42-60 percent of communication time is spent listening and after 48 hours many listeners can only remember about 25% of what they heard.
Don’t have a tone that could be interpreted as bored, sarcastic, cutting superior or judgmentalAsking several clarifying questions in a row can seem like an interrogation, so just ask appropriate clarifying questions, Preface the questions with a short statement that suggests that any problem of misunderstanding may be the result of your listening skills.
Verderber, Verderber and Berryman-Fink recognize 5 types of listening
Without physical cues of body language, voice inflection and tone a statement has the potential for different meaning based of the readers interpretation at that moment…without further clarification one can easily misinterpret information
As a result of the increased use of instant messaging and cell phone text-messaging, Professors at University of California feel that students are more likely to not follow the standards of capitalization, proper grammar, and punctuation. While this is an exaggerated example of a student to faculty email, it does show just how bad it can be
As a result a group of prof at University of California decided to do a study. One class the gave just the basic Professor name, office hours, and email address, while a different group received the basic information at proper email etiquette information . In the end the study showed an significant increase in the use of professional formatting in student to faculty emails
Listening Effectively Linda
ListeningListening is a fundamental communication skill that effectsthe quality of our conversations and shapes the course ofour relationships.Listening: Creates reality Plays an important role in the enactment, development and maintenance of a variety of social and personal relationships One of the basic communication skills - reading, writing, speaking and listening, which is used the most
As favored by theInternational ListeningAssociation,Listening is:The Process of Receiving,Constructing Meaning From,and Responding to Spokenand/or Nonverbal Messages
Challenges to effective listeningNot being a well-trained listenerAnxiety about having to listen, due to: Undue stress about having to absorb all of the important information Difficult or confusing material Not feeling well or under undue stress
Challenges to effective listeningFear of misinterpretation or not adjusting psychologically to what is being saidSimply not being a good listener
AttendingThe Process of Willfully Striving to PerceiveSelected Sounds that are Being Heard. Get Physically and Mentally Ready to Attend Make Complete Shift from Speaker to Listener Resist Tuning Out Avoid Interrupting
Get Physically and Mentally Ready to AttendPhysically – some physical Mentally – Attending is aactions that stimulate your willful act and requiressenses and prepare you to mental preparationperceive Ignore competing stimuli Create Environment Conducive to Listening Block out thoughts passing Adopt a Listening Posture through your mind Move Toward the Speaker Adopt an Upright Stance Make Direct Eye ContactGood listeners sit upright, lean slightly forward, stop any extra movements and look directly at the speaker
Make Complete Shift fromSpeaker to ListenerResist tuning outDon’t Assume You Know What thePerson is Going to SayAvoid InterruptingLet the other person finish beforeyou take your turn to speak
UnderstandingIs the Process of AccuratelyDecoding a Message so thatYou Share its Meaning Withthe SpeakerOnce You have Attended toand Perceived the MessageBeing Sent, You are NowReady to Understand or“Make Sense” of it.
UnderstandingIdentify the Speaker’s Interpret Non-Verbal CluesPurpose and Main Points 65% of meaning is Speaker always looking transmitted nonverbally to make some point Must look at how something said, as well as, “What does the speaker what is said to understand want me to understand?” the message “What is the point being SILENCE is the most subtle made?” form of nonverbal communication.
UnderstandingAsk Clarifying Questions 1. Be specific about the kind– a response designed to if information you need toget further information or increase understandingto remove uncertainty Questions to clarify the important detailsfrom information already Questions to clarify thereceived use of a term Encourages the Speaker Questions to clarify the to Continue Speaking feelings a person is expressing
Understanding2. Deliver Questions in a Sincere Tone of Voice3. Limit Questions or Explain that you Need to Ask Multiple Questions4. Put the “Burden of Ignorance” on Your Shoulders
UnderstandingParaphrase What You HearParaphrase is an Attempt to Verify One’s Understanding of aMessage by Putting it into Ones Own Words and Sharing itWith the Speaker1. Content Paraphrase - conveys one’s understanding of the denotative meaning of a verbal message.2. Feelings Paraphrase - conveys one’s understanding of the emotional meaning behind a speaker’s verbal message.3. Combined Paraphrase – conveys one’s understanding of both the denotative and emotional meaning behind a speaker’s verbal message.
