What They Were Like: 1. Didn't build permanent dwellings. Made temporary homes in caves or tents made from branches and animal skins. 2. Had to move when the animals did. 3. Made tools. 4. Used fire. 5. Language to pass on information. Fire provided warmth, cooking, light, smoke to preserve food and made animal skins more waterproof; torches to drive animals off cliffs Highlands Ranch High School - Mr. Sedivy Highlands Ranch, Colorado World History - Prehistory Old Stone Age ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Paleolithic Hunters and Gatherers - Nomads Ice Age Cave Drawing, Altamira (Spain) What They Were Like: 1. Didn't build permanent dwellings. Made temporary homes in caves or tents made from branches and animal skins. 2. Had to move when the animals did. 3. Made tools. 4. Used fire. 5. Language to pass on information. Fire provided warmth, cooking, light, smoke to preserve food and made animal skins more waterproof; torches to drive animals off cliffs Neanderthal Widespread Paleolithic People. (100,000 -40,000 Years Ago) Had rituals for a successful hunt. Buried dead. Left items in the graves showing they believed in an afterlife. Cro-Magnon Man Art. Beads, Necklaces, and Bracelets Flute - Suggests music Why Did They Do Cave Art? Possibly a ritual to help with hunting. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Environment Changes Late in Stone Age, it got colder. There were four ice ages, each lasted for tens of thousands of years. The last ice age ended about 20,000 years ago. (However, a polar bear skeleton found that is 60,000 years old refutes this. Also, a wolf skeleton was found; wolves needed a warmer climate.) Homo sapiens sapiens; Flint tools Hunter Gatherers 1. Tools need to be lightweight to carry easier. 2. Have to cooperate with everyone to get a good hunt - greatest fear was of social ostracism. 3. Little emphasis on material goods or private property. 4. Small groups - no more than 100. 5. Being very young or very old was not good - they were bad food producers. 6. Men hunted, women gathered.
The first known period of prehistoric human culture , during which work was done with stone tools. The period began with the earliest human development, about 2 million years ago. It is divided into three periods: 1. The Paleolithic period, or Old Stone Age, was the longest phase of human history. Its most outstanding feature was the development of the human species-- Homo sapiens. Paleolithic peoples were generally nomadic hunters and gatherers who sheltered in caves, used fire, and fashioned stone tools. Their cultures are identified by distinctive stone-tool industries. By the Upper Paleolithic there is evidence of communal hunting, constructed shelters, and belief systems centering on magic and the supernatural. Rock carving and paintings reached their peak in the Magdalenian culture of Cro-Magnon man. 2. The Mesolithic period, or Middle Stone Age, began at the end of the last glacial era, over 10,000 years ago. Cultures included gradual domestication of plants and animals, formation of settled communities, use of the bow, and development of delicate stone microliths and pottery . 3. The time periods and cultural content of the Neolithic period, or New Stone Age, vary with geographic location. The earliest known Neolithic culture developed from the Natufian in Southwestern Asia between 9000 and 7000 BCE . People lived in settled villages, cultivated grains and domesticated animals, developed pottery ,spinning, and weaving , and evolved into the urban civilizations of the Bronze Age. In Southeast Asia a distinct type of Neolithic culture cultivated rice before 2000 BCE.. New World peoples independently domesticated plants and animals, and by 1500 BCE Neolithic cultures existed in Mesoamerica that led to the Aztec and Inca civilizations .
Clearly the female reproductive anatomy has been exaggerated, and therefore experts think it likely that it represented a fertility symbol , perhaps carried by a male hunter/gatherer as a reminder of his mate back home. [Short videos of this sculpture.]
Clearly the female reproductive anatomy has been exaggerated, and therefore experts think it likely that it represented a fertility symbol , perhaps carried by a male hunter/gatherer as a reminder of his mate back home. [Short videos of this sculpture.]
