A new Rethinking Education strategy - Europe

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Rethinking education - [EU] Commission presents new Rethinking Education strategy Report. Cyprus performance summary

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A new Rethinking Education strategy - Europe

  1. 1. EUROPEAN COMMISSION Strasbourg, 20.11.2012 SWD(2012) 377 final COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Rethinking Education : Country Analysis Part I Accompanying the document Communication from the Commission Rethinking Education: Investing in skills for better socio-economic outcomes {COM(2012) 669 final} {SWD(2012) 371 final} {SWD(2012) 372 final} {SWD(2012) 373 final} {SWD(2012) 374 final} {SWD(2012) 375 final} {SWD(2012) 376 final}EN EN
  2. 2. Table of contentsIntroduction .................................................................................................... 3Austria............................................................................................................ 4Belgium .......................................................................................................... 9Bulgaria ........................................................................................................ 15Cyprus.......................................................................................................... 20Czech Republic............................................................................................... 25Germany....................................................................................................... 30Denmark....................................................................................................... 36Estonia ......................................................................................................... 42Greece.......................................................................................................... 47Spain............................................................................................................ 52Finland ......................................................................................................... 57France .......................................................................................................... 63Hungary........................................................................................................ 68Ireland ......................................................................................................... 73Italy ............................................................................................................. 79 2
  3. 3. IntroductionThe following individual country summaries pinpoint the main challenges to skills provisionspecific to the different European countries and outline the most significant measures adoptedto respond to such challenges.The specific information contained in the summaries underpins the key messages of theRethinking Education Communication by providing relevant quantitative and qualitativeevidence, established through a methodology, building on the commonly accepted JointAssessment Framework (JAF).The summaries closely reflect the structure of the Rethinking Education Communication andcomplement the cross-country analysis presented in the Education and Training Monitor.The summaries will provide essential elements for monitoring the implementation of thecountry-specific recommendations (CSRs) resulting from the European Semester under theEurope 2020 strategy.Part I of this Staff Working Document covers the following Member States: Austria, Belgium,Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Greece, Spain, Finland, France,Hungary, Ireland and Italy. 3
