Growing Berries and Small Fruits on Cape Cod

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Tips and techniques for growing common berry and small fruit varieties. Suggestions for using berry and shrub plants for habitat and attracting and feeding wild birds.

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Growing Berries and Small Fruits on Cape Cod

  1. 1. GROWING BERRIES AND SMALL FRUITS ON CAPE COD A “BERRYLICIOUS” SUBJECT! Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener
  2. 2. WHAT WE’RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT Selecting • Good Varieties for Cape Nov. 2013 Maintaining Planting Harvesting Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener • Pruning • Mulching/ Winter Care 2
  3. 3. SHOULD I TAKE NOTES? Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 3
  4. 4. COMMON CROPS ON CAPE COD Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 4
  5. 5. OTHER “BERRY GOOD” IDEAS • Other Edible Berries/Small Fruits • Berries for Habitat • Berries for Birds • Berries to Attract Pollinators Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 5
  6. 6. HOW TO SELECT • Types of Strawberries • June (Spring) Bearing (mid, early and late) • Crops 2/3 Week Period, Many Runners • Everbearing • Crops in Spring, Summer, Fall; Few Runners • Day Neutral • Crop Throughout Growing Season • May Be Harder To Manage for Continuous Productivity Everbearing and Day Neutral are Especially Good for Containers Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 6
  7. 7. STRAWBERRY PYRAMID KIT - June Bearers, Top 2 Levels - Ever Bearers, Bottom Level - Flags to Scare Away Birds? Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 7
  8. 8. HOW TO SELECT • Extension Agencies Are Often Recommending for Farmers • Overview of Strawberry Varieties -- U Vermont http://www.uvm.edu/vtvegandberry/factsheets/strawberryvarieties.html • Consider • Good Location in Full Sun • Sandy Loam, Good Drainage, Plenty of Organic Matter, pH 5.5 – 6.5 • Don’t Plant Where Certain Vegetables Have Grown • Variety, Flavor, Freezing Quality, Yield Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 8
  9. 9. WAYS TO PLANT Nov. 2013 http://strawberryplants.org/2010/05/growing-strawberries/ Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 9
  10. 10. PLANTING DEPTH IS IMPORTANT http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/dg5625.html Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 10
  11. 11. HARVESTING • First Year – Follow Instructions for Variety • That Will Involve Removing All or Most Blossoms • Then, ENJOY! Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 11
  12. 12. ONE DAY’S HARVEST Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 12
  13. 13. ENJOY FRESH OR FROZEN Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 13
  14. 14. END OF SEASON Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 14
  15. 15. ‘RENOVATE’ THE BED EACH YEAR CUT BACK PLANTS, ALL RUNNERS, MULCH Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 2 Weeks Later 15
  16. 16. BLUEBERRIES GROW WELL IN THE SANDY, ACIDIC SOIL OF CAPE COD www.farmfresh.org Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 16
  17. 17. HOW TO SELECT FROM MANY VARIETIES • At Least 2 Varieties for Cross Pollination, Season Extension • Examples of Recommended High-Bush Varieties • Early—Bluejay, Bluecrop, Blueray, Nelson • Mid-Season - Berkely, Bluecrop, Blueray, Nelson • Late – Coville, Herbert, Jersey, Lateblue • Also Consider – Yield, Berry Size, Hardiness, Growth Habit, Vigor, Disease Resistance Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 17
  18. 18. BAREROOT OR CONTAINER GROWN? Nov. 2013 www.knollacresblueberries.com Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener forums2.gardenweb.com 18
  19. 19. PROTECT FROM BIRDS! Photos Courtesy Mary Ann Buss Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 19
  20. 20. AFTER 3 / 4 YEARS PRUNING ESSENTIAL “Twiggy” Nov. 2013 OTHERWISE BECOME BIENNIAL Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 20
  21. 21. http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/1000/1430.html Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 21