REMEMBERINGRemembering is the Third Active Listening Process.Remembering is the Process of Moving Information from Short-TermMemory to Long-Term Memory.The Primacy Effect and The Recency Effect Cause Us to Forget whatwe Heard in the Middle of a Message.Improve memory skills by: Repeating what was said Creating mnemonics Taking notes FROM INTER-ACT, CHAPTER 8, PAGES 218 & 219
Mnemonic DevicesMnemonics are clues of any kind that help us remembersomething, usually by helping us associate the information wewant to remember with a visual image, a sentence, or a word.Visual Image Associate a visual image with a word or name to help you remember them better. Positive, pleasant images that are vivid, colorful, and three-dimensional will be easier to remember. = Rosa Parks
RememberingAcrostic (or sentence)Make up a sentence in which the first letter of each word is part ofor represents the initial of what you want to remember. The sentence “Every good boy does fine” to memorize the lines of the treble clef, representing the notes E, G, B, D, and F.AcronymAn acronym is a word that is made up by taking the first letters ofall the key words or ideas you need to remember and creating anew word out of them. The word “HOMES” to remember the names of the Great Lakes: Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior.
RememberingRhymes and Alliteration Rhymes, alliteration (a repeating sound or syllable), and even jokes are a memorable way to remember more mundane facts and figures. The rhyme “Thirty days hath September, April, June, and November” to remember the months of the year with only 30 days in them.Chunking Chunking breaks a long list of numbers or other types of information into smaller more manageable chunks. Remembering a 10-digit phone number by breaking it down into tree sets of numbers: 555-867-5309 VS 5558675309
RememberingMethod of lociImagine placing the items you want to remember along a routeyou know well or in specific locations in a familiar room orbuilding. For a shopping list, imagine bananas in the entryway to your home, a puddle of milk in the middle of the sofa, eggs going up the stairs, and bread on your bed. http://www.helpguide.org/life/improving_memory.htm
More Mnemonics… Music - Make a song, rap, or jingle using any type of music toremember a list of items. The ABC song helps you remember your ABCs.Names - The 1st letter of each word in a list is used to make up aname of a person or thing. Roy G. Biv = the colors of the rainbow!
RememberingLongitude & Latitude: On a globe, N & S are long, whichcoincides with Longitude. There is a N in LoNgitude and an Efor East in LatitudE.Spelling-Use the spelling of a word to help you remember A PrinciPAL at school is your pal. A princiPLE you believe or follow is a rule.
How to Remember Peoples NamesFace AssociationExamine a persons face discreetly when you are introduced.Try to find an unusual feature, whether ears, hairline,forehead, eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, chin, complexion, etc.Create an association between that characteristic, the face,and the name in your mind. The association may be to link theperson with someone else you know with the same name.Alternatively it may be to associate a rhyme or image of thename with the persons face or defining feature.
How to Remember Peoples NamesRepetitionWhen you are introduced, ask for the person to repeat theirname. Use the name yourself as often as possible (withoutoverdoing it!). If it is unusual, ask how it is spelled or where it iscomes from, and if appropriate, exchange cards. Keep in mindthat the more often you hear and see the name, the more likelyit is to sink in. Also, after you have left that persons company,review the name in your mind several times. If you areparticularly keen you might decide to write it down and makenotes. Randall Randall Randall Randall Randall Randall Randall Randall Randall Randall Randall Randall Randall http://WWW.mintools.com/pages/article/newTIM_12.htm
GROUP PRACTICE:Create a mnemonic for the Listening Process: Attending, Understanding, Remembering, Critically Evaluating, Responding You may work independently or with others in your group and then share your mnemonic with all of the members of the group
CRITICALLY EVALUATINGCritically evaluating is the fourth part of the Active ListeningProcess.Critically evaluating is the process of interpreting what youhave heard to determine how truthful, authentic, or believablethe information is.To critically evaluate information you must separate facts frominferences and/or ask probing questions. Inter-Act, chapter 8, p. 220 & 221
Group Practice: Making Inferences In your group, make inferences to answer the questions.Everyday after work Paul took his muddy What type of jobboots off on the steps of the front porch. does Paul work?Alice would have a fit if the boots made itso far as the welcome mat. He then took Describe Alice:off his dusty overalls and threw them Whatinto a plastic garbage bag; Alice left anew garbage bag tied to the porch railing relationship dofor him every morning. On his way in the Paul and Alicehouse, he dropped the garbage bag off have?at the washing machine and wentstraight up stairs to the shower as hewas instructed. He would eat dinner withher after he was “presentable,” as Alicehad often said.