  4. 4. Cyprus1. Performance summary1.1 Overview of benchmarks and skill levels Cyprus EU average Europe 2020 2006 2011 2006 2011 targets1. Early leavers from education and training EU target: 10% 14.9% 11.2% 15.5% 13.5%(age 18-24) National target : 10%2. Tertiary educational attainment EU target: 40% 46.1% 45.8% 28.9% 34.6%(age 30-34) National target : 46% Cyprus EU average ET 2020 2006 2011 2006 2011 Benchmarks3. Participation in early childhood education 10 10 84.7% 87.7% 89.3% 92.3% 95%(4 years old - year before start of compulsory primary)4. Employment rate of graduates (age 20-34) having left education 80.5% 73.1% 79.0% 77.2% 82%and training no more than 3 years before reference year5. Adult participation in lifelong learning 7.1% 7.5% 9.5% 8.9% 15%(age 25-64) 09 Reading : : 23.1% 19.6% 15%6. Basic skills 09Low achievers (15 year-olds; Mathematics : : 24.0% 22.2% 15%Level 1 or low er in PISA study) 09 Science : : 20.3% 17.7% 15% % of pupils in 4th grade using 07 : : 60.7% : computers at school7. ICT skills % of individuals aged 16-74 with high 19.0% 23.0% 21.0% 27.0% computer skills 1 % of 18-64 old population who believe8. Entrepreneurship to have the required skills and : : 42.0% 43.0% knowledge to start a business Average number of foreign languages 10 10 1.9 2.0 1.4 1.5 learned per pupil at ISCED 29. Languages % of students reaching B1 level or higher in the first foreign language at : : : 43.5% the end of lower secondary educ. 2 10 10,e Education and training 11.2% 10.7% 10.5% 9.6% 10 10,e Humanities and art 10.0% 10.1% 12.1% 11.5% 10 10,e Social science, business and law 43.7% 49.0% 35.2% 35.7%10a. Tertiary graduates 10 10,eby field of which: business and administration 36.8% 41.9% 19.5% 20.2%Graduates (ISCED 5-6) in a Maths, science and technology 13.9% 13.3% 10 22.4% 21.9% 10,especific field, as % of all fields 10 10,e Agriculture and veterinary field 0.2% 0.1% 1.7% 1.6% 10 10,e Health and welfare 6.7% 7.6% 14.3% 15.1% 10 10,e Services 14.3% 9.2% 3.8% 4.2% Number of maths, science and 10 0910b. MST graduates technology graduates per 1000 young 4.3 5.1 13.5 14.4 people (age 20-29) 10 1011. Skills for future High qualification : 33.3% : 19.7%labour markets Medium qualification : 13.9% 10 : 4.8% 10Projected change in 10 10employment 2010-2020 in % Low qualification : -18.3% : -20.1%12. Investment in education and training 09 e 09,e 7.02% 7.98% 5.03% 5.41%Public spending on education, % of GDPSource: Eurostat (LFS): 1, 2 CRELL (based on Eurostat LFS): 4 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: 8 Eurostat (UOE): 3, 9a, 10, 12 OECD (PISA): 6 European Survey on Language Competences (ESLC): 9b Eurostat (ISS): 7b Eurydice (based on IEA TIMSS): 7a Cedefop: 11Additional notes:07 =2007, 08 =2008, 09 =2009, 10 =2010, 11 =2011, e= estimate, b= break, p= provisionalNumber of countries included in EU average: PISA=25, Entrepreneurship=18, Language skills=13, ICT/Computers at school=131 = having carried out 5-6 specific computer related activities, 2= average of skills tested in reading, listening, writing 20
  5. 5. 1.2 Position in relation to Europe 2020 targets and ET2020 benchmarks Deviation (%) from EU average and relative position to the EU benchmarks, top performers and low performers in EU27Source: DG EAC2. Europe 2020 targets: patterns of sub-groups and sub-indicators42.1 Early leavers from education and training ƒ Early school leavers of specific population sub-groups (country of birth and gender) ƒ Early school leavers and sub-indicators (Difference in employment rate for low/medium education, low education background of the mother, investment in primary and secondary education, participation in vocational education and training [VET] and in early childhood education [ECE])Source: JRC-CRELL4 See annex 2. 21