  22. 22. PRUNING • Late Winter While Plants Dormant • Remove Winter Damage • Remove Older Shoots • Remove 2 or 3 Oldest Shoots at Ground • For Largest Fruit Size, Cut Fruiting Shoots To 4-5 Buds • Heavier Pruning = Shorter Ripening Season • Lighter = Longer Ripening Season Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 22
  23. 23. Blueberries At The Demo Garden (Falmouth, Fairgrounds) Get Some of Both Pruning Very Productive, Old Wood Photo Courtesy Bob Brancale Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 23
  24. 24. Freeze to Enjoy Year-Round Dry? Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 24
  25. 25. HOW TO SELECT THE LOCATION HTTP://WWW.BLUEBERRY.ORG/GARDENING.HTM • Full Sun or Nearly So • Soil pH of 4.09 to 5 • Excellent Drainage • Cross Pollination Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 25
  26. 26. Raspberries Are Also Popular On Cape Cod Photo Courtesy Cheryl Ikasalo Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 26
  27. 27. RASPBERRY VARIETIES • By Color • Red (Gold), Purple, Black • Growth Habit • Erect (Red); Arching (Black) • Summer Bearing – One Crop Early Summer • Fall Bearing – Small Crop Spring, Larger Crop Fall Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 27
  28. 28. THESE VARIETIES ARE RECOMMENDED FOR OHIO See Also http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/DG1108.html http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/1000/1421.html Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 28
  29. 29. PLANTING • Early Spring • Soil, Neutral to Slightly Acidic • Red Raspberries Are Generally Planted In Rows • 3’ apart; rows at least 6’ apart • Black Raspberries – 4’ Apart • Tips Will Root if Not Supported Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 29
  30. 30. A TYPICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/DG1108.html Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 30
  31. 31. MY BERRY ROW Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 31
  32. 32. 32 RON USES STURDY POSTS, 4” SQUARE WIRE Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener Photo Courtest Ron Morissette
  33. 33. CHERYL’S ROW WITH STURDY POSTS Nov. 2013 Photo Courtesy Cheryl Ikasalo Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 33
  34. 34. STRUCTURE OF A RASPBERRY BUSH Second Year Fruiting Cane First Year Cane http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/1000/1421.html Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 34
  35. 35. PRUNING DEPENDS ON TYPE OF RASPBERRY • Summer Bearing • After Harvest Complete, Cut All Floricanes to Ground • Remove, Dispose (Do Not Compost) • Leave 4 or 5 Primocanes • Or Leave Until Spring to See Winter Damage • In Spring May Cut These Canes to Just Above Support • Fall Bearing • For Fall-Only, Cut All Canes to Ground in Late Winter • For Spring + Fall, Follow Instructions for Summer Bearing • Black – Pinch Back for Branching, Remove Bearing Canes After Harvest Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 35
  36. 36. RASPBERRIES HAVE SHALLOW ROOTS • Cultivate Carefully • Mulch is Desirable Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 36
  37. 37. THEY ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO A VARIETY OF DISEASES Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 37
  38. 38. ANTHRACNOSE, BLIGHT BOTH FUNGAL DISEASES http://ipm.illinois.edu/fruits/diseases/spur_blight/ http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/DG1152.html Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 38
  39. 39. TO CONTROL FUNGAL DISEASES, POWDERY MILDEW • Buy Disease-Resistant Varieties • Good Sun, Air Circulation • Remove and Destroy Canes That Have Finished Bearing • Keep Area Clear of Weeds, Especially Wild Raspberries • Can Apply Sulpher and Copper-Based Fungicides, According to Directions Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 39
  40. 40. TREATMENT OF VIRAL DISEASES • Seems No Remedy for Home Gardeners • Destroy Plants, Replant in Different Location http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/dg1152.html Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 40
  41. 41. Pruned and Mulched Lots of Growth Hope Springs Eternal! Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 41
  42. 42. PRACTICE GOOD HYGIENE, ENJOY THE RESULTS! Harvest From Cheryl’s Raspberry Patch One Day in July Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 42