The Parthenon . It is the most important and characteristic monument of the ancient Greek civilization and still remains its international symbol. It was dedicated to Athena Parthenon, the patron goddess of Athens. It was built between 447 and 438 B.C. and its sculptural decoration was completed in 432 B.C. The construction of the monument was initiated by Perikles, the supervisor of the whole work was Pheidias, the famous Athenian sculptor, while Iktinos and Kallikrates were the architects of the building. The temple is built in the Doric order and almost exclusively of Pentelic marble. It is peripteral, with eight columns on each of the narrow sides and seventeen columns on each of the long ones. The central part of the temple, called the cella, sheltered the famous chryselephantine cult statue of Athena, made by Pheidias. The sculptural decoration of the Parthenon is a unique combination of the Doric metopes and triglyphs on the entablature, and the Ionic frieze on the walls of the cella. The metopes depict the Gigantomachy on the east side, the Amazonomachy on the west, the Centauromachy on the south, and scenes from the Trojan War on the north. The relief frieze depicts the Procession of the Panathenaea, the most formal religious festival of ancient Athens. The scene runs along all the four sides of the building and includes the figures of gods, beasts and of some 360 humans. The two pediments of the temple are decorated with mythological scenes: the east, above the building's main entrance, shows the birth of Athena, and the west, the fight between Athena and Poseidon for the name of the city of Athens. The Parthenon retained its religious character in the following centuries and was converted into a Byzantine church, a Latin church and a Muslim mosque. The Turks used the Parthenon as a powder magazine when the Venetians, under Admiral Morosini, sieged the Acropolis in 1687. One of the Venetian bombs fell on the Parthenon and caused a tremendous explosion that destroyed a great part of the monument which had been preserved in a good condition until then. The disaster was completed in the beginning of the 19th century, when the British ambassador in Constantinople, Lord Elgin, stole the greatest part of the sculptural decoration of the monument (frieze, metopes, pediments), transferred them to England and sold them to the British Museum, where they are still exhibited, being one of the most significant collections of the museum.
1st century-c. 526 - Early Christian Art Early Christian art falls into two categories: that of the Period of Persecution (up to the year 323) and that which came after Constantine the Great recognized Christianity: the Period of Recognition. The first is known primarily for construction of catacombs, and portable art which could be hidden. The second period is marked by the active construction of churches, mosaics, and the rise of book-making. Sculpture was demoted to works in relief only (anything else would have been deemed "graven images"). c. 526-1390 - Byzantine Art Not an abrupt transition, as the dates imply, the Byzantine style gradually diverged from Early Christian art, just as the Eastern Church grew farther apart form the Western. 622-1492 - Islamic Art To this day, Islamic art is known for being highly decorative. Its motifs translate beautifully from a chalice, to a rug, to the Alhambra. Islam has prohibitions against idolatry, and we've little pictorial history as a result. 375-750 - Migration Art These years were quite chaotic in Europe, as barbarian tribes sought (and sought, and sought) places in which to settle. Frequent wars erupted and constant ethnic relocation was the norm. Art during this period was necessarily small and portable, usually in the form of decorative pins or bracelets. The shining exception to this "dark" age in art occurred in Ireland, which had the great fortune of escaping invasion. For a time. 750-900 - The Carolingian Period Charlemagne built an empire that didn't outlast his bickering and inept grandsons, but the cultural revival the empire spawned proved more durable. Monasteries became as small cities where manuscripts were mass-produced. Goldsmithing and the use of precious and semi-precious stones was in vogue. 900-1002 - The Ottonian Period The Saxon king, Otto I, decided he could succeed where Charlemagne failed. This didn't work out either, but Ottonian art, with its heavy Byzantine influences, breathed new life into sculpture, architecture and metalwork. 1000-1150 - Romanesque Art For the first time in history, art is described by a term other than the name of a culture or civilization. Europe was becoming more of a cohesive entity, being held together by Christianity and feudalism. The invention of the barrel vault allowed churches to become cathedrals, sculpture became an integral part of architecture, and painting continued mainly in illuminated manuscripts.
