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Training module on vulnerability assessment (I)


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Training module on vulnerability assessment (I)

  1. 1. Social vulnerability analysis – linking poverty, livelihoods and climate Climate Adaptation training in SE Asia –SEI Oxford and SEI Asia. October-November 2013 Building on work from SEI colleagues and Agnes Otzelberger (CARE-PECCN)
  2. 2. Understanding vulnerability • Various definitions: – Ordinary use–capacity to be wounded. – Scientific use of ‘vulnerability’ –roots in geography and natural hazards research. But the term is now central in a variety of research contexts. – IPCC definition: • “The degree to which a system is suscpetible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes” For further definitions see:
  3. 3. Adaptation addresses differential impacts of climate change on people, communities, sectors, countries… • 3 components of vulnerability (IPCC vuln. definition cont’d): – Exposure is the degree of climate stress a system or community is subjected to – Sensitivity refers to the impact climate stresses have on the system or community – Adaptive capacity is the ability of the system or community to adjust to the changes • BUT: – Variations between social groups, spaces, scales – Variations over time
  4. 4. Vulnerability and capacity: Why “differential”? • Vulnerability to climate change: exposure, sensitivity, and capacity depend on roles, responsibilities, access, control, culture… result of power relations • Different groups within a community have different but complementary roles, knowledge, capacities, experience
  5. 5. Social determinants of vulnerability & capacity • Effective, equitable adaptation requires understanding of vulnerability dynamics within the community and within households. • Gender influences these dynamics as do other factors • What other social factors determine climate change vulnerability and why?
  6. 6. Key concepts in differential vulnerability Rights-based approach –rights of all are respected, including the most vulnerable • Gender equality – Equal rights, opportunities, resources & rewards – Not governed by whether an individual is born male or female • Gender equity – Recognition of unequal power relations – Distributional justice
  7. 7. Key gender analysis questions  Who does what? How? Where? When? Why? (Labour)  Who knows what? How? When? Where? Why? (information = power)  Who uses what? How? Where? When? Why? (access)  Who benefits from what? How? When? Where? Why? (benefit-sharing)  Who controls what? How? Where? When? Why? (decision-making)  Who is included in what? How? When? Where? Why? (participation)
  8. 8. Vulnerability frameworks & interpretations For an overview of different vulnerability frameworks see:
  9. 9. Cont’d
  10. 10. What is involved at each level? Community meetings Discussion sessions and analysis Training of local facilitators Participatory and Reflect approaches Community level analysis Stakeholders and focal group meetings Local level advocacy and lobbying Documentation and liaison District/project level analysis Studies on selected issues National level advocacy and lobbying Exchange visits and monitoring National level workshops Co-ordination and documentation Technical support to countries involved Policy and advocacy work International workshops Regional/country level analysis International level analysis URL:
  11. 11. Why is important the vulnerability lenses? • Climate impacts do and will differ: – For different people (individuals, HHs, communities) – For different sectors (health, agriculture, fisheries, forests) – In different areas (villages, towns, cities, districts) – At different scales (local, national, regional, intnl.) – At different times (present, next 10 yrs, 50 yrs) – Specific climatic stresses & shocks experienced may differ – In a single area, some livelihoods will be affected while others might not – People’s responses differ –coping & adaptation
  12. 12. Key questions on vulnerability • Who (or what livelihood groups or sectors) is vulnerable? • What are the present and future stresses and threats? • What are they (specifically) vulnerable to? • Why are they vulnerable? • What can be done to lessen this vulnerability? • Done by whom, with what money?
  13. 13. Vulnerability is different from poverty • Poverty does not equal vulnerability • Vulnerability is a characteristic of all people, ecosystemes and regions confronting environmental and socio-economic stresses and shocks. • Poverty is a reduced (or completely lack of) access to material, economic, social, political or cultural resources needed to satisfy basic needs. • BUT, the poor are vulnerable in particular ways • Livelihood analysis helps to explore how and why the poor are vulnerable
  14. 14. Livelihoods definition • A livelihood… – ‘Comprises the capabilities, assets (stories, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living. – Is sustainable when can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the next generation’ Chambers and Conway, 1992
  15. 15. The five livelihood assets 1. Human assets: skills, knowledge and info, ability to work, health 2. Natural assets: land, water, wildlife, biodiversity, environment 3. Financial assets: savings, credit, remittances, pensions 4. Physical assets: transport, shelter, water, energy 5. Social assets: networks, groups, trust, access to institutions
  16. 16. Vulnerability in livelihood systems
  17. 17. Linking livelihoods & vulnerability 1. What are the livelihoods at risk? 2. What are the climatic stresses? 3. What are the most sensitive livelihoods & stresses? 4. What indicators represent livelihoods and stresses? 5. What are the outcomes? 6. What are the driving forces?
