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An lgbtq history3-3

  1. 1. RECOVERING THE PAST: A “WESTERN” LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, TRANSGENDER, INTERSEX & QUEER HISTORY: PART THREE Warren J. Blumenfeld warrenblumenfeld@gmail.com
  2. 2. •Dr. Warren J. Blumenfeld is available to come to your campus or community organization. •Contact: warrenblumenfeld@gmail.com
  3. 3. “An essential element of liberty is the freedom to define oneself.” Dr. Warren J. Blumenfeld
  4. 4. Social Construction of Reality
  5. 5. • Social Construction of Reality • Personal Reflections • Creation Story • Nutrition • Ghostly Invasion; Anal Worm Invasion • “Homosexual” & “Heterosexual” • “Altruistic Gene” • Hormonal Imbalance • Inherited • Sign of Decadence • Criminality (and/or Sin) • Biological Markers • Psychological Theories • Defining Ourselves • On the Social Construction of Identities THE FLOW
  6. 6. Open, Diverse, Varied, Assorted, Multiple, Wide-Ranging, Extensive, Inclusive, Far-Reaching, All-Embracing, Comprehensive, Full, Broad REALITY
  7. 7. • Special Ability to Categorize • Benefits • Limitations THE HUMAN BRAIN
  8. 8. + -- GOOD BAD RIGHT (French - droit/adroit, Latin - dexter/dexterous) LEFT (French - gauche, Latin - sinister) UP DOWN PASS FAIL US THEM IN-GROUP OUT-GROUP (Other) MALE / MASCULINE FEMALE / FEMININE HETEROSEXUAL HOMOSEXUAL CISGENDER TRANSGENDER CULTURAL LINGUISTIC GRID
  9. 9. HUMAN PERCEPTIONS
  10. 10. HUMAN PERCEPTIONS • The fish are the last to see or even feel the water around them because it is so pervasive, so taken for granted, so “normal.” • One needs to look outside the water to understand and perceive how what we know and how we know it is socially constructed.
  11. 11. HUMAN PERCEPTIONS
  12. 12. HUMAN PERCEPTIONS • What did you see in the previous slide? • A mammal? A fish? A bird? A frog? • Now look at it from a different perspective. • Did you see anything different? • If so, what?
  13. 13. Personal Reflections
  14. 14. • I was born in 1947 in New York City • A very conservative time • A time when difference of any sort was suspected and not tolerated PERSONAL REFLECTIONS
  15. 15. • A time when a young and brash Senator from Wisconsin, Joseph McCarthy, sternly warned that Communists corrupt peoples’ minds & homosexuals corrupt peoples’ bodies. • He worked to have suspected Communists & homosexuals fired from their government jobs.
  16. 16. • When I was about 18 months old, my parents thought that I might be homosexual. • Because I was quiet, liked to stay by myself, and because I was “effeminate,” as my mother told me. • I didn’t like to play with toys “appropriate” for little boys.
  17. 17. • When I was 4-years-old lasting until I was 13, my parents arranged that I see a child psychologist • Twice a week • They hoped that seeing the doctor would prevent me from growing up to be gay.
  18. 18. • In elementary school and junior high school, many of the other boys teased and bullied me. • Many days, I returned home injured from a fight and from the constant taunting. • In my sessions with the doctor, he advised me about ways to behave like the other boys: playing sports, talking and walking differently – ways that felt very uncomfortable to me.
  19. 19. • While in high school (1962-1965), I had only a few friends. • I rarely went out on dates or to school dances. • I wanted to date some of the other boys, but it was a time before visibility in society or in the media of people like me.