Most illuminations of the early Christian period, whose style was based on Hellenistic prototypes, are preserved only in medieval copies made in monasteries. Sumptuous Byzantine codices of the 6th and 7th cent., such as the Vienna Genesis, also show the adaptation of antique models to biblical subject matter. In the 7th and 8th cent. the work of the Irish, Anglo-Saxons, Franks, and Lombards displayed rich decorative geometric designs with intricate human and animal interlacing, largely concentrated in initials and title pages. Among the masterpieces of Hiberno-Saxon illumination are the Book of Durrow, the Book of Kells (both: Trinity College Library, Dublin), and the Lindisfarne Gospels (British Mus.). The chief works of the Carolingian period date from the beginning of the 9th cent. and were created for the court of Charlemagne, whose aim was to revive the art of antiquity. The existence of several local monastic schools led to a variety of styles; prominent were the Ada group, characterized by splendid coloring and figures full of movement and expression, e.g., The Gospel Book of Ada (Municipal Library, Trier), and the Reims school, known for vibrant pen drawings with little color, e.g., the Utrecht Psalter (9th cent.; University Library, Utrecht). Works of the Reims school greatly influenced the English school of Winchester in the 10th and 11th cent. The Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (c.980) typifies this style, with sketchy drawings of elongated figures in fluttering drapery, enriched by foliated borders. Contemporary with the flowering of the Winchester school was the Ottonian renascence in Germany. Germanic illuminators used thick, luxurious colors with vigorous outlines and dynamic movement. Reichenau, Hildesheim, and Fulda were prominent centers of Ottonian art. In Byzantine miniatures a more classical mode continued into the 13th cent. in such works as the Joshua Roll (10th cent.; Vatican), along with images of a hieratic austerity. Italy was important for the diffusion of the Byzantine style; the most original works are the Exultet rolls (Pisa), containing joyous hymns. Byzantine work declined after the capture of Constantinople in 1204. In Spain, where there was a mixture of Christian and Arabic elements, a highly inventive work was the Commentary of Beatus on the Apocalypse (a 10th-century copy is in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City). The illumination of large books, Bibles and psalters, was fashionable in the Romanesque era. Richly decorated initials graced these books and, in the early 12th cent., stylized figures enhanced by complex garments and gestures were plentiful. Characteristic of mid-12th-century work is the Winchester Bible. Before the 14th cent. illuminated manuscripts in the West were nearly always made of vellum. Both ink outline and full-color drawings were common. The color medium was usually tempera , and the gilt was burnished to a high luster. Lavish illumination was most commonly applied to religious books, including early gospels, fashioned for rich patrons, then psalters and books of hours . A few other sorts of manuscripts, such as the bestiary , were, by tradition, profusely illustrated. Sections in this article: * Introduction * Early Illumination * Illumination in Early Christendom * The Golden Age of Illumination * Illumination in the Middle East and
A revival or rebirth of cultural awareness and learning that took place during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, particularly in Italy, but also in Germany and other European countries. The period was characterized by a renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman art and design
This was the Golden Age of Florence. Its most powerful family, the Medici (bankers and benevolent dictators), lavishly spent endless funds for the glory and beautification of their Republic. Artists flocked in for a share of the largess, built, sculpted, painted and began actively questioning "rules" of art. Art, in turn, became noticeably more individualized.
1452, the village of Vinci in Tuscany Though illegitimate, Leonardo was taken in and raised by his father. A child of unearthly beauty, Leonardo showed precocious genius in math, music and art. His greatest desire was to be apprenticed to a painter, a profession which was looked down upon at the time. Eventually, his father was worn down by the boy's undeniable talent, and took him to Florence to study painting, sculpting and engineering under the great Andrea del Verrocchio. Leonardo quickly outstripped his master (though he continued to study with Verrocchio until around 1476) and was admitted to the Florence painters' guild in 1472. How to make this brief? Leonardo spent about twenty years (1480s - 1499) in the service of Lodovico Sforza, the Duke of Milan (who frequently neglected to pay Leonardo). His output during this period included two of his best known paintings: The Madonna of the Rocks (1483-85) and the mural The Last Supper (1495-98). When Milan was seized by French troops in 1499, Leonardo returned to Florence. It was here that he painted one of the most famous portraits of all time, The Mona Lisa , more correctly known as La Gioconda (1503-06). Leonardo spent his later years moving between Florence, Rome and France, working on a variety of projects. He lived long enough to be appreciated and well-paid, a rarity among artists. Throughout it all, he kept prodigious notebooks, in "mirror" writing, to keep track of his ideas, designs, and numerous sketches. Leonardo eventually settled in France, at the invitation of Francis I, an ardent admirer.