  6. 6. 2.2 Tertiary educational attainmentƒ Tertiary educational attainment of specific population sub-groups (country of birth and gender)ƒ Tertiary educational attainment and sub-indicators (Completion rate in higher education, upper secondary educational attainment, investment in tertiary education, high education background of the mother, difference in employment rate for high/medium education)Source: JRC-CRELL3. Key findings on benchmarks and skills levelsConcerning the Europe 2020 targets, Cyprus performs better than the EU average in the area ofearly school leaving (ESL). Cyprus has one of the highest tertiary attainment rates in the EUwith 45.8% compared to the European average of 34.6% in 2011. Also the share of youngadults with at least an upper secondary education is high compared in EU comparison. Asregards the other ET2020 benchmarks, Cyprus performs below the EU average with respect toearly childhood education and care (87.7% compared to 92.3% in 2010). As regards basicskills, Cyprus performs below the EU average. Relating to literacy, based on relevant researchand available data regarding “Functional Illiteracy”, during the school year 2008-2009, thepercentage of students with high likelihood of remaining illiterate (by the age of 15) wasestimated at 10%. The equivalent for students with inadequate numeracy skills was estimatedat 7%. Underperformance can be traced to specific reference groups, mainly boys that do notspeak Greek at home. The share of MST (mathematics, science and technology) graduates in2011 was amongst the lowest in Europe (13.3%). Cyprus is lagging behind in lifelong learningparticipation compared to the EU average (7.5% as against 8.9% in 2011).ICT skills of the population are slightly below the EU average. The employment rate ofgraduates aged 20-34 is 73.1% (2011), which is below the EU average (77.2%) and placesCyprus at the end of the second third of EU countries. Foreign language learning is widespread,with students at ISCED 2 level learning on average two foreign languages, thus placing Cyprusamong the 5 best performing EU countries. Compared with the EU average, Cyprus has a veryhigh share of graduates in social science, business and law and a very low share of graduates inscience, mathematics and technology. Employment in medium and high qualification jobs up to2020 is forecast to increase faster than the EU average. Cyprus spends 7.98% of GDP on 22
  7. 7. education (2009 data), considerably more than the EU average (5.41%) and is second only toDenmark (8.72%). This results from modest but continuous increases over the last few years.4. Major policy initiatives and reforms4.1 Initiatives and measures to increase the relevance and level of skillsThe new National Curriculum, which includes competences in Reading, Mathematics, Science,Foreign languages (English), Digital competences, and Social and Civic Competences, is partiallyapplied in primary education from the school year 2011-12 and will be completely implementedby the school year 2014-2015. ICT is taught in primary schools.The 2012 National Reform Programme (NRP) for Cyprus prioritises predominantly the creationof job positions in the sectors for the highly skilled. This is complemented by a mapping of theneeds/demands in education and for special skills by the Ministry of Education. This is the basisfor further development of the education and training sector.An important challenge facing the education and training system in Cyprus, including vocationaleducation and training (VET), is the provision of more adapted responses to the needs of thelabour market, given the increasing unemployment of young people.4.2. Initiatives and measures to stimulate open and flexible learningCyprus has taken several positive steps in order to improve the openness