  20. 20. Creation Story
  21. 21. • Creation Story of Three Sexes • Male (descended from the Sun) • Female (descended from the Earth) • Hermaphrodite (half male and half female) • They All Had: • Rounded Backs and Sides • Four Arms, Four Legs • One Head on Cylindrical Neck • One Face on one side of Head • A Second Face on other side of Head PLATO’S SYMPOSIUM
  22. 22. • King of the gods, Zeus • Wanted to weaken them, but not destroy them • Split them in two • They desired to reunite with their missing half. • Man with Woman • Woman with Woman • Man with Man PLATO’S SYMPOSIUM
  23. 23. Nutrition
  24. 24. • In Sikkim Himalayas • Homosexuality thought caused by eating the flesh of an uncastrated pig. RONGS
  25. 25. Gur Hasidim banned soy products, like veggie hot dogs, from its yeshivas because rabbis fear hormones in soy foods will cause the bodies of young male teen students to become feminine in appearance and thereby cause their rabbis and older students to become sexually aroused seeing them, leading to male homosexual sex. GUR HASIDIM The Gur rebbe, Rabbi Yaakov Aryeh Alter
  26. 26. JOHN HARVEY KELLOGG • Argued for sexual abstinence: “…neither the plague, nor war, nor small-pox, nor similar diseases, have produced results as disastrous to humanity as the pernicious habit of onanism [masturbation – from biblical Onan].” • Believed whole grains in daily diet would eliminate desire to masturbate. • Created Corn Flakes for this purpose • Founded Kellogg Cereals
  27. 27. Ghostly Invasion
  28. 28. • Article titled “Symptoms of Ghost Affecting or Possessing a Person,” Spiritual Science Research Foundation claims that 85 percent of gay and lesbian people are possessed by ghostly entities. • “The main reason behind the gay orientation of some men is that they are possessed by female ghosts. It is the female ghost in them that is attracted to other men.” • Conversely, lesbianism is the result of women who suffer “the presence of male ghosts in them.” • “The ghost’s consciousness overpowers the person’s normal behavior to produce the homosexual attraction. Spiritual research has shown that the cause for homosexual preferences lie predominantly in the spiritual realm.” SPIRITUAL SCIENCE RESEARCH FOUNDATION
  29. 29. Anal Worm Invasion
  30. 30. • Dr. Mariam Al-Sohel from Kuwait, in an interview she gave to Scope TV, says her suppository antidote is based off Islamic “prophetic medicine.” “I discovered therapeutic suppositories that curb the sexual urges of boys of the third gender as well as the fourth gender, which is butch lesbians. They have excessive sexual urges,” she told the host. “The sexual urge develops when a person is sexually attacked, and afterward it persists because there is an anal worm that feeds on semen,” she claimed. “This is science, and there is nothing to be ashamed of.” Al-Sohel says her “medicine” works by “exterminating the worm that feeds on the semen.” Asked how the suppository works for lesbians, she answered. “The ingredients [for the cure] are the same (for both sexes) but I made them into different colors.” ANAL WORM INVASION
  31. 31. “Homosexual” & “Heterosexual”
  32. 32.  Hanover lawyer  “Grandfather of Gay Liberation”  1862, “Urning”  People with same-sex attractions  Plato’s Symposium,  Love between two men  Heavenly Muse Urania. KARL HEINRICH ULRICHS “Third Sex Theory”
  33. 33.  Austrian-born journalist & human rights activist  1869, coined terms “Homosexual” & “Heterosexual”  Tried to convince legal & scientific professions in Prussia  Same-sex attractions, though not norm, are innate & should not be legally penalized  He failed to convince KARL-MARIA KERTBENY (A.K.A. KAROLY MARIA BENKERT)
  34. 34. “Altruistic Gene”
  35. 35. • Theory that behavior of a species is connected to its biological makeup • Dr. E. O. Wilson • Homosexuality may serve twofold natural biological function: • Built-in inhibitor of excessive population growth • Caretakers and nurturers for other members of society • “Altruistic Gene” SOCIOBIOLOGY
  36. 36. Hormonal Theories
  37. 37. HORMONAL THEORIES • Dr. Havelock Ellis • English Sex Researcher • “Defender” of Homosexuality • Wife was Bisexual • Homosexuality hormonal in origin, inborn, “anomaly” like color blindness • Referred to homosexuals as “inverts” and homosexuality as “inversion” • They invert “normal” sexuality.
