship event series
Speaker: Wendy Hill, Gap Strategies

This event is available as an audio file:

Published in: Business

Clinical Trials Strategy: The Clinical Development Plan

  1. 1. Clinical Trials Strategy Clinical Trials Strategy February 12th 2007 MaRS Discovery District
  2. 2. Agenda The Clinical Development Plan Wendy Hill, gap strategies I. - Logistics and Practicalities of II. Phase I Clinical Research Sue Gilbert Evans, Ventana - Clinical Research Beyond Traditional Designs in III. Early Drug Development Miklos Schultz, Scian Services - Estimating the Maximum Safe IV. Starting Dose for First-in- Human Clinical Trials Beatrice Setnik, Ventana Clinical - Research Panel Discussion and V. Questions MANAGING THE DRUG DEVELOPMENT GAP
  3. 3. The Clinical Development Plan Wendy Hill gap !!! strategies February 12th 2007
  4. 4. Yearly Drug Development Costs 50 Millions of dollars 5 Discovery Phase I/II Phase III
  5. 5. Why proceed into the clinic ?
  6. 6. DEVELOPMENT RISK References: “The Drug Discovery, Development and Approval Process,” Pharma New Medicine, (October 2004), page 43. *p values from DiMasi (2001), Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 69:5: 287-307
  7. 7. Clinical Development Plan (CDP) Part of your Strategic Development Plan ! Detailed evaluation of target indication(s) including unmet needs ! Description of product with evidence or speculation of effect in ! target indication Analysis of market including competition and potential sales ! Regulatory Strategy ! “Mock” package insert ! Project plan including development from preclinical to Phase III ! (timelines and budgets) Could contain /Formulation/Manufacturing Plan !
  8. 8. Indication(s) Selection “Multi-factorial Iterative Process” Based on MOA – Why should Drug/Device/Diagnostic ! work? Unmet medical need? ! Market Analysis – market potential, competition, ! products in development Presence or absence of FDA guidelines ! Co-morbidities in indicated patient population ! Limitations of clinical trial outcomes !
  9. 9. Regulatory Strategy Orphan Drug ! Device/Diagnostic Class ! When to go to the FDA ! – Timing of Pre-IND meeting – End of Phase II meeting Prepare your questions carefully ! Consult with the appropriate bureau of Health ! Products and Food Branch of Health Canada
  10. 10. Drug Development Timeline Years 6 1 2 3 1-2 Discovery / Review / Phase I Phase II Phase III Preclinical Approval 30% 70% 70% 80% < 1% % Success Rate Overall success rate: <10% for products entering Phase 1
  11. 11. Phase I Usually done in normal volunteers or refractory patients ! Can be randomized, parallel or sequential ! Involves 20 to 100 patients ! First look at safety/ tolerability/dosing ! Determine how a drug is absorbed, distributed, ! metabolized and excreted Determine the duration of action ! Cost of each trial $250,000 – 1.5 million !
  12. 12. Types of Phase I Studies Single Dose; Multiple Dose ! PK/PD; ADME ! Fed versus Fasted (oral) ! Select populations (gender, children, elderly) ! Drug Interactions ! Bioequivalence/bioavailability ! Abuse potential ! Formulation bridging studies ! Drug effect (efficacy and safety) - surrogate markers !
  13. 13. Optimizing Phase I Clinical Trials Combine bioavailability studies in Phase I single dose ! Consider patients in your Phase I study ! Combine trial designs (ex. single, multiple, fed/fasted) ! Use positive (commercial or development) controls ! Stay local ! Use same CRO for all Phase I studies ! Measure surrogate markers that can be used in future ! development Ensure large enough sample size to accomplish your objective !
  14. 14. When a Phase I goes wrong… TeGenero TGN1412 ! – A fully humanized CD28-Mab which activates regulatory T- cells (stimulatory) targeting inflammatory conditions – On March 13, 2006 6 of 8 healthy volunteers in Phase I experienced a life-threatening incident of “Cytokine Release Syndrome” associated with T-cell activation – Intense scrutiny of preclinical data by MRHA • results in humans not predictable from preclinical – Instead of subtly 're-tuning' the immune system, as developer TeGenero hoped, TGN1412 induced a so called 'cytokine storm'; the immune system was sent into overdrive and attacked healthy organs with tragic results. – No further clinical testing of the compound is planned
  15. 15. What we learned Design should incorporate a safe dosing strategy ! Healthy volunteers may not react like patients to ! interventions Not all preclinical models are predictive of effects in humans ! – Small animals have compressed “life line” with accelerated disease processes that differ from the human – Difficult to recreate the human disease condition in an animal – Animals that more closely resemble the human condition are expensive and difficult to work with (primates)
  16. 16. Phase II Sometimes done in refractory patients ! DB or Open label but usually randomized and controlled ! Usually involves 100 to 500 patients ! Assess the effectiveness (efficacy) of the drug, shot-term ! tolerability and collect further data on optimum dose Look closely at the side effects in the targeted patient ! population Sometimes use surrogate markers of efficacy ! Phase IIa (pilot/feasibility) and Phase IIb (well-controlled ! pivotal trial) Cost of each trial $2- 20 million !
  17. 17. Optimizing Phase II Clinical Trials Use control arm of current “popular” therapy when ! possible Can use subset patient population that are higher risk ! Try to use “clinically meaningful” endpoint even if as ! secondary outcome Try to control for co-morbid conditions ! If concern over possible chronic toxicities or to build ! safety database, use long-term follow-up In some therapeutic areas can act as a pivotal filing trial !
  18. 18. Phase III Performed in indicated patient population ! Double-blind, randomized, placebo or standard therapy ! controlled Usually involves 1,000 to 5,000 patients ! Must statistically confirm efficacy ! Must quantify adverse effects ! Must complete safety requirements ! Phase IIIa (filing trial) and Phase IIIb (post filing – ! comparative, Q of L) Cost of each trial $20-100 million !
  19. 19. Optimizing Phase III Clinical Trials Ensure you have adequately powered studies ! Ensure eligibility criteria are selective but not too ! exclusionary – need to be able to generalize the results Clinically meaningful outcomes and prospectively ! defined “minimal clinical difference” Active controls can assist in pharmacoeconomic ! support for reimbursement Ensure long-term studies for safety !
  20. 20. CDP Outline Detailed protocol outlines ! Timelines ! Total Costs – CRO quotes ! Milestones ! Complimentary regulatory filing strategy !
  21. 21. Why do you need a CDP? Limit drug/device/diagnostic failures due to poor ! clinical design or strategy Enhance the potential of your ! drug/device/diagnostic with the addition of an efficient strategy of development Once a plan is in place it is easier to adjust the plan ! if there are unexpected findings
  22. 22. General Guidelines Establish a Clinical Development Plan with costs ! and timelines – even if an early alliance is planned Finance to meaningful milestones ! Stage development to meet company needs ! Validate and re-validate plan and ! drug/device/diagnostic product Work with compatible CRO’s with a track record in ! the therapeutic area of development – local if possible Establish a experienced Advisory Board !