of education andtraining systems and pathways. Particular attention is being given to teacher training with anemphasis on those in deprived areas, as well as in schools with high migrant concentration.Generally, the Cyprus Pedagogical Institute organises various trainings and conferences thataim at informing teachers about the integration of ICT in learning and teaching. It hasestablished a Memorandum of Understanding with Microsoft (partners in learning) for issuesthat are related to ICT besides running training courses to provide basic skills in the area of ICT.Cyprus is a country that exhibits an excellent performance in both secondary and universitylevel education. However, the low lifelong learning rate limits the capacity for addressing skillmismatches. The national comprehensive Lifelong Learning Strategy 2007-2013 is graduallybeing implemented and promotes lifelong learning though measures that increase adulteducation and offer access to relevant programmes.Vocational education and training (VET) is also among the areas with low participation levels.The 2011 NRP includes a number of measures that aim at addressing this issue, including theestablishment of new post-secondary VET institutes and of the new apprenticeship system from2012-2013 onwards.The 2011 NRP also includes measures for recognising prior learning as well as for theestablishment of a National Qualifications Framework making reference to the EuropeanQualifications Framework (EQF) as well as the European Credit Transfer System for VocationalEducation.There is a national strategy on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) ineducation that is related to a general national ICT strategy covering the following areas: e-Government; infrastructure and broadband connectivity; e-Learning; ICT in schools; ICTsecurity; e-Inclusion; digital media Literacy and e-Skills development.The Ministry of Education and Culture is currently implementing an ICT integration plan aimingat effectively using ICT in the educational process and to enhance the digital literacy of studentsand teachers. It provides schools with advanced ICT infrastructure and equipment and aims atimproving the teaching and learning aids, in accordance with the current curricula reform andpedagogical methods. For this purpose the Ministry has initiated two strategic projects: 1) theeContent and educational software acquisition and 2) the creation of the Schoolnet DIA.S.(Educational Portal and LMS). Specific attention is given to the training of teachers ensuringtheir competence in using ICT tools and on pedagogical innovation and progress. 23
  8. 8. 4.3. Initiatives and measures to secure smart funding and developing partnershipsBeing the second largest investor in education and training in the EU, Cyprus has also a largeprivate expenditure in education and training. In 2008 it accounted for 1.6% of GDP comparedto 1.7% in the United Kingdom and less than 1% in almost every other EU Member State.Only very recently have some initiatives better interlinked education and training with thebusiness environment using, among others, experiences gained in EU funded projects. This ledto establishing university-industry liaison offices in all recognised local Universities, both publicand private. For instance, the European Social Fund Project “Development and Operation ofEnterprise Liaison Offices in Universities Operating in the Republic of Cyprus” aims to boost thecommunication and cooperation between Business and Academia.The governance of education and vocational training institutions remains centralised at theMinistry of Education and Culture and the Cyprus Pedagogical Institute in the case of formaleducation, whilst the vocational training system is managed by the Human ResourceDevelopment