  38. 38. • Carl Peter Jensen • Alias “Carl Vaernet” • SS Nazi Doctor • Hormonal experiments on men • Buchenwald Concentration Camp • Some men castrated first • Men’s groin, male hormone implanted • Looked like briquette • To “cure” homosexuality • Most died NAZI HORMONAL EXPERIMENTS
  39. 39. Friedrich-Paul von Groszheim forcibly castrated. Survived. After war, returned home in Germany. NAZI HORMONAL EXPERIMENTS
  40. 40. Inherited
  41. 41. • Adolph Hitler • Heinrich Himmler • Homosexuality caused by having a Jewish Ancestor • Homosexuality Inherited JUDAISM CAUSES HOMOSEXUALITY
  42. 42. Sign of Decadence
  43. 43. • Heinrich Himmler • Gestapo chief (German secret police) • Architect anti-homosexual campaign • Male homosexuals “like women” • Cannot fight in German war effort DECADENCE
  44. 44. • Homosexual (males) lower German birth rate • Homosexuals endanger & corrupt youth • Possible epidemic spread & “race” pollution • Homosexuals “potential oppositionists” & enemy of respectable society • Sexual relations between people of same sex impairs their “sense of shame,” & undermines morality & “decline of social community” • “Aryan” lesbians can still produce “Aryan” children NAZI “PHILOSOPHY” ON HOMOSEXUALITY
  45. 45. • Joseph Stalin re-criminalized Homosexuality in the Soviet Union in 1933 • He viewed it as “Fascist Decadence.” DECADENCE
  46. 46. • Fidel Castro • Post-Revolutionary Cuba • Homosexuality “a product of bourgeois Capitalist decadence” • Homosexuals are “Counterrevolutionary” • And “Agents of Imperialism” • Forcefully Interned many in “work (concentration) camps” DECADENCE
  47. 47. • People’s Republic of China established, 1949 • Chinese Communist Party declared homosexuality a sign of Bourgeois Decadence DECADENCE
  48. 48. • Vladimir Putin of Russia views Homosexuality as sign of American & Western “feminization” and decadence • Putin sees himself as savior against decadence DECADENCE
  49. 49. • Robert Mugabe, president-for life, Zimbabwe • Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, president, Uganda. • Homosexuality is “a decadent culture … being passed by Western nations.” DECADENCE Robert Mugabe Yoweri Kaguta Museveni
  50. 50. • Dr. Paul McHugh, professor of psychiatry, former chief psychiatrist at Johns Hopkins Hospital, and member of faculty at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. • Trans people are “counterfeits,” “impersonators,” “confused” and “mad.” • His fake science often used by anti-trans activists in court cases to defeat trans protection laws and pass discriminatory legislation against trans people. DECADENCE
  51. 51. • Kevin Swanson, Colorado pastor. • “The state has an agenda with your children,” he warned on his “Generations” radio show May 2017. • “The goals of the educational program for your kids in the public schools, the goals of the world for your children is that your kids be transgendered and communist by 20 years of age.” DECADENCE
  52. 52. Criminality (and/or Sin)
  53. 53. • Richard von Krafft-Ebing • 19th-century Austrian sex researcher • Wrote, Psychopathia Sexualis • Sex “nauseous disease” • Homosexuality: sign of “degeneration,” & product of vice CRIMINALITY
  54. 54. • Fear, intimidation, and several executions of gay males reported in Iran under Ahmadinejad. • “Iranian human rights campaigners estimate that 4000+ gay men have been executed since the Islamic revolution of 1979.” IRAN Ayez Marhoni (18), Mahmoud Asgari (16) Hanged for the “crime” of homosexuality, July 19, 2005
  55. 55. UGANDA • Anti-Homosexual Law, 2014 • Legislative proposal broadening criminalization of same- sex relations • Created by influence of U.S. evangelicals going to Uganda • “The offense of homosexuality”: offender to receive life imprisonment
  56. 56. INDIA • Police in Bangalore, India, arrested more than 150 hijras and forced them into a concentration camp • November 2014
  57. 57. LAWRENCE V. TEXAS (2003) "The petitioners are entitled to respect for their private lives. The state cannot demean their existence or control their destiny by making their private sexual conduct a crime.“ John Geddes Lawrence & Tyron Garner U.S. Supreme Court Overturned Remaining Anti- Sodomy Laws
  58. 58. • Bryan J. Fisher, preacher, anti-LGBT activist, host of radio program for American Family Association, • “Worst example of cultural appropriation ever: LGBTs stole the rainbow from God. It's his. He invented it. Gen. 9:11-17. Give it back.” April 2017 THIEVES STOLE THE RAINBOW Genesis 9:11-17English Standard Version (ESV) 11 I establish my covenant with you, that never again shall all flesh be cut off by the waters of the flood, and never again shall there be a flood to destroy the earth.” 12 And God said, “This is the sign of the covenant that I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for all future generations: 13 I have set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth. 14 When I bring clouds over the earth and the bow is seen in the clouds, 15 I will remember my covenant that is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh. And the waters shall never again become a flood to destroy all flesh. 16 When the bow is in the clouds, I will see it and remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is on the earth.” 17 God said to Noah, “This is the sign of the covenant that I have established between me and all flesh that is on the earth.”
