Cells

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  • Light microscope can view specimens with less destructive prep, live specimens. Electron microscope requires more prep. Look only at cross sections of cells, can’t look at live cells.
  • People believed in spontaneous generation. Ex. decaying meat produces flies
  • Next slide shows bac and cyanobac
  • http://www.hhs.gov/ophep/presentation/images/bacteria.jpg
  • http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20101/Bio%20101%20Lectures/Cells/ cheek_cells .jpg
  • http://adm.hfcc.edu/~jkelly/images/botany/cells/plant_2.jpg
  • Immune cells http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/img/Mac-TCells.jpg (immune cells) Note nucleus and cytoskeleton.
  • http://www.ncl.ac.uk/iah/assets/photos/AD_cell_culture.jpg As well as examining tissue under the microscope, we also do biochemical work on isolated cells and tissue extracts. The photograph in this section is of isolated cells extracted from brain tissue growing in cell culture. Preparations such as this are valuable in testing the usefulness of new treatments.
  • Pro vs. Eukaryotes
  • Consistency similar to olive oil at body temperature (fluid) Phospholipids can move sideways in membrane Allows cells to be pliable
  • http://www.caribbeanedu.com/images/kewl/plant_cell.gif
  • Draw these on big cell. Go back & forth w/next slide to demonstrate.
  • Basically means “network of channels inside a cell” Complex molecules like…?
  • Backpacks of the cell
  • New vesicles bud from the outer face of the Golgi, then move to different locations in the cell. Sugar molecules are added to proteins here, too (glycosylation)
  • Macromlcls enter cell by vesicle formation, lysosomes fuse w/ves. And digest contents. Ex is white blood cells that engulf bacteria use lysosomes to digest them. Go back one slide. Vacuoles more common in plants. Many contain central vac. Filled with watery fluid that gives added support to plant cells. Also site where red, blue or purple pigments are stored that give flowers and some leaves their colors.
  • Photosynthesis - process by which light energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates (sugars). organized into flattened disc-like sacs called thylakoids
  • (in the form of ATP) ATP produced on christae. Cells can contain up to 10,000 mitochondria (muscle). Go back to previous slide for picture.
  • Think of cytoskel as bones and muscles of animal, bec it maintains cell shape & causes cell and organelles to move.
  • Microtubules are fluorescently stained
  • http://www.snv.jussieu.fr/bmedia/Mitose/Centri3.jpg
  • Paramecium bacterium
  • can secrete substances (proteins, sugars) that create a slimy layer that protects them and changes their immediate environment to better suit their needs
  • Idea of a band or choir, where each individual voice or instrument has its own part, creating beautiful, intricate music)
  • Muscle: http://www.uoguelph.ca/zoology/devobio/210labs/muscle1.html Nerve: http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/IWT/superman/nerve_axon.html chick embryo epithelium:http://uk.encarta.msn.com/media_461532475_761577459_-1_1/Epithelial_Cells.html
  • just as structures within cell are organized, so are cells organized within the body.
  • RBC, WBC, platelets)
  • (like assembly line or organelles)
  • http://www.dundee.ac.uk/biocentre/Images/News/cell_division.jpg
  • Plant vs animal cells
  • Cells