Leonardo's Last Supper , on the end wall of the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, is one of the most renowned paintings of the High Renaissance. Recently restored, The Last Supper had already begun to flake during the artist's lifetime due to his failed attempt to paint on the walls in layers (not unlike the technique of tempera on panel), rather than in a true fresco technique . Even in its current state, it is a masterpiece of dramatic narrative and subtle pictorial illusionism. Leonardo chose to capture the moment just after Christ tells his apostles that one of them will betray him, and at the institution of the Eucharist. The effect of his statement causes a visible response, in the form of a wave of emotion among the apostles. These reactions are quite specific to each apostle, expressing what Leonardo called the "motions of the mind." Despite the dramatic reaction of the apostles, Leonardo imposes a sense of order on the scene. Christ's head is at the center of the composition, framed by a halo-like architectural opening. His head is also the vanishing point toward which all lines of the perspective projection of the architectural setting converge. The apostles are arranged around him in four groups of three united by their posture and gesture. Judas, who was traditionally placed on the opposite side of the table, is here set apart from the other apostles by his shadowed face.
The examples below demonstrate that Leonardo Da Vinci was not the only artist who depicted the Disciple John in such a way within the context of The Last Supper (and it should also be noted that Medieval Christian apocryphal tradition also maintains that the Disciple John was married to Mary Magdalene – as claimed in the Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voraigne, when discussing Mary Magdalene’s "journey to Marseilles", for example).
Leonardo may also be credited with the most famous portrait of all time, that of Lisa, wife of Francesco del Giocondo, and known as the Mona Lisa (Paris, Louvre). An aura of mystery surrounds this painting, which is veiled in a soft light, creating an atmosphere of enchantment. There are no hard lines or contours here (a technique of painting known as sfumato — fumo in Italian means "smoke"), only seamless transitions between light and dark. Perhaps the most striking feature of the painting is the sitter's ambiguous half smile. She looks directly at the viewer, but her arms, torso, and head each twist subtly in a different direction, conveying an arrested sense of movement. Leonardo explores the possibilities of oil paint in the soft folds of the drapery, texture of skin, and contrasting light and dark (chiaroscuro). The deeply receding background, with its winding rivers and rock formations, is an example of Leonardo's personal view of the natural world: one in which everything is liquid, in flux, and filled with movement and energy.
Young Michelangelo, motherless by the age of six, fought long and hard with his father for permission to apprentice as an artist. At the age of 12, he began studying under Domenico Ghirlandajo, who was the most fashionable painter in Florence at the time. Fashionable, but extremely jealous of Michelangelo's emerging talent. Ghirlandajo passed the lad off to be apprenticed to Bertoldo di Giovanni, the sculptor, and here Michelangelo found the work that became his true passion. His sculpture came to the attention of the most powerful family in Florence, the Medici, and he gained their patronage. Michelangelo's output was, quite simply, stunning, in quality, quantity and scale. His most famous statues include the 18-foot David (1501-1504) and the Pietà (1499), but his sculpture encompassed many other pieces including elaborately decorated tombs. He did not consider himself a painter, and (justifiably) complained throughout four straight years of the work, but created one of the greatest masterpieces of all time on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (1508-1512). Additionally, he painted The Last Judgment (1534-1541) on the altar wall of the same chapel many years later. As an old man, he was tapped by the Pope to complete the half-finished St. Peter's Church in the Vatican. Not all of the plans he drew were utilized but, after his death, architects built the dome still in use today. His poetry was very personal and not as grand as his other works, yet is of great value to those who wish to know Michelangelo. Accounts of his life seem to portray Michelangelo as a prickly-tempered, mistrusting and lonely man, lacking in both interpersonal skills and confidence in his physical appearance. Perhaps that is why he created works of such heartbreaking beauty and heroism that they are still held in awe these many centuries later.