  59. 59. • Laura Ingraham on Fox News interviewed Dr. Paul Nathanson when they both considered that transgender people are secretly trying to destroy humanity and create a new “species” of cyborgs. DESTRUCTION OF HUMANITY
  60. 60. Sin
  61. 61. THOMAS AQUINAS • Dominican scholar • Born 1225 • Early proponent of “natural law” • Morality based on constraints of human nature.
  62. 62. THOMAS AQUINAS • Aquinas believed that same-sex sexuality (and any sexual act not intended for procreation, including masturbation) were vices against nature, which violated the will of God. • Against “natural law”
  63. 63. CATHOLIC CATECHISM 1997: #2357 “…Basing itself on Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity, tradition has always declared that ‘homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered.’ They are contrary to the natural law. They close the sexual act to the gift of life [reproduction]. They do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved.”
  64. 64. • Saving humanity from homosexual or transgender expression was just as important as saving the rainforest from destruction. • He said that humanity needed to "listen to the language of creation" to understand the intended roles of man and woman. He compared behavior beyond traditional heterosexual relations as "a destruction of God's work." POPE BENEDICT NOVEMBER 21, 2008
  65. 65. SOUTHERN BAPTIST CONVENTION “Resolution on Homosexuality and the United States Military” 2010 “RESOLVED, That the messengers to the Southern Baptist Convention…affirm the Bible’s declaration that homosexual behavior is intrinsically disordered and sinful, and we also affirm the Bible’s promise of forgiveness, change, and eternal life to all sinners (including those engaged in homosexual sin) who repent of sin and trust in the saving power of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 6:9-11).”
  66. 66. EVANGELICAL COVENANT CHURCH “Resolution on Sexuality” adopted 1996: “We human beings misuse God’s creation of sexuality and distort its role in our lives. In I Corinthians 6:9-10 and Romans 1:24-27, Scripture succinctly declares this sin and God’s judgment on it. Throughout the Scriptures we see how sin in sexual relationships damages relationship with God and others. We live in a society characterized by imperfect and sinful sexual relationships of many kinds….Evangelical Covenant Church resolution to care for persons involved in sexual sins such as adultery, homosexual behavior, and promiscuity compassionately recognizing the potential of these sins to take the form of addiction.”
  67. 67. CATHOLIC CHURCH • Joan of Arc • Peasant, Domremy, Lorraine Province, French territory • Age 17, 1429, talked to Prince Charles, Heir to throne • Led army, 10,000 peasants to purge English from French land • Stated God advised her to dress in so-called “men’s” clothing
  68. 68. CATHOLIC CHURCH • Joan asserted her cross- dressing a religious duty & higher than Church authority • “For nothing in the world will I swear not to arm myself and put on a man’s dress.” • Catholic Inquisitors condemn her to death for wearing “men’s” clothing and armor • Burned at the stake as heretic, 1431.
  69. 69. CATHOLIC CHURCH ON TRANS IDENTITIES • Alex Salinas • 21-year-old transman, Cadiz, Spain • Applied, Godparent, of nephew • Vatican denied request.
  70. 70. • Catholic Church: Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith: Transgender status "reveals in a public way an attitude opposite to the moral imperative of solving the problem of sexual identity according to the truth of one's own sexuality. Therefore it is evident that this person does not possess the requirement of leading a life according to the faith and in the position of godfather and is therefore unable to be admitted to the position of godfather or godmother."