Authority of Cyprus (HRDA). Relevant skills are identified either throughsuggestions from the private sector or gap analysis and needs assessments performed by theAuthority itself. The influence of the private sector remains limited when it comes to decisionmaking regarding education and vocational training.ConclusionLike in other European countries, the effects of the global financial crisis were felt in Cyprus aswell. Despite the general tendency of applying austerity measures that take the form of budgetcuts and consequently have an effect on the quantity as well as the quality of initiatives interms of education and training, this was not the case for Cyprus. The budget of the Ministry ofEducation and Culture was not decreased and a number of initiatives in relation to theeducational reform are being implemented, sometimes at a slow but generally steady pace.However, more needs to be done to maintain areas of excellence and catch up in other areas.Even though it is widely accepted that Cyprus has a good educational system, catching up inadult participation in lifelong learning to levels known in other EU Member States remains a keychallenge in order to enhance the skills profile and occupational mobility of the workforce, in linewith the country-specific recommendation received in the European Semester 2012. It isimportant to encourage and support the involvement of low-skilled and older workers as well aswomen in the country’s labour market. Furthermore, the creation of new post-secondaryinstitutes and the establishment of a new apprenticeship system so as to support vocationaleducation and training are in progress. These efforts will need to be persistent not only to makethese alternative educational pathways more attractive, but also in order to improve theirgeneral quality. 24
  9. 9. AnnexesAnnex 1. Summary statistics on the headline target1.1 Early leavers from education and training General data (%) Country SUB-GROUPS / EU average (2011) SUB-INDICATORS / EU average (latest year available) Position / EU benchmark (p.p.) Standardized level values Graphic display Standardized level values Graphic display Evolution 2006/2011 (p.p.) Position / EU Average (p.p.) Particip. early childhood educ Investment in prim-sec educ Diffce. employment rate (difference low/medium educ) Invest. prim-sec educ. Participation in VET Educ. mother (low) Particip. early educ EU average (2011) Participation in VET Educ. mother (low) Country (2006) Country (2011) Employment rate EU Benchmark Boarn abroad Born abroad Early leavers Early leavers Early leavers Early leavers Females Females Natives Natives Males MalesBE Belgium 10 13.5 12.6 12.3 у -0.3 -1.7 -2.2 -1.2 -3.2 -0.5 -1.7 5.8 0.7 7.3 13.6 8.2BG Bulgaria 10 13.5 17.3 12.8 ź -4.5 -1.0 0.8 (:) 3.6 -4.3 -1.0 14.4 -6.4 -8.9 1.4 -15.7CZ Czech Republic 10 13.5 5.1 4.9 у -0.2 -12.7 -11.2 -11.8 -12.3 -12.6 -12.7 17.8 -9.9 -10.1 13.6 -4.3DK Denmark 10 13.5 9.1 9.6 у 0.5 -5.7 -4.5 -9.6 -7.8 -4.1 -5.7 -1.5 -2.6 12.1 -2.0 -1.4DE Germany 10 13.5 13.7 11.5 ź -2.2 -2.9 -3.3 -2.5 -1.7 -3.7 -2.9 2.5 -7.4 -2.9 0.9 4.7EE Estonia 10 13.5 13.5 10.9 ź -2.6 -3.9 -2.2 (:) -5.1 -2.8 -3.9 5.7 -12.9 12.2 -9.2 -3.0IE Ireland 10 13.5 12.1 10.6 ź -1.5 -4.2 -3.7 -7.7 -4.9 -3.5 -4.2 0.6 -0.5 6.8 -7.3 -8.3EL Greece 10 13.5 15.5 13.1 ź -2.4 -0.6 -4.6 16.3 -2.5 0.9 -0.6 -17.0 4.3 (:) -11.3 -22.6ES Spain 10 13.5 30.5 26.5 ź -4.0 19.2 16.1 13.3 17.7 19.9 19.2 -7.9 11.2 -0.9 -3.1 8.5FR France 10 13.5 12.4 12.0 у -0.4 -2.2 -1.6 -2.5 -2.4 -1.9 -2.2 -2.2 2.5 -4.3 -3.3 9.3IT Italy 10 13.5 20.6 18.2 ź -2.4 6.9 4.5 12.5 6.2 7.3 6.9 -0.9 9.3 3.0 5.9 5.8CY Cyprus 10 13.5 14.9 11.2 ź -3.7 -3.4 -7.8 -2.5 -6.0 -0.2 -3.4 -12.7 -1.8 18.6 -21.6 -5.5LV Latvia 10 13.5 14.8 11.8 ź -3.0 -2.5 -0.6 (:) -6.7 0.7 -2.5 -2.0 -12.9 