  18. 18. Why explore social vulnerability? • To analyze current vulnerability of local communities to changes in climate in the context of multiple stresses and development processes • Recognize inherent complexity and uncertainty in evolution of various factors • Identify opportunities for enhancing local adaptive capacity to deal with new and emerging risks associated with climate change • Inform targeted interventions
  19. 19. Steps in conducting a VA: VA step VA component 1. Define study area together with stakeholders Select the spatial and temporal scale of the assessment 2. Get to know place over time Study context to understand the socio-ecological dynamics that may influence vulnerability 3. Hypothesize who is vulnerable to what Select the climate hazard that will be analysed, along with the people, assets, and/or ecosystems services that may be harmed by the identified hazard. 4. Develop a causal model of vulnerability Elaborate a model explaining factors, and relationships among the factors, that lead to vulnerability 5. Find indicators for the elements of vulnerability Metrics to characterise different parts of the causal model (i.e. decide what is quantifiable and what must be omitted) 6. Operationalize model(s) of vulnerability Weight and combine indicators to produce a measure of vulnerability; overly different indicators on a map 7. Project future vulnerability Scenarios of the vulnerability variables reflecting trends and expert opinion. Clear explanation of assumptions/uncertainties around the scenarios. 8. Communicate vulnerability creatively Products from the VA (e.g. reports, maps, websites, photos, video/film, etc.) (Hammill et al., 2013)
  20. 20. Tools and methods for vulnerability assessment Adaptation Wizard USAiD Manual Hazard maps
  21. 21. EXERCISE 1: Livelihood-exposure sensitivity matrix -Objectives • Identify the key climate stressors in Lombok/The Philippines is currently vulnerable to • Understand impacts and consequences of those climate stressors • Highlight who/what is most and least vulnerable • Form a basis from which to explore future vulnerabilities under climate change
  22. 22. Livelihood-exposure sensitivity matrix (cont’d) Exposure units/climate threats & trends Natural Resource 1 Natural Resource 2 Natural Resource 3 Livelihood 1 Livelihood 2 Livelihood 3 Social group 1 Social group 2 Social group 3 Climate threat 1/trend (e.g. prolonged dry periods/shifts in the seasons) Climate threat 2 / trend (e.g. strong winds, sea level rise) Climate threat 3/ trend Climate threat 4/trend (e.g. flood episodes) (e.g. pest invasion, water-borne diseases)
  23. 23. Further resources: • > vulnerability initiative • Vulnerability, Adger (2006) in Global Environmental Change • Linking vulnerability, adaptation and resilience science to practice, Vogel et al (2007) • CARE’s Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Handbook (2010) • Vulnerability Indices Review, Fussel (2010) • Measuring vulnerability to promote disaster-resilient societies: Conceptual frameworks & desfinitons, Birkmann • Indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity: towards a clarification of the science-policy interface, Hinkel (2011)
  24. 24. Cont’d: • • • • • • Chambers, R. and Conway, G.R. (1992) ‘Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Practical Concepts for the 21st Century’, Discussion Paper 296. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies Downing, T. et al. (2001). Vulnerability indices. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation. UNEP, Policy Series 3: 91 pp. Downing, T.E., Aerts, J., Soussan, J., Barthelemy, O., Bharwani, S., Ionescu, C., Hinkel, Jl, Klein, R.j.T., Mata, L., Moss, Sl, Purkey, Dl and Ziervogel, G. (2006) Integrating social vulnerability into water management. Oxford, Stockholm Environment Institute, Oxford. O’Brien, K., Eriksen, S., Nygaard, L.P. & Schjollden, A. (2007) Why different interpretations of vulnerability matter in climate change discourses, Climate Policy, 7: 1, 73-88 Fussel, H.M. (2009). Review and quantitative analysis of indices of climate change exposure, adaptive capacity, sensitivity, and impacts.Background note. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Germany. Hammill, A., Bizikova, L., Dekens, J., McCandless, M. 2013. Comparative analysis of climate change vulnerability assessments: Lessons from Tunisia and Indonesia. GIZ: Eschborn