  71. 71. • Handbook of Instructions • “Homosexual behavior violates the commandments of God, is contrary to the purposes of human sexuality, distorts loving relationships, and deprives people of the blessings that can be found in family life and in the saving ordinances of the gospel. Those who persist in such behavior or who influence others to do so are subject to Church discipline. Homosexual behavior can be forgiven through sincere repentance.” THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS MORMONS
  72. 72. • Guidebook: Homosexuality, second edition, 1981 • Cause, Effect, or Both? • “When individuals of the same sex masturbate together, it is a homosexual act.” • But even masturbating alone is linked to being gay. • “Self-masturbation is almost universal among those who engage in homosexual behavior.” THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS MORMONS
  73. 73. LOU SHELDON • Leader • Family Values Coalition • In a fundraising letter: “Gays and lesbians live perverted, twisted lives that feed upon the unsuspecting and the innocent, like our children. They want your children.”
  74. 74. ANITA BRYANT • Former beauty queen & Florida Orange Juice Commission spokesperson, • “Save Our Children” campaign, • Succeeded overturning gay- rights ordinance, • Dade Country, Florida, 1977, • Reinstated, 1998
  75. 75. LAURA SCHLESSINGER Former, Radio Talk Show Host "I'm sorry, hear it one more time perfectly clearly: If you're gay or a lesbian, it's a biological error that inhibits you from relating normally to the opposite sex.” "A huge portion of the male homosexual populace is predatory on young boys.“
  76. 76. • Milo Yiannopoulos, white nationalist, former editor Breitbart News • Labels trans people as suffering from a “psychiatric disorder,” “confused,” and as predators. • “I makes no apologies for protecting women and children from men who are confused about their sexual identity.” TRANS PEOPLE AS SICK PREDATORS
  77. 77. “THE GAY AGENDA” • Film • Producer: Springs of Life Church, early 1990s • Purpose: Influence reversal of LGBT equality ordinances
  78. 78. “THE GAY AGENDA” Film stated: • “17% of homosexual men consume human feces for erotic thrills,” • “28% of homosexual men engage in sodomy with more than one thousand partners,” • “They spread diseases that imperil the entire society.”
  79. 79. NEWT GINGRICH • Former Speaker • U.S. House of Representatives "I think there is a gay and secular fascism in this country that wants to impose its will on the rest of us, is prepared to use violence, to use harassment. I think it is prepared to use the government if it can get control of it. I think that it is a very dangerous threat to anybody who believes in traditional religion.”
  80. 80. Child & Family Research Institute • Ultra-Conservative “Christian” U.S. Organization • LGBT Hate Group (according to Southern Poverty Law Center) • Counterfeit and false “research” • Disregarded by larger scientific community • “Homosexuals are now more than non-productive ‘sexual bums.’ They are recruiting others, forming communities, beginning to mock and undermine the old pieties of loyalty to family, country, and God. They have redefined ‘good’ and ‘evil’ and view with contempt the idea that honest work and sex within marriage are communal acts necessary for human survival.” CRIMINALITY (AND/OR SIN)
  81. 81. • Homosexuality Associated with Criminality • “homosexuals were about twice as likely to have been arrested for a non-sexual crime and about 8 times more apt to have been arrested for a sexual crime;” • “homosexuals were about twice as apt to have been convicted of a sexual crime and about twice as likely to have been jailed for a crime;” • “homosexuals were about three times more likely to admit to having made an obscene phone call;” and • “homosexuals were about 50% more apt to claim that they had recently shoplifted, cheated on their income tax, or not been caught for a crime.” Child & Family Research Institute CRIMINALITY
  82. 82. Biological Markers
  83. 83. Medical Model • Mental Illness • Physical Abnormality • Sickness • Disease • Disorder • Disability • Condition Wellness Model • Mental Health • No Physical Abnormality • Personal Identity • Difference • Variation • Normal for Us • What’s the big whoop? LENSES OF PERCEPTION: LGBTQ IDENTITIES & EXPRESSIONS