Making InferencesValerie opened up the letter from the military department. She feltthe pit of her stomach drop to the bottom of the earth before sheeven opened it. She knew it was news about John. As she read thefirst line, she thought of all of the lunches she had packed him andall the nights she tucked him in his bed and warded off thenighttime monsters. The man carrying the flag put his hand on hershoulder. She thought of the day that John signed up for themilitary. Her tears wet the letter. She stopped reading after the firstline.What does the letter say?What is Valerie’s relationship to John?
Making Inferences“Tommy!” Mom called out as she walked in the front door.“Tommy,” she continued shouting, “I sure could use some helpwith these groceries. There was still no reply. Mom walked intothe kitchen to put the grocery bags down on the counter whenshe noticed shattered glass from the picture window all overthe living room floor and a baseball not far from there. “I’mgoing to kill you, Tommy!” Mom yelled to herself as she realizedthat Tommy’s shoes were gone.1. What happened to the window?2. Why did Tommy leave?
Making InferencesRuby sat on the bed she shared with her husband holding a hairclip. Therewas something mysterious and powerful about the cheaply manufacturedneon clip that she was fondling in her newly suspicious palms. She didn’trecognize the hairclip. It was too big to be their daughter’s, and Ruby wassure that it wasn’t hers. She hadn’t had friends over in weeks but here wasthis hairclip, little and green with a few long black hair strands caught in it.Ruby ran her fingers through her own blonde hair. She had just beenvacuuming when she noticed this small, bright green object under the bed.Now their life would never be the same. She would wait here until Mikereturned home.1. Why is Ruby so affected by the hairclip?2. How has the hairclip affected Ruby’s relationship?3. From where did the hairclip most likely come?
RESPONDINGResponding is the final part of the Active Listening process.Responding is the process of reacting to what has been heardwhile listening and after listening.Responses include back-channel cues and replies.
Group Practice – Responding Skills TYPES OF RESPONSES INCLUDE PARAPHRASING, QUESTIONS, AGREEMENT, CHALLENGES, ADVICE, AND SUPPORT.LUIS: IT’S DIONNE’S BIRTHDAY AND I’VE PLANNED A BIG EVENING. SOMETIMES I THINKDIONNE BELIEVES I TAKE HER FOR GRANTED – WELL, I THINK AFTER TONIGHT SHE’LL KNOW ITHINK SHE’S SOMETHING SPECIAL.ANGIE: BROTHER! ANOTHER NOTHING CLASS. I KEEP THINKING ONE OF THESE DAYS HE’LLGET EXCITED ABOUT SOMETHING. PROFESSOR ROMERO IS A REAL BORE!JERRY: EVERYONE SEEMS TO BE TALKING ABOUT THAT MOVIE ON CHANNEL 5 LAST NIGHT,BUT I DIDN’T SEE IT. YOU KNOW, I DON’T WATCH MUCH THAT’S ON THE “IDIOT BOX”.KAELIN: I DON’T KNOW IF IT’S SOMETHING TO DO WITH ME OR WITH MOM, BUT LATELYSHE AND I JUST AREN’T GETTING ALONG.AILEEN: I’VE GOT A REPORT DUE AT WORK AND A PAPER DUE IN MANAGEMENT CLASS. ONTOP OF THAT, IT’S MY SISTER’S BIRTHDAY, AND SO FAR I HAVEN’T EVEN HAD TIME TO GETHER ANYTHING. TOMORROW’S GOING TO BE A DISASTER. From Inter-Act, chapter 8, p. 229 & 230
ListeningListening is very different than hearingTo actively listen is to give meaning to what is beingsaidPeople can hear four times faster than others can talk This gives skilled listeners time to determine meaning and intent http://bbll.com/ch02.html
Types of ListeningAppreciative ListeningDiscriminative ListeningComprehensive ListeningCritical-Evaluative ListeningEmpathic Listening
Appreciative ListeningFocus is on the enjoyment of what is being saidListener is not as focused as in other types of listeningUsed in casual social conversation