8.5 -8.2 -5.9LT Lithuania 10 13.5 8.2 7.9 у -0.3 -8.2 -6.6 (:) -11.3 -6.0 -8.2 14.3 -14.4 -3.8 -13.1 -16.8LU Luxembourg 10 13.5 14.0 6.2 u ź -7.8 -10.8 -10.2 (:) -11.7 -9.9 -10.8 -12.4 -0.9 -12.4 6.8 2.8HU Hungary 10 13.5 12.6 11.2 ź -1.4 -3.3 -1.8 (:) -2.2 -4.1 -3.3 10.8 -3.6 -8.8 -14.2 2.4MT Malta 10 13.5 39.9 33.5 ź -6.4 29.5 31.8 (:) 27.4 30.0 29.5 10.1 27.3 -1.8 -0.3 -4.0NL Netherlands 10 13.5 12.6 9.1 ź -3.5 -6.6 -4.9 -13.1 -7.5 -5.7 -6.6 -0.3 0.7 -2.8 10.1 8.8AT Austria 10 13.5 9.8 8.3 ź -1.5 -7.6 -9.1 -4.1 -6.4 -8.3 -7.6 4.8 -2.7 3.1 15.8 -0.2PL Poland 10 13.5 5.4 5.6 у 0.2 -11.6 -10.0 (:) -13.4 -10.1 -11.6 9.1 -9.8 -5.5 -1.0 -19.2PT Portugal 10 13.5 39.1 23.2 ź -15.9 14.4 16.3 -3.1 11.1 16.3 14.4 -15.1 23.5 10.8 -6.5 -3.6RO Romania 10 13.5 17.9 17.5 у -0.4 6.0 7.7 (:) 8.6 4.0 6.0 -5.4 -1.6 -21.3 8.2 -12.3SI Slovenia 10 13.5 5.6 4.2 u ź -1.4 -13.7 -13.0 -6.1 -15.6 -12.3 -13.7 5.8 -4.8 9.6 8.6 -0.4SK Slovakia 10 13.5 6.6 5.0 ź -1.6 -12.5 -10.9 (:) -12.0 -12.6 -12.5 24.3 -10.1 -18.5 12.6 -17.8FI Finland 10 13.5 9.7 9.8 у 0.1 -5.5 -4.7 -3.1 -5.4 -5.3 -5.5 1.9 -9.7 4.8 11.6 -23.1SE Sweden 10 13.5 13.0 p 6.6 p ź -6.4 -10.2 -9.5 -11.2 -10.8 -9.5 -10.2 -0.3 -6.3 8.1 3.6 3.4UK United Kingdom 10 13.5 11.3 15.0 Ÿ 3.7 2.3 4.7 -11.0 3.9 1.1 2.3 3.8 -0.8 9.4 -10.5 5.3Source: DG EAC, based on Eurostat data and CRELL calculationsLegend:p.p. : variation in percentage points p: provisional u: unreliableCountry position / benchmark and EU average Countrys evolution 2006/2011 + performance Sub-groups / Sub-indicators / Standardized level values BELOW EU benchmark/average (< 1 p.p.) ź Decrease Top performers For more information, please see Annex 2 CLOSE to EU benchmark/average (+/- 1 p.p.) у Stable (+/- 0.5 p.p.) ABOVE EU benchmark/average (> 1 p.p.) Ÿ Increase Low performers 65
  10. 10. 1.2 Tertiary educational attainment General data (%) Country SUB-GROUPS / EU average (2011) SUB-INDICATORS / EU average (latest year available) Position / EU benchmark (p.p.) Standardized level values Graphic display Standardized level values Graphic display Position / EU Average (p.p.) Evolution 2006/2011 (p.p.) Upp. sec. educ. attainment Completion rate ISCED 5A Tertiary educ. Attainment Complettion rate at ISCED 5A Tertiary educ. attainment Tertiary educ. attainment Tertiary educ. attainment Upper sec. educ. attainment Diffce. employment rate (difference medium/high educ) Investment in tertiary educ. Invest. tertiary educ. Educ. mother (high) EU average (2011) Educ. mother (high) Country (2006) Country (2011) Employment rate EU Benchmark Boarn abroad Born abroad Females Females Natives Natives Males MalesBE Belgium 40 34.6 41.4 42.6 Ÿ 1.2 7.1 8.3 -0.5 6.6 7.0 -1.7 5.8 0.7 7.3 13.6 8.2BG Bulgaria 40 34.6 25.3 27.3 Ÿ 2.0 -8.5 -8.9 (:) -5.8 -10.6 -1.0 14.4 -6.4 -8.9 1.4 -15.7CZ Czech Republic 40 34.6 13.1 23.8 Ÿ 10.7 -12.0 -12.7 -1.3 -12.6 -10.2 -12.7 17.8 -9.9 -10.1 13.6 -4.3DK Denmark 40 34.6 43.0 41.2 ź -1.8 5.7 6.4 -3.0 6.5 4.3 -5.7 -1.5 -2.6 12.1 -2.0 -1.4DE Germany 40 34.6 25.8 30.7 Ÿ 4.9 -5.0 -4.0 -7.5 -7.9 -1.0 -2.9 2.5 -7.4 -2.9 0.9 4.7EE Estonia 40 34.6 32.5 40.3 Ÿ 7.8 4.8 3.4 (:) 8.4 -0.3 -3.9 5.7 -12.9 12.2 -9.2 -3.0IE Ireland 40 34.6 41.3 49.4 Ÿ 8.1 14.0 12.0 13.1 13.3 13.3 -4.2 0.6 -0.5 6.8 -7.3 -8.3EL Greece 40 34.6 26.7 28.9 Ÿ 2.2 -6.8 -4.1 -19.3 -7.7 -5.1 -0.6 -17.0 4.3 (:) -11.3 -22.6ES Spain 40 34.6 38.1 40.6 Ÿ 2.5 5.0 9.6 -8.2 3.9 6.1 19.2 -7.9 11.2 -0.9 -3.1 8.5FR France 40 34.6 39.7 43.4 Ÿ 3.7 7.9 8.6 -1.3 6.1 9.2 -2.2 -2.2 2.5 -4.3 -3.3 9.3IT Italy 40 34.6 17.7 20.3 Ÿ 2.6 -15.6 -14.0 -17.3 -13.9 -16.5 6.9 -0.9 9.3 3.0 5.9 5.8CY Cyprus 40 34.6 46.1 45.8 у -0.3 10.4 15.9 -0.1 10.0 9.9 -3.4 -12.7 -1.8 18.6 -21.6 -5.5LV Latvia 40 34.6 19.2 35.7 Ÿ 16.5 0.0 -0.7 (:) 5.6 -6.7 -2.5 -2.0 -12.9 8.5 -8.2 -5.9LT Lithuania 40 34.6 