  84. 84. • The U.S. anti-vaccine group, VacTruth, claims that childhood vaccinations are possible causal factors in a person becoming homosexual and/or transgender. • And Italian scientist and journalist Gian Paolo Vanoli said that as a child grows up and tries to "find its own personality," if he or she has mercury or other substances in their system that linger from vaccinations, "the child becomes gay." CHILDHOOD VACCINATIONS
  85. 85. • Daniel Regli • Zurich, Switzerland City Council Member, 2017 • Higher Rate of Suicide among Gay Men • Due to Incontinence: • “homosexuals with multiple partners take their lives between the ages of 30 and 40…because their anal muscle is not holding up as it should.” WEAK ANAL MUSCLES
  86. 86. LGBT PEOPLE AS DIFFERENT HUMAN TYPE • Although records back to antiquity documented universal existence of same-sex sexuality • Not until 19th century C.E. that scientific community created categories of sexual identification • Leading to “medicalization” of homosexuality, bisexuality, and gender non-conformity, and construction as immutable biological types • Gay males seen as feminized males • Lesbians seen as masculinized females
  87. 87. LGBT PEOPLE AS DIFFERENT HUMAN TYPE • Two such theorists were American physicians, G. Frank Lydston and James Kiernan • They posited homosexuals and bisexuals as a kind of remnant of the primitive organisms from which humans evolved.
  88. 88. G. FRANK LYDSTON • U. S. Urologist, Surgeon, and Professor from Chicago • In 1889, Lydston delivered a lecture, College of Physicians and Surgeons in Chicago • Sexual perverts (homosexuals) are “physically abnormal”
  89. 89. G. FRANK LYDSTON “…the unfortunate class of individuals who are characterized by perverted sexuality have been viewed in the light of their moral responsibility rather than as the victims of a physical and incidentally of a mental defect….Even to the moralist there should be much satisfaction in the thought that a large class of sexual perverts are physically abnormal rather than morally leprous.”
  90. 90. JAMES D. KIERNAN • 1892 Published Responsibility in Sexual Perversion • In Chicago Medical Recorder • First known use of term “homosexual” in print in U.S.
  91. 91. JAMES D. KIERNAN • The "pure homosexuals" are persons whose "general mental state is that of the opposite sex.“ • He defined these homosexuals as “gender benders,” rebels from “proper” masculinity and femininity, and rebels from a procreative and erotic norm.
  92. 92. JAMES D. KIERNAN • Also, first time “heterosexual” seen in print in U.S. • “Heterosexual” to Kiernan not equated with “normal sexuality” • One of several “abnormal manifestations of the sexual appetite” • These “heterosexuals” he associated with a mental condition called “psychical hermaphroditism.” • Heterosexuals experienced so-called male erotic attraction to females and so-called female erotic attraction to males. • Later termed “Bisexuality.”
  93. 93. • U.S. Physician, 1921: “A physical examination of [female homosexuals] will in practically every instance disclose an abnormally prominent clitoris.” PERRY M. LICHTENSTEIN
  94. 94. • French Forensic Medical Scientist, 1857: “This degeneracy is evidenced in men who engage in same- sex eroticism by their underdeveloped, tapered penis resembling that of a dog, and a naturally smooth anus lacking in radial folds.” AUGUST AMBROSE TARDIEU
  95. 95. • U.S. Physician, 1896: “[The lesbian] is usually of a masculine type, or if she presented none of the ‘characteristics’ of the male, was a subject of pelvic disorder, with scanty menstruation, and was more or less hysterical and insane.” ALLAN MCLANE HAMILTON
  96. 96. AUGUST FOREL • Swiss physician, 1906 “The [sexual] excesses of female inverts exceed those of the male,...and this is their one thought night and day, almost without interruption. [Male inverts] feel the need for passive submission...and occupy themselves with feminine pursuits. Nearly all [female and male] inverts are in a more or less marked degree psychopaths or neurotics.”
