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Reflection on Corrective Feedback in the Classroom

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Reflection on Corrective Feedback in the Classroom

  1. 1. A Reflection on Corrective Feedback in the Classroom Wei-Chao Shih, University of Pennsylvania [email_address] <ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate Class: </li></ul><ul><li>Medium size class at National Service Center </li></ul><ul><li>Low Intermediate level. </li></ul><ul><li>10 students </li></ul><ul><li>Nationality varies: Afghanistan, Japan, Mali, </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Class: </li></ul><ul><li>Medium class in Graduate School of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Post-doctoral international students </li></ul><ul><li>16 students </li></ul><ul><li>Nationality varies: Argentina, Canada, China, France, Germany, Korea, Japan, Syria </li></ul>Introduction The study compares different patterns of feedback and student’s repair in two instructional settings, in order to increase the knowledge of some contextual variables which may influence learners’ tendency to pay attention to certain type of feedback rather than another. <ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection: - Advanced: audio-recorded - Intermediate: Both audio and video-recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Transcribed by the teacher </li></ul>  31 23 28 64 53 49 37 Total distribution of repair across feedback type 37 51 Types of Feedback Percentage distribution of feedback types Error Treatment Sequence Intermediate class Advanced class Intermediate class Advanced class 17 11 62 57 28 32 60 51 22 12 37 18 <ul><li>Result </li></ul><ul><li>In advanced class, the proportion of repair after recasts and prompts was reversed. </li></ul><ul><li>In Intermediate class, choral repetition was used more often. L earners thus responded more frequently and accurately </li></ul><ul><li>Recasts were more effective in intermediate classrooms, whereas prompts were more effective in advanced classrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>Support Lyster and Mori’s Counterbalance Hypothesis (2006). </li></ul>References Implication Teachers should choose instructional interventions that differed the most from other instructional activities <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Recasts are effective for learners accustomed to accuracy-based oral production practice </li></ul><ul><li>Prompts are effective for learners unaccustomed to any accuracy-based oral production practice </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>form-oriented (intermediate) meaning-oriented (advanced) recasts prompts <ul><li>Braidi, S. M. (2002). Reexamining the role of recasts in native-Speaker/Nonnative-speaker interactions. Language Learning, 52(1), 1-42. </li></ul><ul><li>Lightbown, P., & Spada, N.(2006), How Language are Learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press </li></ul><ul><li>Lyster, R. & Mori, H. (2006), Interactional Feedback and instructional counterbalance. SSLA , 28 , 269-300 </li></ul><ul><li>Lyster, R. (2004), Differential Effects of Prompts and Recasts in Form-focused instruction, SSLA , 26, 399-432 </li></ul><ul><li>Lyster, R. & Ranta, L. (1997), Corrective Feedback and Learner Uptake: Negotiation of forms in communicative Classrooms. SSLA , 20, 37-66 </li></ul><ul><li>Mackey, A., Gass, S., & MacDonough, D. (2000) How do learners perceive interactional feedback? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22(4), 471-497 </li></ul><ul><li>Morris, F. A. (2002). Negotiation moves and recasts in relation to error types and learner repair in the foreign language classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 35(4), 395-404 </li></ul><ul><li>Panova, I. & Lyster, R. (2002). Patterns of corrective feedback and uptake in an adult ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly , 36(4), 573-595 </li></ul>Error treatment sequence . Adapted from Lyster & Ranta, 1997, p.44 Explicit Correction Recasts Prompts With target reformulations Without target reformulations 0 20 40 60 80 100 % Percentage Number and percentage distribution of feedback types Feedback type Intermediate class Advanced class Prompts 49 (21%) 67 (32%) Recasts 145 (62%) 122 (57%) Explicit correction 39 (17%) 23 (11%) Number and percentage distribution of repair moves after each feedback type Student turns Intermediate class Advanced class After prompts 14 (22%) 48 (51%) After recasts 38 (60%) 34 (37%) After explicit correction 16 (18%) 11 (12%) Learner’s error -grammatical -lexical -phonological Teacher’s feedback -explicit correction -recast -prompt Topic continuation -teacher -student Learner’s uptake Needs repair -acknowledge -different error -same error -hesitation -off target -partial repair Repair -repetition -incorporation -self repair -peer repair -hand gesture = recast = prompt = explicit = recast = prompt = explicit 0 20 40 60 80 100 % Percentage

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