  43. 43. BLACKBERRIES ARE “ROBUST” GROWERS, BEARERS Photo Courtesy Ron Morissette Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 43
  44. 44. BLACKBERRIES ARE AGGRESSIVE! Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 44
  45. 45. BLACKBERRY VARIETIES • Thorny Erect • Thornless Semi-Erect • Trailing (Both Thorny and Thornless) Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 45
  46. 46. ONE CROP, TWO CROPS One Crop on Floricanes http://noursefarms.com/ Whatley, MA Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 46
  47. 47. THORNS, NO THORNS Photo Courtesy Ron Morissette Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 47
  48. 48. PLANTING BLACKBERRIES • Plant in Early Spring • Full Sun; Slightly Acidic Soil, 5.5 – 7 pH • Upright – 3’ Apart; Rows 8’ Apart • Trailing – 5-8’ Apart; Rows 6-10’ Apart • Fertilize With Balanced Fertilizer in Spring • Roots Also Shallow • Cultivate Carefully, Mulch Well Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 48
  49. 49. SUPPORTING BLACKBERRIES http://sacredhabitats.com/2013/02/24/grow-blackberry-patch/ http://www.ext.colostate.edu/mg/gardennotes/762.html#Erect Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 49
  50. 50. C. L. FORNARI’S DOYLE THORNLESS BLACKBERRY WITH EXTENSIVE SUPPORT SYSTEM Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 50
  51. 51. FOR BERRIES IN GENERAL REMOVE WILD PLANTS 500-600’ IF POSSIBLE BEWARE OF FRIENDS BEARING DISEASED BERRY PLANTS Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 51
  52. 52. CONCLUDING THOUGHTS ABOUT ‘BIG 4’ • Choose Disease-Resistant Varieties That Are Right for Cape Cod • Strawberries and Blueberries Have Their Own Requirements • Raspberries and Blackberries Have Similar Requirements • Different Varieties of Each Berry Require Different Care • Select Reputable Nurseries, Mail Order Houses • Follow Their Directions • Use Specific Web Searches To Add to Your Store of Knowledge • Lots of Good Videos; Always Consider Source (.org, .edu) Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 52
  53. 53. SOME MORE EXOTIC BERRIES NOURSE FARM OFFERINGS Invicta Gooseberry (native) Pink Champagne Currant (native) Nov. 2013 Samdal Elderberry native Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 53
  54. 54. STILL MORE EXOTIC BERRIES MILLER NURSERIES OFFERINGS (RECENTLY SOLD TO STARK BROS.) Hardy Kiwi Aronia (Black Chokecherry) native Seaberry Goji Berry Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 54
  55. 55. GRAPES GROW WELL PRETTY MUCH EVERYWHERE Do You Have Experience? Advice? Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 55
  56. 56. SOME SMALL FRUITS LIKE FIGS ARE MARGINAL My Brown Turkey Fig In November http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/fig.html Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 56
  57. 57. 57 OTHER WAYS TO USE BERRIES IN THE HOME LANDSCAPE Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener
  58. 58. FOOD FOR BIRDS SEE HTTP://WWW.WILDFLOWER.ORG/ FOR A NATIVE PLANT DATABASE Winterberry at C.L.’s Orange front, Red, back American Beautyberry Arrowwood Viburnum http://www.hort.uconn.edu/plants/v/vibden/vibden1.html Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 58
  59. 59. C.L.’s Privet and Pokeberry/Pokeweed Poisonous Weed? Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 59
  60. 60. ATTRACT POLLINATORS SEE HTTP://WWW.POLLINATOR.ORG/ Mountain Ash (Rowan) www.Wikipedia.og Nov. 2013 Serviceberry http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/ Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 60
  61. 61. WILDLIFE HABITAT Holly In Orleans parking lot Smooth Sumac Hawthorne http://www.sacredearth.com/ethnobotany/plantprofiles/hawthorn.php Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=RHGL# Avoid Poison Sumac 61
  62. 62. ‘EDIBLE’ HEDGE A Few Other Possibilities Quince Pawpaw Goji Berry and Many, Many More! Rosa Rugosa Hedge Community of Jesus, Orleans Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 62
  63. 63. BERRIES, SMALL FRUITS PROVIDE A LOT OF PLEASURE AS WELL AS ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS FOR MINIMAL INVESTMENT OF TIME, EFFORT Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 63
  64. 64. THANK YOU! Nov. 2013 Mary Lou Roberts, Master Gardener 64

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