    1. 1. Cells
    2. 2. Cells <ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are cells? Why are they important? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How were cells discovered? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the Cell Theory? Why is it important? </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Cells <ul><li>I. What are cells? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Smallest basic unit of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. 2 types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Prokaryotes – bacteria (smaller, about 1 um) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Eukaryotes – all other cells (larger, 5-100 um) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Cells <ul><li>http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm </li></ul>
    5. 5. Cells <ul><ul><li>C. Studying cells gives a basis for understanding how tissues, organs, whole organisms function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How cells get energy, get rid of wastes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why enzymes are necessary and how they work in biological systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What DNA really does </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How cells work together to make an organism </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Cells <ul><li>Discovery of cells – dependent on development of microscope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hooke (1600’s) – microscope, cells in cork </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Van Leeuwenhoek – single cell organisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-1800’s – plants and animals made of cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Microscopes <ul><li>Light microscope uses light rays focused by glass lenses to view specimens. </li></ul><ul><li>Electron microscope uses a beam of electrons focused by magnets to view samples. </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>http://www.cellsalive.com/howbig.htm </li></ul>
    9. 9. Cell Theory <ul><ul><li>III. What is the Cell Theory? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A. 3 parts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Cells are the basic unit of life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. All organisms are made of cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. All cells come from pre-existing cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Why is the Cell Theory important? It is a unifying theme for all of biology. One of foundations of study of biology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure to read in textbook on this subject. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Cells <ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are prokaryotic cells? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What structures do prokaryotic cells have? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are eukaryotic cells? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are eukaryotic cells different from prokaryotic cells, and why is this important? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What structures found in eukaryotic cells, and what are their functions? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. PROKARYOTIC CELLS <ul><li>Small, simple organisms: bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Have DNA, but no membrane bound nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Have a cell membrane and cell wall (not made of cellulose) </li></ul><ul><li>Have ribosomes (small) </li></ul><ul><li>Have cytosol </li></ul>
    12. 13. Eukaryotic Cells <ul><li>What are eukaryotic cells? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger, more complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in all animals, plants, fungi and protozoans (algae and single-celled organisms like amoebas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain membrane-bound organelles that divide cells into small compartments (functional regions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transport systems </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Eukaryotic Cells <ul><li>Why are these differences important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organelles allow cells to be more efficient by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separating different types of reactions going on in a cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts – photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondria – cell respiration (energy production) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing division of labor within the cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus protects chromosomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Golgi packages substances for transport around the cell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Let’s look at some cells…
    15. 19. Cell Structures <ul><li>What structures do eukaryotic cells have, and what are their functions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw a big cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill out table </li></ul></ul>
    16. 20. Plasma (Cell) Membrane <ul><li>All living cells (eukaryotes and prokaryotes) have cell membranes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made mainly of phospholipids and proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animal cell membranes contain cholesterol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separate the cell from the external environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls passage in and out of cell </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 21. MEMBRANE STRUCTURE
    18. 22. Cell Wall <ul><li>Rigid structure outside cell membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in plants, fungi, bacteria, some protists (not animals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of cellulose (plants), chitin (fungi) or other material (bacteria) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports and protects cell </li></ul></ul>
    19. 23. Nucleus <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the DNA ( chromosomes) is located </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “ brain of cell.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA controls protein synthesis, metabolism and reproduction. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found only in eukaryotes! </li></ul></ul>
    20. 24. CELL ORGANELLES - NUCLEUS <ul><li>Nuclear envelope – Double layer of membranes separating nucleus from cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus (plural is nucleoli)– dark staining body in nucleus. Site of synthesis of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer RNA (tRNA) </li></ul></ul>
    21. 25. Cytoplasm <ul><li>Cytosol (cytoplasm) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular fluid surrounding organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site of many cellular reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found between cell membrane and nucleus </li></ul></ul>
    22. 26. RIBOSOMES <ul><li>Ribosomes – site of protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located on RER (rough endoplasmic reticulum) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also found free in the cytoplasm </li></ul></ul>
    23. 27. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM <ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - tubular membrane system where biosynthesis reactions take place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough ER (RER) – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has ribosomes attached </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site of protein synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth ER (SER) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex molecules built here </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous with RER </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 28. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM <ul><li>Biomolecules (like proteins) move from RER to SER </li></ul>
    25. 29. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
    26. 30. VESICLES <ul><li>ER contents pinch off into vesicles - membrane-bound sacs that store and transport substances in cells </li></ul>
    27. 32. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>Stacks of flattened sacs that sort and package large molecules. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Post office” of cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some molecules move to cell membrane and discharge their contents outside the cell as secretions (digestive enzymes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some go elsewhere in cell (enzymes for cellular respiration) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 33. Golgi Apparatus
    29. 34. Lysosomes <ul><li>Lysosomes – special vesicles that store and transport powerful digestive enzymes and other reactive substances within a cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double membrane protects cell from being digested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food particles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unneeded proteins, carbohydrates, etc.. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disease-causing microorganisms </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 35. Vacuoles <ul><li>Large membranous storage sacs found mainly in plants. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores water, nutrients, waste products and pigments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give certain plants bright colors (beets, carrots, flowers) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 36. CELL ORGANELLES
    32. 37. ENERGY-RELATED ORGANELLES <ul><li>Chloroplasts - organelles found in organisms that carry out photosynthesis (mainly plants) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain chlorophyll – green pigment that captures solar energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bounded by double membrane </li></ul></ul>
    33. 39. ENERGY-RELATED ORGANELLES <ul><li>Mitochondria – produce energy through cell respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Powerhouse” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bounded by a double membrane, with christae that project into the mitochondrial matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains some DNA </li></ul></ul>
    34. 40. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>The cytoskeleton - network of proteins providing structure and movement to cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of microtubules – hollow proteins that constantly dissolve and reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms framework to support cell, give it shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extends from nucleus to cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows movement of materials and organelles in cytoplasm </li></ul></ul>
    35. 41. Cytoskeleton
    36. 42. Cytoskeleton
    37. 43. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Centrioles – a pair of round bundles of microtubules that help in animal cell division </li></ul>
    38. 44. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Cilia and flagella – tiny hair like structures projecting from surface of cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cilia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually many on a cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to move substances across cell surfaces (trachea, inner ear) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flagella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually 1-2 longer structures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to propel a cell/organism (bacteria, sperm) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    39. 45. CELL ORGANELLES
    40. 46. CELL ORGANELLES
    41. 47. <ul><li>End of organelles </li></ul>
    42. 48. Multicellular Organization <ul><li>We’ve seen how cells function on the inside. What happens when several cells work together? </li></ul><ul><li>I. Colonies – unicellular organisms that live in chains or clusters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not truly multicellular because each cell is still a separate organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells cooperate to a small extent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Bacterial cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 49. Colonies
    44. 50. Multicellular Organisms <ul><li>Multicellular Organisms – consist of a number of different cell types that work together to form a larger, more complex organism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like a band or choir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All cells still must carry on basic cell activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each cell also has a specialized job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cells – movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve cells – electrical impulses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skin cells - protection </li></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 51. Specialized Cells
    46. 52. Levels of Organization <ul><li>III. Levels of Organization – cells with similar function usually work together to form structures of various complexity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue – group of similar cells that work together to perform a particular function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Muscle, retinal cells, red blood cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
    47. 53. Levels of Organization <ul><ul><li>B. Organ – group of tissues working together to perform a particular function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Heart, eye, blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Organ system – group of organs that work together… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Circulatory, respiratory, nervous systems </li></ul></ul></ul>
    48. 55. Multicellular Organisms <ul><li>Advantages of multicellularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms more efficient because labor can be divided up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms can become larger, more complex, leading to great diversity seen in fungi, plants and animals </li></ul></ul>
    49. 56. <ul><li>End </li></ul>
    50. 58. CELL ORGANELLES - NUCLEUS <ul><li>Nuclear pores – openings in nuclear membrane that control what enters and exits nucleus </li></ul>
    51. 59. <ul><li>Cell division photo </li></ul>

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