39.4 45.4 Ÿ 6.0 10.0 9.0 (:) 11.2 7.5 -8.2 14.3 -14.4 -3.8 -13.1 -16.8LU Luxembourg 40 34.6 35.5 48.2 Ÿ 12.7 12.8 5.7 (:) 6.0 20.3 -10.8 -12.4 -0.9 -12.4 6.8 2.8HU Hungary 40 34.6 19.0 28.1 Ÿ 9.1 -7.7 -8.2 (:) -6.3 -8.4 -3.3 10.8 -3.6 -8.8 -14.2 2.4MT Malta 40 34.6 21.6 21.1 у -0.5 -14.7 -15.4 (:) -16.1 -11.9 29.5 10.1 27.3 -1.8 -0.3 -4.0NL Netherlands 40 34.6 35.8 41.1 Ÿ 5.3 5.6 7.0 -4.0 3.7 7.3 -6.6 -0.3 0.7 -2.8 10.1 8.8AT Austria 40 34.6 21.2 23.8 Ÿ 2.6 -12.0 -12.5 -8.4 -14.1 -8.5 -7.6 4.8 -2.7 3.1 15.8 -0.2PL Poland 40 34.6 24.7 36.9 Ÿ 12.2 1.3 0.6 (:) 2.6 -0.5 -11.6 9.1 -9.8 -5.5 -1.0 -19.2PT Portugal 40 34.6 18.4 26.1 Ÿ 7.7 -9.7 -9.8 -8.4 -8.8 -10.1 14.4 -15.1 23.5 10.8 -6.5 -3.6RO Romania 40 34.6 12.4 20.4 Ÿ 8.0 -15.5 -15.8 (:) -17.1 -12.3 6.0 -5.4 -1.6 -21.3 8.2 -12.3SI Slovenia 40 34.6 28.1 37.9 Ÿ 9.8 2.3 3.2 -13.8 5.9 -1.6 -13.7 5.8 -4.8 9.6 8.6 -0.4SK Slovakia 40 34.6 14.4 23.4 Ÿ 9.0 -12.4 -12.8 (:) -11.5 -12.5 -12.5 24.3 -10.1 -18.5 12.6 -17.8FI Finland 40 34.6 46.2 46.0 у -0.2 10.6 11.1 -5.4 12.6 7.0 -5.5 1.9 -9.7 4.8 11.6 -23.1SE Sweden 40 34.6 39.5 47.5 Ÿ 8.0 12.1 11.8 7.1 12.3 10.9 -10.2 -0.3 -6.3 8.1 3.6 3.4UK United Kingdom 40 34.6 36.5 45.8 Ÿ 9.3 10.3 6.4 14.6 7.0 13.5 2.3 3.8 -0.8 9.4 -10.5 5.3Source: DG EAC, based on Eurostat data and CRELL calculationsLegend:p.p. : variation in percentage pointsCountry position / benchmark and EU average Countrys evolution 2006/2011 + performance Sub-groups / Sub-indicators / Standardized level values ABOVE EU benchmark/average (> 1 p.p.) Ÿ Increase Top performers For more information, please see Annex 2 CLOSE to EU benchmark/average (+/- 1 p.p.) у Stable (+/- 0.5 p.p.) BELOW EU benchmark/average (< 1 p.p.) ź Decrease Low performers 66
  11. 11. Annex 2. Methodology figures on the headline targetThis annex contains further information on the methodology behind the figures used for bothcomponents of the Europe 2020 headline target: early school leaving and tertiary attainment15.These figures are featured in section 2 of each country sheet.When comparing sub-groups and sub-indicators to the corresponding EU average, standardizedvalues are adopted. These standardized values are based on the following calculation:Firstly, the charts focus on specific population sub-groups: native-born, foreign-born, female,male. The figures for foreign-born students are not always provided, following the approach ofEUROSTAT, which does not provide figures for the subset of the foreign-born population for thefollowing countries: Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Poland,Romania and Slovakia.Secondly, sub-indicators are used to shed light on the countries’ performance in the domain ofeducational attainment. Although most sub-indicators do not constitute policy levers that can beused as such to reach national targets by 2020, they are measures that help to explainbehaviour in the medium and long term. The sub-indicators for early school leaving Difference in the employment rate in percentage points between Difference in employment individuals aged 20 to 64 with an educational attainment EMPL DIFF rates corresponding to ISCED 3 or 4 and those with an educational level corresponding to ISCED 0-2 (year 2011) Educational attainment of Proportion of females aged 45 to 54 whose educational attainment EDUC MOTHER (low) females aged 45-54 corresponds to ISCED 0-2 (year 2011) Annual expenditure on public and private educational institutions Investment in primary and in EUR PPS at primary and secondary levels (ISCED 1 to 4) divided INV PRIM SEC secondary education by the size of the cohort aged 6-18 compared to the GDP per capita in EUR PPS (year 2009) Participation in Vocational Proportion of ISCED level 3 students who participate in VET (year VET Education and Training 