  97. 97. Psychological Theories
  98. 98. SIGMUND FREUD Advanced a four-stage model of Psychosexual Development: 1. Newborn infants “polymorphously perverse,” deriving pleasure from tactile sensations anywhere on their bodies 2. Then developing a sexual drive in the mouth, (Oral Stage) 3. Then the anus, (Anal Stage) 4. Ultimately, the genitals (Genital Stage)
  99. 99. SIGMUND FREUD • Freud asserted that homosexuality was a developmental disorder, • A fixation at one of the intermediate “pregenital” stages, • He believed this was caused, at least in part, by an incomplete resolution in males of the Oedipal complex. What does he know? He smoked!
  100. 100. WOMEN’S COLLEGES • Women were often locked out of college • Women’s colleges founded mid-19th century for primarily middle-class women: • Mt. Holyoke College • Vassar • Smith College • Wellesley College • Bryn Mawr • and others
  101. 101. DR. EDWARD CLARKE • Conservative critics against women’s education • Dr. Edward Clarke Massachusetts Medical Society • 1873 book: Sex in Education • Warned that study would interfere with women’s fertility, causing chronic uterine disease
  102. 102. “[W]omen’s colleges are the great breeding ground of lesbianism. When young women are thrown together, they manifest an increasing affection by the usual tokens. They kiss each other fondly on every occasion….They learn the pleasure of direct contact...and after this, the normal sex act fails to satisfy them.” HAVELOCK ELLIS
  103. 103. FRANCIS GALTON • A cousin of Charles Darwin. • British psychologist. • A founder of the “Eugenics Movement.” • He coined the term “eugenics” in 1883 from the Greek: “well born” or “good origins or breeding” • The science of improving qualities of a “race” by controlling human breeding
  104. 104. EUGENICS & MASS STERILIZATIONS • Approximately 65,000 U.S.-Americans sterilized (many involuntarily) 1900 - 1970 • Supreme Court: Buck v. Bell, 1927: compulsory sterilization constitutional “for the protection and health of the state.”
  105. 105. TRENT LOTT • U.S. Senate Republican Majority Leader, 1998, • Proclaimed that homosexuality is a disease and sin: • “It is [a disease]….You should try to show them a way to deal with that problem, just like alcohol…or sex addiction…or kleptomaniacs.”
  106. 106. • 1952, Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders I: homosexuality “Sociopathic Personality Disorder” • 1968, Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders II: “Sexual Orientation Disorder” • Mid-1980s, Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III: Homosexuality: if they are comfortable with sexual orientation, not mentally ill • Homosexuality: if “in conflict with” their sexual orientation: “Ego- Dystonic Homosexuality” • 1987, Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III-R: Removed “Ego-Dystonic Homosexuality” AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION
  107. 107. PSYCHIATRIC PROFESSION • 1940s – 1960s • LGBT people Involuntary Committed to Mental Hospitals
  108. 108. PSYCHIATRIC PROFESSION • Forced Electroshock • Forced “hormonal balance therapy” of LGBT people
  109. 109. PSYCHIATRIC PROFESSION • Prefrontal Lobotomies on LGBT people • Insert metal spike into brain through nose or eye socket, and rip out the prefrontal cortex.
  110. 110. DR. EDMUND BERGLER • Psychoanalyst • 1956, Homosexuality: Disease or Way of Life? “…homosexuality is a neurotic condition…. Specific neurotic defenses and personality traits that are partly or entirely psychopathic are specifically and exclusively characteristic of homosexuals, and…these defenses and traits put the homosexual into a special psychiatric category.”
  111. 111. IRVING BIEBER, M.D. • 1962: Co-authored study, Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study of Male Homosexual • New York Society of Psychoanalysts • Conclusion: Homosexuality a psychopathology that could be cured or prevented with psychoanalysis • 1973: “A homosexual is a person whose heterosexual function is crippled, like the legs of a polio victim.”
  112. 112. DR. FRANK S. CAPRIO • Psychoanalyst • 1954, Homosexuality: A Psychodynamic Study of Lesbianism “Lesbianism is a symptom, and not a disease entity. It is the result of a deep-seated neurosis which involves narcissistic gratifications and sexual immaturity. It also represents a neurotic defense mechanism for feelings of insecurity.”