Discriminative ListeningFocused with goal of full understanding of what is be saidFull attention to all details: body language, verbal andnonverbal cues, facial expressions
Comprehensive ListeningFocus on learning and rememberinginformation Utilize remembering skills: Repeating what was said Creating mnemonics Taking notes
Critical-Evaluative ListeningFocused listening with goal to judge or evaluate how truthful,authentic, or believable the information is.May need to listen “between the lines”Used when listening to a salesperson or to an apology from aperson that has violated your trustTo critically evaluate information you mustseparate facts from inferences and/or askprobing questions.
Empathic ListeningFocus of Listening on Understanding of FeelingsTherapeutic ListeningCaring, Concerned, Non-JudgmentalFosters Healing “Cathartic”Non verbal responses:Smile, Touch, Eye Contact,Expression, Posture, Nods
Listening in CyberspaceLacks the physical cues of body language, voice inflectionor toneIncreased potential to be misunderstand messagesVolume of messages can be potentially difficult to manageE-mail, Texting, Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, LinkedIn,Merchantcircle
E-mail, texting, Facebook, Twitter,MySpace, LinkedIn, Merchantcircle Laughing out Loud Bye for Now Oh my God Be Right Back Rolling on Floor Laughing Thanks
Sample EmailFrom: firstname.lastname@example.orgSubject:yo,mised the first class I was recovring from a wild party.omg It was awesomPLZ TELL ME WHAT SCHOOL SUPLIES I NEED B4 CLASSTOMORROWLBR ;)
Proper Email EtiquetteEmail Format Subject line: GEN 503 Open with Dr. or Professor Last Name Do use punctuation and reasonable grammar Do Not use text messaging abbreviations Close with your name Aguilar-Roca, Williams, Warrior, O’Dowd Two Minute Training in Class Significantly Increases the Use of Professional Formatting in Student to Faculty Email Correspondence International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Vol. 3, No. 1 (January 2009) ISSN 1931-4744 @ Georgia Southern University
How to “Listen” in CyberspaceGive extra effort to attending and understandingPractice critical evaluationDon’t become over dependent on cyberspacelisteningConsciously choose what online information you wantto attend to
Communication ToolsS Situation: Patient name,diagnosis/concerns/current conditionor situation Error Prevention ToolsB Background: Concise history/brief STAR Stop Think Act Reviewsynopsis of situation or tests and/or Communicate Clearlytreatments to date Three-way repeat back & readA Assessment: Best Judgment of backproblem, concern or change incondition. What do you think is going Phonetic & Numeric Clarificationson with the patient or situation? Speak up for SafetyR Recommendation: What action are Question& Confirmyou requesting? What do you want tohappen next? (e.g. come to see Stop the linepatient now, discussion with family,follow-up call, when to call back…)
SummaryListening is a process of Receiving, Constructing meaningfrom, and Responding to spoken and/or nonverbalmessagesActive Listening consists of Attending, Understanding,Remembering, Critically Evaluating, and Responding.Five types of listening are Appreciative, Discriminative,Comprehensive, Critical-Evaluative, and EmpathicListening.Listening skills are increasingly affected by technology andcyberspace.
Listening Effectively“I know you believe you understand what you think Isaid, but I am not sure you realize that what youheard is not what I meant.“ (Author Unknown) http://bbll.com/ch02.html