Michelangelo, while working on what he loves most (sculpture), is summoned to The Vatican by Pope Julius II to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Little did he know that his arch rival, Bramante, persuaded the Pope to commission Michelangelo because of Bramante's fear that he (Michelangelo) would eventually weasel his way into the design and construction of the new St. Peter's Cathedral, something that Bramante did NOT want to share with anyone else. Bramante came up with the perfect plan: have the Pope hire Michelangelo, who was self-admittedly not at all a fresco painter, to do the frescoes, which were a super long term project. Michelangelo would naturally screw up the ceiling because he wasn't a painter and because his own personality, would eventually sabotage the project anyway. Next, the Pope gets upset, kills Michelangelo, and then Raphael (a personal friend of Bramante) would step up to the plate and finish the frescoes off. What a plan! The only problem is that Bramante's plan didn't work. Michelangelo, complaining every step of the way, finished the frescoes in four years, and did them so beautifully, so magnificently, that his reputation was greatly enhanced, both with the public and the Pope. Fifteen years later, Bramante dies, and Michelangelo starts (guess what?....) designing the dome and facade of the new St. Peters.
History of Art Art II
Before books, writing or even the alphabet there was Art. What does art tell us?
Art tells us history. -Previous customs -clothing -food they ate -how they lived -religion, traditions
The Beginning: Prehistoric Art 30,000-10,000 B.C. People were strictly hunter- gatherers Did not have permanent dwellings (caves or tents) Humans made a gigantic leap in abstract thinking and began creating art.
It took a few million years before people began to start expressing themselves through art Cave paintings, of Lascaux, France Paint, Limestone 10,000-15,000 bc
“Art for the Dead” 3200-1340 BC - Egypt - Art in ancient Egypt was art for the dead. Egyptian art was created for their journey to afterlife In order for a Pharaoh to become a “god” they had to create temples for worshiping the gods, massive tombs for afterlife, defend Egypt, and keep Upper and Lower Egypt united.
The Pyramids of Giza also known as “The Great Pyramids” One of the seven wonders of the world 3 different pyramids Khafre, Khufu, and Menkaure Giza a suburb of Cairo The pyramids served as tombs for Pharaohs. Each Pyramid is slightly different, Khufu is the largest Several smaller tombs for members of the royal family in front
Decorated tombs with colorful pictures of the gods they believed ruled in the afterlife. Tombs also possessed many statues and sculptures Tombs took thousands of slaves to build. (average age of slaves life 30-35) Used wood, stone, and mud to create ramps with rope to move the massive stones Not built in one pharaohs lifetime.
Pyramids show that egyptian were efficient with geometry and pythagorean theorem Each stone was cut square and placed to keep perfect symmetric slope
Over 2 million blocks used on Khufu’s pyramids On average each block weighed 2.5 tons Base is the size of 7 city blocks Total weight 6.5 million tons
The Great Sphinx, 2500 B.C. Carved from a single block of limestone leftover from the pyramids Pharaoh Khafre ordered the construction of the Sphinx Half human half lion 240 feet long and 66 feet tall
Characteristics of Egyptian Art Faces looked generic, cartoonish Unnatural poses Stiff Figures Not very realistic
Mycerinus and his Queen Both have left foot forward but no sense of movement The queen is as tall as Mycerinus Queen sculpture is not very feminine Two left feet, not in proportion
Funerary Mask A sculpture masterpiece Made of gold and jewels More realistic then most Egyptian sculpture Great detail with design
Ancient Egyptian ArtCreated for: The dead pharaohs and rulers (after life) Art was also created for the gods
Greek Era 900 B.C. - 200 B.C. Greece -As a society they were the most artistic all around. Excelled in all of the “Arts” drama, literature, music, painting, sculpture, poetry, architecture. Ceramics, painting, architecture and sculpture all glorified the greatest creation of all: humans. Greeks were heavily influenced by Mythology
Greek Art gave us Realistic Sculpture Aesthetics/Human Body Architecture/Columns
What was going on in Greece? 776 Olympics Alphabetic/ Writing Coins Socrates, Plato, Aristotle/Philosophy Music/Drama Human Body Perfection Mathematics Mythology
Acropolis (650-480 B.C.) Greek city on a hill Hill was a extremely rocky, called “Sacred Rock” Acropolis was where many architecture advances were made City was full of many different art forms: sculptures, vases, architecture
Three major temples were created on the Acropolis: The Parthenon Erechtheion Temple of Nike Temples were dedicated to the different Gods