  113. 113. DR. CHARLES SOCARIDES • Psychiatrist • 1992, founded National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH) • Homosexuality an illness, a neurosis, possibly caused by an over-attachment to the mother. This “illness” could be treated.
  114. 114. RICHARD SOCARIDES • Son of Charles Socarides • Democratic political strategist & New York attorney • White House advisor to President Bill Clinton • 1993 to 1999 • Special Assistant, Senior Adviser for Public Liaison. Principal Adviser on LGBT Civil Rights • One of the highest ranking openly gay persons ever to serve in the U.S. federal government.
  115. 115. • Uzbek imam Rahmatulloh Saifutdinov, • Chief imam at the Mirzo Yusuf Mosque in Tashkent, • Gay babies are born when their mothers have sex with their husbands but fantasize about other men. RAHMATULLOH SAIFUTDINOV
  116. 116. DR. EVELYN HOOKER • 1950s: Studied Non-Patient Homosexuals leading good satisfying lives. • Psychologists reviewing her results were unable to distinguish her research subjects from heterosexuals in control group.
  117. 117. Defining Ourselves
  118. 118. • Annual Conference, 1970, San Francisco • LGBT demonstrators outside and a few inside protesting APA definition of homosexuality as “Sexual Orientation Disorder.” • APA organizers promised to permit LGBT workshop panel at conference next year in Washington, D.C. AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION
  119. 119. GAY LIBERATION FRONT COLLECTIVE, WASHINGTON, D.C.
  120. 120. Christopher Street Liberation Day, NYC, 1971, Washington, D.C. Contingent
  121. 121. MAY DAY DEMONSTRATIONS • May 1, 1971, Washington, D.C. • Purpose: Shut down government • Protest Vietnam War • GLF Washington, D.C. organized “Gay May Day” • Thousands arrested
  122. 122. AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION • Annual Conference, 1971, Washington, DC • Shoreham Hotel • Convocation Speaker: US Attorney General Ramsey Clark
  123. 123. AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION • The panelists for a later smaller workshop, “Lifestyles of Non- patient Homosexuals,” attended the Convocation acting as our “Trojan Horse.” • The panelists were Dr. Franklin Kameny, Director of Mattachine DC; Barbara Gittings, Director of the Philadelphia office of Daughters of Bilitis; and Jack Baker, first “out” U.S. student body president at the University of Minnesota.
  124. 124. AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION • During Ramsey Clark’s Key Note Address • Kameny, Gittings, & Baker opened the doors from inside the Convocation Hall • In we protesters ran scattering around the hall chanting, & Kameny grabbed the microphone: "Psychiatry is the enemy incarnate . . . You may take this as a declaration of war against you!"
  125. 125. AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION • Annual Conference, 1972, Dallas, TX • Guest Panel • Encouraging members to reevaluate definition of homosexuality as psychological disorder • L: Barbara Gittings, DOB Philadelphia • M: Franklin Kameny, Mattachine, DC • R: Gay APA member wearing mask (“Dr. H. Anonymous” a.k.a. Dr. John E. Fryer)
  126. 126. • 1973, American Psychiatric Association, no disorder if comfortable with sexual orientation “[H]omosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgment, stability, reliability, or general social or vocational capabilities.” • 1975, American Psychological Association, no disorder. • Urged mental health professionals “to take the lead in removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated with homosexual orientations.” • National Association of Social Workers, no disorder HOMOSEXUALITY NO LONGER DISEASE, 1973
  127. 127. • The World Health Organization (WHO) has removed transgender from its list of mental disorders, 2019. • WHO approved an update to its International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). TRANS IDENTITIES NO LONGER DISEASE, 2019 World Health Organization
  128. 128. On the Social Construction of Identities
  129. 129. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF IDENTITY • “Identities” socially constructed: • Sexual Identity • Gender Identity • Race • Nationality • Religion • Disability • Handedness (at one time) • And many other identities
  130. 130. Only within last 150 years, organized sustained political effort to protect rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, asexual, trans*, intersex, & queer people.
  131. 131. DIASPORIC IDENTITIES: DISPERSED THROUGHOUT CULTURES & FAMILIES
  132. 132. End of Part Three

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