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Elizabethan England Powerpoint

  1. 1. Elizabethan England<br />
  2. 2. Food<br />Meals<br />Nunechon—Afternoon Snack<br />Breakfast<br />Breakfast was not typical, hunters had it teacher and laborer’s <br />Dinner—Lunch<br />Dinner was the largest meal of the day,<br />If someone was dining they may eat 3 plates of food for Dinner<br />Supper—Dinner <br />Some would only eat Dinner and supper if they were not doing a lot <br />Supper was around 7 or 8 pm It was a light meal unless you were a farmer or laborer and did a lot of work –<br />Many went to bed after supper the aristocracy stayed up they would eat reresupper ( a second supper)<br />The Food was<br />Banquet fresh fruit dried fruit and sugary food –Buffet <br />No prepared or packaged foods<br />Mainly fresh<br />No international foods<br />Depending on the social class depends on what type of food you will eat <br />
  3. 3. Country Life<br />Wool was at a all time high <br />Before farmers( the entire family) would plant a variety of plants<br />Now they made them pastures for sheep to be able to make a profit off the wool<br />This created a job problem, the tenants rents were raised so they would move out making more room for sheep but unemployment a huge issue<br />The cities grow and caused the need for food<br />Food prices Rose<br />More unemployment<br />Some farmers went back to farming this time oats and wheat, requiring the need for people to cultivate the fields<br />More unemployment <br />
  4. 4. The Life<br />Wake at dawn work all day come home<br />Small meals<br />Wealthiest person oversaw everyone else in the fields<br />Education was rare if you got education it was only for writing and reading and till the age of 7 <br />Rich would hire tutors <br />Villages were self contained with <br />Bakery<br />Brewery<br />Tanny<br />Blacksmith<br />Due to no refrigeration the meat was eaten in fests <br />November is known as Blood Month because that is when livestock was killed<br />
  5. 5. Crime and Punishment<br />Theft, arson, and murder existed during Shakespeare’s time, but the Elizabethan criminal justice system is very different from today’s modern justice system. <br />Back then, penalties were far more severe than they are today because most Elizabethans believed that England was a lawless and dangerous place.<br />3 main categories of crime<br />Treason<br />Worst offense of the three, but two types existed – high treasons and petty treason.<br />High treason referred to offenses that seriously threatened the monarchy, like plots to assassinate the queen or any authoritative figure. Also counterfeiting.<br />Penalty was death, hanging, drawing (remove internal organs), quartering (divide person’s body into four parts), but not all suffered such a fate. Important figures were imprisoned comfortably before being hanged. <br />Petty treason – not great threat to the sovereign. Example, wife required to obey husband and servant required to obey master. <br />Wife who murdered husband could still receive gruesome crime, like being burned on a stake. <br />Felonies<br />Include violent acts, (murder or assault), and property crimes (robbery or horse theft). Also include hunting at night with a painted face, and practicing witchcraft. <br />Penalty for most was death. Believed that harsh punishments were good to show potential outlaws from committing crimes in the first place. But this didn’t discourage much crime. Other penalties include cutting off fingers and hands, and ears. Executions conducted publicly, hanging drew much attention <br />Misdemeanors<br />These crimes included petty theft and vagabondage (begging). <br />Punishment usually included the letter T burned onto faces or thumbs<br />Sometimes, the perpetrator would be restrained in the pillory, where passers-by could hurt them, getting beat up brutally, maybe even killed.<br />Whipping was for minor offenses and used to damage the convict, but not seriously hurt them.<br />Grand Jury<br />Handled more serious crimes in court<br />The felon could sometimes get away with the crime by using benefit of clergy, where the convict would read a passage from the Bible, and the bishop decides if he/she lives.<br />Crime and Punishment system shows that plenty of crime did occur in Elizabethan England, and that brutal punishments weren’t enough to discourage the crime<br />
  6. 6. Architecture<br />Building designs changed in the 1500’s because civil war ended, so peace meant that nobles no longer needed to build homes with thick protective walls and narrow windows, and brought a more comfortable lifestyle as well as a way to show off wealth. <br />Newer larger houses made of different materials (sturdier), brick and stone were used in middle-class homes, while sturdy wood is used for the poorer class. The tiled roofs replaced thatched ones, providing better protection from rain. Glass windows also became increasingly common. <br />Poorer houses used timber frames filled with clay-covered straw<br />Downstairs consisted of dining room, living room, and sitting room, kitchen, pantry, and preserving meat and making cheese room<br />Bedrooms occupied second level<br />Country houses had horse stables, barns, chicken coops, and workshops.<br />Manors of the wealthy included all new features of Elizabethan architecture, built of the finest stone, and decored with intricate carvings<br />Visitors entered through a gate, a great hall, and the manor had the design of a medieval castle. Family ate in private dining room, and less important like servants ate in great hall. <br />Gallery upstairs was very colorful and highly decorated with woodwork and wall tapestries.<br />