Parthenon (447-438 B.C.) Most important monument of Greek civilization It was dedicated to Athena, goddess of Athens
Made mostly of marble, 8 columns on one side and 17 on long side Central part of the temple is the cella where the statue of Athena is Many renowned Greek sculptures sculpted pieces in the Parthenon
Compare and ContrastEarly Greek sculptures to Egyptian sculptures
(Standing Youth) Kouros 600 B.C. Marble Early Greek Sculptures Very comparable to Egypt sculptures Block looking Hands in a fist, same posture First true “Freestanding” sculpture Sculptures are separated from stone
Kroisos, 525 B.C. marble, 6’4” Many of these sculptures were created during this time period Used as gifts, offerings, placed on graves
Sculptures pulled away from Egyptian style and became very realistic. Greeks strived for the perfect body Sculptures very life-like Muscle tones created Faces look realistic/different not generic Created first free- standing sculptures Sculptures based on the gods and mythology
Doryphorus, 450-440 B.C. Classical ideal of the human body Realistic pose Relaxed pose
Discobolos, 450 B.C. Sculpted by Myron One of the most famous sculpture Gives us a sense of movement First sculpture to do this
Roman Era 500 B.C. - 300 A.D. The Romans conquered their world with a great efficiency that remains unmatched. They spread their power across many civilizations. Romans created their own style, but were heavily influenced by the Greeks.
What was going on in Rome? Law Plumbing Julius Caesar dictator Invention of paper Water mills Cement Roads Invention of glass blowing Architecture/Engineering
Roman art stood for power. Architecture became monumental, beginning of arches and use of concrete Sculptures depicted re-named gods, goddesses and prominent Citizens/Leaders Painting, the landscape was introduced and frescos became enormous.
Arches Perfected by Romans and allowed them to create monumental-spacious buildings
Pont du Gard, Nimes Early first century, Southern France Aqueduct carried water hundreds of miles Arches
The Colosseum In the center of Rome In terms of mass one of largest single buildings in the world
Builders of the Colosseum. The Coliseum’s main purpose was for a main gathering place. Drama, gladiators, town meetings Starting of “arches” Seat over 50,000 people Practical and efficient organization could handle large crowds (80 entrances and exits)
*Below the wooden arena floor,there was complex set of roomsand passageways for wildbeasts and other provisions forstaging the spectacles*Eighty walls radiate from thearena and support vaults forpassageways, stairways and thetiers of seats
The Pantheon is a Roman Law Building with a big dome and very thick walls.
Vaulted roof Very large round temple Stood the test of time Very large dome, opening is 143 feet tall Hemispherical dome Proportional circle
Julius Caesar The great emperor of Rome Began as a general and through many victories worked himself to the dictator of Rome
Augustus, 20 B.C. 6’ 8” Sculpture of the emperor Augustus Augustus was the adopted son of Julius Caesar Made to look god-like Hand up to show authority
Wearing the uniform of a Roman general, depicting he is a great warrior Holding staff, shows his power
Toga Party Formal garment of Ancient Rome Symbol of citizenship Worn only for formal occasions
Gothic Era 200 A.D. - 1300 A.D. The artwork in this era was dark. This was due to barbarians taking over, conquering the empire of Rome. Artwork took a step back. It reversed. "Gothic" was first coined to (derogatorily) describe this eras style- Goths a term for barbarians The artwork was so dreadful that only barbarians could create this work
Notre Dame de Paris, 1163-1285 A.D. One of the most famous/historic gothic churches Took over 100 years to complete Unique square shapes on towers
Consists of rose windows of stained glass, ornately crafted spires, and the guardians of the cathedral, the Gargoyles. Vaulted roofs surpassed previous cathedrals, used triangular ribs and transverse arches Three different portals or entrances contained different sculptures of bible scenes
Entrance Relief sculptures of the Saints from the Bible Sculptures almost come alive Each sculpture tells a story from the Bible
Paris Rose Contains nearly all of the original stain glass Much of the stained glass in churches were destroyed during the middle ages/war The light from the Paris Rose shined down on a sculpture of Mary
What was Gothic art based heavily on? Churches/Architecture Bible/Manuscripts Stained Glass Art was more symbolic than realistic
Renaissance Era 1,200 A.D. - 1,700 A.D. Renaissance means rebirth. Revival of cultural awareness and learning Renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman art and design Emphasis on human beings, their environment, science, and philosophy. Artwork was done on walls and ceilings of churches, public buildings, and private dwellings.