2010) (VET) Proportion of pupils aged between 4-years-old and the starting ECE Early childhood education age of compulsory education who are participating in early childhood education (year 2010)The differences in employment rates are indications of labour market returns to uppersecondary and to high education. A higher return is believed to increase the incentives to staylonger in the educational system. The educational attainment of females aged 45-54 and 55-64are proxies for the family background of the target population of each headline indicator. A vastliterature highlights mother‘s education as a key determinant for explaining differences ineducational attainment.Spending per individual in the relevant age-group for each level of education compared to theGDP per capita constitutes the measure of investment in education and training systems and isa proxy for the quality of the supply of education. The indicators employed here are slightly15 This methodology is based on the Joint Assessment Framework (JAF) introduced by the Directorate-General Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion (DG EMPL). Sub-groups and sub-indicators for the twofold Europe 2020 target on education and training are based on data provided by EUROSTAT and were developed by the Centre for Research on Lifelong Learning (CRELL), which is co-ordinated by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (DG JRC). For more details about the methodology, see: http://crell.jrc.ec.europa.eu/download/ReqNo_JRC70190_monitoring_the_eu_headline_target_pubsy.pdf. 67
  12. 12. different from the more common “spending as a percentage of GDP” or “spending per student”in order to take into account demographic effects and not penalize countries with a high shareof students but that spend less on a per capita basis compared to other countries that spendmore on relatively fewer students. The sub-indicators for tertiary educational attainment Difference in percentage points in employment rate between Difference in employment individuals whose educational attainment is equal to ISCED5-6 and EMPL DIFF rates those whose educational attainment corresponds to ISCED3-4 (year 2011) EDUC MOTHER Educational attainment of Percentage of the females aged 55-64 having completed ISCED 5- (high) females aged 55-64 6 (year 2011) Annual expenditure on the tertiary education (ISCED 5-6) divided Investment in tertiary INV TERTIARY by the size of the cohort aged 20-24 compared to the GDP per education capita expressed in PPS) (year 2009) Upper secondary Percentage of population aged 20-24 having completed at least UPPERSEC educational attainment upper secondary education (year 2009) Proportion of those who enter a tertiary-type A programme and go Completion rate at ISCED COMPLETION RATE on to graduate from at least a first tertiary-type A programme level 5A (reference year: 2008)16The participation in pre-primary education and the number of students enrolling in VETprogrammes are believed to be associated with subsequent school outcomes. Vocationalprogrammes help reducing early leaving from education and training and can help to makeeducational systems more socially inclusive. Early childhood education is associated with betterperformance later in life. Rising skill demands in European countries have made qualifications atthe upper secondary level the minimum credential for successful entries in the labour market.Upper secondary education completion informs about the pool for new entrants into highereducation while the completion rate in tertiary education allows contrasting countries in terms ofthe internal efficiency of the tertiary educational system.16 Data for COMPLETION RATE comes from OECD (2010, table A4.1). 68

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