  7. 7. Government<br />England is a monarchy, ruled by a king or queen<br />Primary powers of the English sovereign;<br />Right to appoint government officials, administer justice, regulate trade, and punish traitors<br />Much of ruler’s time was occupied with foreign relations, for protection against enemies such as France and Spain<br />Also head of Church of England, and had the final say on all religious questions<br />Cannot create new laws, abolish old ones, or impose new taxes<br />Anybody has the right to challenge a monarch’s decisions through a formal request called a petition<br />The military force commands obedience to the ruler’s commands, and often he/she needed the voluntary cooperation of lower government officials<br />Privy Council<br />Governing body composed of advisers appointed by the king. Had authority to make decisions about the day-to-day operations of the government. <br />Members of the Parliament<br />Right to levy taxes, make new laws, and amend old ones<br />Monarch calls them and dismisses them whenever he/she wishes.<br />House of Lords (upper chamber/ House of Commons (lower chamber), lords were more socially and politically superior. <br />
  8. 8. The City<br />Cities and Towns were growing rapidly in size, population, and complexity. Becoming important centers of trade, education, and social life. <br />Viewed as humankind’s best ambitions and achievements as well as sources of worst problems.<br />London<br />50,000 people lived there, but by 1600 200,000 more people lived here. <br />National center of finance, government, administration, law, religion, learning, and theater, fashion, and style<br />Rural people fled here in search of wealth excitement and opportunity<br />London city was very defensive<br />St. Pauls was a popular meeting place for the religious people who wanted to worship. <br />The Ctiy’s business districts were roughly arranged according to the types of merchandise or service available in each. <br />Fresh fish was usually sold on Bridge Street.<br />Merchants and tradesmen created a new prosperous urban middle class. They usually lived in their shops and business was conducted on the bottom floor while the family lived upstairs. Very noisy. <br />Lots of foot traffic on roads<br />In general, not crowded, filthy, or disesase-ridden place during Shakespear’es time<br />People were very conscious about personal cleanliness, and violence was rare. <br />Most towns included:<br />Parish church<br />Marketplace<br />A manor house<br />Municipal hall<br />Tavern<br />Schoolhouse<br />Mill for grinding wheat<br />Conevenient locations for small industries and schools and marketplace provided farmers an ariculutural profit<br />Large towns had demands for fuel, water, and building materials, provided by the countryside<br />Roads were generally in terrible condition – but in fact, they held up well, since road maintenance was a local responsibility. People primarily traveled on foot, for driving livestock to market, and for carts and wagons. Heavy loads such as coal, timeber, and ore were sually shipped by boat on a network of natural waterways. The orads were also reasonably safe, although muddy conditions proved to be concerns for travelers, but mainly was easy, constant, and uninterrupted. <br />Most people live in small villages<br />Groups of households clustered around a parish church or manor house<br />Resources needed were made nearby<br />Village included a blacksmith, bakery, and brewery<br />Slower-paced development than cities and towns<br />People rose early to work in fields and slept when sun set<br />Farming was chief occupation and villagers rented land from lord of the manor<br />
  9. 9. Education<br />Levels of Education<br />Petty school<br />Like elementary school, prepares for next school<br />Rudimentary skills<br />Alternative to higher education<br />Girls were aloud to attend with their brothers<br />It is assumed that they had less time schooling than boys<br />Alternative names<br />board school, district school, parish school, village school, voluntary school, national school<br />Grammar school<br />Studying the grammar of the latin language<br />Prepares for University<br />History, literature, ect is used to demonstrate grammar.<br />University<br />All courses done in Latin<br />Music, science, art are unrelated<br />Men are expected to communicate in Latin<br />General Attitudes<br />Laborers and menial servants needed little or no education<br />Many who entered grammar school never reached University level<br />The rich hired tutors for sons/daughters<br />Arithmetic was not taught, was considered a merchant’s skill<br />Spelling was not important<br />Latin is the language of business, advantage to knowing latin<br />“every father has the right to teach his own children”<br />delayed the development of compulsory schooling<br />
  10. 10. Education (continued)<br />Beginning education level<br />Education starts at elementary school<br />Low cost, provides sufficient education for working class jobs<br />Few were free until 1890’s<br />Average price was 1 – 4 pence a week<br />Public Schools<br />Schools that are run by more than one person, have a community behind them<br />Going out for school rather than staying indoors<br />More expensive than private schools, more exclusive<br />Money provided by endowment or sale of shares<br />Had a governing power overseeing school<br />More traditional and community driven <br />Private Schools<br />Schools owned by a single proprietor<br />A widow teaching eight children was running a private school<br />Literacy<br />Few people had more than two or three years of schooling<br />1841- 67% of males and 54% of females are literate<br />Fewer could read than write<br />Sunday schools<br />Educate enough to read bible<br />Morning and afternoon sessions<br />Aimed at working class<br />Male – female education<br />Generally, only boys go to school<br />Girls are taught at home (includes reading, writing, and arithmetic)<br />Education is thought to have to be “beaten” into students<br />Parents are supportive of beatings<br />Technical College<br />Generally used to supplement learning<br />Accounting, vocational skills, surveying…<br />Teaching children 14 to 18<br />Considered private school<br />Classes<br />The different classes have different education<br />Education determined class<br />Arguably all other Victorian reforms rested on the educational reforms<br />Increasing education for the masses<br />Develop economy at home and create an empire abroad.<br />
