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Physics 11
Momentum
Impulse
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
Impulse
There are many situations when the
force on an object is not constant.
Impulse
DEFINITION OF IMPULSE
The impulse of a force is the product of the average
force and the time interval during which the force acts:
avgF t= ΔJ
Impulse is a vector quantity and has the same direction
as the average force.
s)(Nsecondsnewton ⋅⋅
Impulse
2
avgF t= ΔJ
Impulse
avg iF t m mΔ = −fv v
final momentum
initial momentum
When a net force acts on an object, the impulse of
this force is equal to the change in the momentum
of the object
impulse
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
( )
( )
avg
avg f i
f i
F t m v
F t p m v v
J p m v v
Δ = Δ
Δ = Δ = −
= Δ = −
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
avg avg
p
F t p F
t
Δ
Δ = Δ → =
Δ
⇒ In a collision where an object is brought to
rest, the change in momentum is the same
whether the collision takes place over a long
time or over a short time.
⇒ However, the greater the time, the lower
the average net force.
3
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
Decreasing momentum over a long time ⇒ The
greater the time a force acts to decrease the
momentum, the smaller the average net force
examples : catching an egg toss,
padded dashboards, airbags, crumple zones,
bungee jumping, dynamic ropes for rock climbing,
padded exercise mats,
bending knees when jumping down
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
Increasing momentum ⇒ To get the
maximum change in momentum, you want to
apply the greatest force and extend the time of
application.
examples : long barrel of a cannon or shotgun,
long push on stalled car,
follow through when hitting a ball

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linear momentum

  • 1. 1 Physics 11 Momentum Impulse Impulse-Momentum Theorem Impulse There are many situations when the force on an object is not constant. Impulse DEFINITION OF IMPULSE The impulse of a force is the product of the average force and the time interval during which the force acts: avgF t= ΔJ Impulse is a vector quantity and has the same direction as the average force. s)(Nsecondsnewton ⋅⋅ Impulse
  • 2. 2 avgF t= ΔJ Impulse avg iF t m mΔ = −fv v final momentum initial momentum When a net force acts on an object, the impulse of this force is equal to the change in the momentum of the object impulse Impulse-Momentum Theorem Impulse-Momentum Theorem ( ) ( ) avg avg f i f i F t m v F t p m v v J p m v v Δ = Δ Δ = Δ = − = Δ = − Impulse-Momentum Theorem avg avg p F t p F t Δ Δ = Δ → = Δ ⇒ In a collision where an object is brought to rest, the change in momentum is the same whether the collision takes place over a long time or over a short time. ⇒ However, the greater the time, the lower the average net force.
  • 3. 3 Impulse-Momentum Theorem Decreasing momentum over a long time ⇒ The greater the time a force acts to decrease the momentum, the smaller the average net force examples : catching an egg toss, padded dashboards, airbags, crumple zones, bungee jumping, dynamic ropes for rock climbing, padded exercise mats, bending knees when jumping down Impulse-Momentum Theorem Increasing momentum ⇒ To get the maximum change in momentum, you want to apply the greatest force and extend the time of application. examples : long barrel of a cannon or shotgun, long push on stalled car, follow through when hitting a ball