  11. 11. Medicine<br />Physicians<br />Most never consult a physician<br />Didn’t shed blood<br />Expensive, and in few numbers<br />14 years of education in multiple languages<br />no actual office<br />made house calls to affluent people<br />very expensive, usually waited to call until too late<br />only two medical schools in England<br />oxford, Cambridge<br />London physicians<br />Only about 50 at any given time<br />Could join College of Physicians, does nothing but gives a better name<br />Barber/surgeons<br />Have less schooling<br />Usually learned from apprenticeship<br />London’s United Company of Barbers and Surgeons reported there were about 100 surgeons in London in the last two decades of the 1500’s<br />Dealt with stitching war wounds, removing “stones” from organs, boring into the skull, and amputations.<br />Unlicensed practitioners<br />More used in rural areas<br />Less costly<br />use astrology and magic<br />most villages have a “wise woman”<br />gives advice on herbal treatments and other basic remedies<br />General Medical Practices<br />Believed health involved balance between four basic fluids<br />Blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile<br />Regular “bleedings” were recommended<br />
  12. 12. Fashion<br />Women’s Clothing<br />Layers (of an upper class women)<br />Smock<br />Petticoat<br />Stockings<br />Garters<br />Shoes<br />Hair was then done<br />Farthingale<br />Kirtle<br />Bodice<br />Partlet<br />Gown<br />Separate Sleeves<br />Ruff<br />Cloak<br />Hat<br /> <br />Clothing was suppose to represent your status in the community<br />Upper class clothing was expensive and detailed<br />Lower class clothing was not as fancy and less lay]<br /> <br />Men’s clothing <br />Layers ( of an upper class man)<br />Shirt<br />Stockings<br />Codpiece<br />Corset<br />Doublet<br />Separate sleeves<br />Breeches<br />Belt <br />Ruff<br />Cloak<br />Shoes<br />Hat<br />If you are not of the same or of higher title you could not wear the same fabric or even color as those men.<br /> <br />
  13. 13. Fashion (continued)<br />Sumptuary law<br />Decreed by Queen Elizabeth 1<br />On the 15th of June 1574<br />Purpose<br />So men could be immediately recognized by color of clothing<br />Also control imports<br />Local trade<br />Breaking the laws <br />Fines<br />Loss of property<br />Loss of title<br />Loss of life<br /> <br />Why is Fashion so important<br />What someone wore was a statement<br />Portrayed their personality<br />Connection to Shakespeare<br />“The apparel oft proclaims the man”<br />From Hamlet<br /> <br />What fashion resembles<br />Similarities to architecture<br />Soaring spires<br />Gothic arches<br />Clothing like architecture<br />Elongated sleeves, shoes<br />High headdresses<br />
  14. 14. Free Time<br /> 1 Sports like gambling, dicing and tennis <br /> some rough sports like baiting the animal fights, Cudgel for men<br /> . The tickets for the theatre per person were a penny per ticket. <br /> Games for girls and boys, like hot cockles, hood man blind, these games were mostly identification related.<br />2 Dancing and Music creation, special classes given for music<br /> Very famous<br /> Queen used to dance <br /> Considered the best physical activity.<br /> <br />3 Gossiping<br />4 Female Activities:<br /> Poetry<br /> Writing <br /> Formal letters were written<br /> Visiting friends<br /> Seeing a physician<br /> Fortune Telling<br />walking in gardens<br />hanging out in taverns<br />5 Theatre<br /> People were placed in order<br /> 4-6 plays were written<br /> Very less Artificial Lightening<br /> Songs written for four or five part harmony <br />
  15. 15. Religion<br />Religion:<br />Major was Protestant Christian, Queen was a Protestant<br />No Popes or priests, Parliament officials<br />Protestant Churches<br />Second being a roman catholic was not a crime but there was a fine for not complying with the established religion that was for not going to church on Sunday<br />Also a non-catholic conforming would be called recusant, It was compulsory to attend the church service once a month. <br />
  16. 16. Marraige<br />Married in neighborhoods, family relatives<br />Then women could barely live an independent life, they can’t buy their own place and work, only wealthier women were amongst those who could easily fulfill their wants.<br />Wives and children were treated as properties, children were to be respectful to their parents just like a servant is to its master.<br />Women were left with only two options either to get married or to be a burden over their parents. <br />Widows, had 1/3 of her husband’s estates share. Remarrying was a considered a good thing.<br />After marriage, the man gets to be the legal head of the household.<br />Divorces are very hard in Protestants churches because in protestant church you have to get an Act of the parliament , as you can’t apply to the pope.<br />Families believed in early marriages, for boys 14 and for girls 12.<br />
  17. 17. Death and Funeral<br />Then people who die is given a special bath, clothed in black and also the corpses of maidens are always decked with flowers. <br />Candles are lit to have the corpse body to rest at peace. <br />For feast, money is distributed and cakes are baked.<br />For memories, wealthy people inter a monument in a private chapel.<br />Suicides are not buried because according to the church those bodies have been replaced with ghosts.<br /> <br />