Artistic Advancements Invention of oil paints Discovery of perspective drawing and painting Beginning of printmaking
Invention of Oil Paint Tempera paint was made by mixing pigment powder with egg yolks or gum VERY RESTRICTIVE. Oil paint was invented by mixing pigments with linseed oil Oil paint was easily blended, long lasting, slow drying, many different colors
Invention of Perspective Perspective techniques give the illusion of depth Objects that are closer are larger and objects that are further away are smaller Invention of the laws and mathematics of perspective was by Brunelleschi Using vanishing points and receding lines realism was achieved QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
Invention of Printmaking It enabled the transmission and communication of ideas Only place you could QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor see artwork was in are needed to see this picture. churches (just the privileged/rich) Wood block prints, copper engraving,
Which of the three new inventionsdo you feel impacted art the most, oil paint, perspective, or printmaking? Why?
Florence, Italy Florence was the center of technological, scientific, and artistic discovery Many advances in architecture, mathematics, medicine, and engineering take place in Florence
Four Major Artists of the Era: Turtle Power: Donatello, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael
Donatello di Niccolo Bardi (1386-1466) Donatello is known for his sculpture. Acquired great fame in his lifetime and was called to many Italian cities to share his gift of sculpture
David, 1425 A.D. First free-standing nude sculpture in a 1000 years Church was finally less restrictive Depicts David slaying the Goliath The sculpture of David became a symbol for Florence
St George 1415-1416 Commissioned sculpture for the outside of a Florentine church Very realistic, broke away from typical Gothic sculptures Also broke away from Roman and Greek sculptures Used live models to created piece
He shows emotion with his face Has an attitude This was new and fresh
Leonardo Da Vinci 1452-1519"Obstacles cannot crush me. Every obstacle yields to stern resolve. He who is fixed to a star does not change his mind." Trained in Florence, Italy as a painter and sculptor not a scholar Was a genius both scientifically and artistically Was not interested in books and what scholars had to say-he was interested in his own explorations and ideas Always had to prove everything Struggle to work for commission and finish work Did drawings and sculptures on his own terms.
Was a pioneer in the study of human anatomy Dissected over thirty bodies Almost 2,500 drawings and studies of his ideas left in notebooks Most of his notes and drawings were kept-people knew of the importance of them and the genius of Leonardo
Leonardo was left handed He took all of his notes from right to left Need a mirror to read his notes
Inventor Created many drawings of machines and different items of functions Examples of war machines: armored car, ladder for besieging walls, rock thrower
Located on end wall of the refectory of Santa Maria delle in Millan One of the most renowned paintings of the Renaissance Painting depicts the scene Jesus and the apostles at the last supper, when Jesus tells the apostles that one of them will betray him
Leonardo painted himself Controversial Mary Magdalene
Painting demonstrates one point perspective Jesus head is the vanishing point Leonardo would spend a full day just looking at the painting-studying
“Mona Lisa” Most famous portrait of all time Painting is the wife, Lisa, of Francesco del Giocondo Painting has no hard lines or contours, technique called sfumato Painting leaves us something to guess Most striking is her ambiguous half smile
First portrait in which awoman looked straight intothe viewer.Portrait suggests a history,personality, mood, andfeeling.First recognized for itsbackground.
Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) Trained in Florence, Italy Dissected humans and drew the human body in many different positions Influenced by Greek and Roman Sculptures Sculpture was his true love, he hated to paint
Michelangelo was a prickly-tempered, mistrusting and lonely man, lacking in both interpersonal skills and confidence in his physical appearance. Was often hated by other artists because of his supreme talent and he often told you about how good he was His conceit and arrogance cost him many friends and found himself working alone Nobody could argue his brilliance and geniuses
The statue of “David” Stands over 14’ tall carved of marble Three long years to complete the sculpture
The Statue of “David”“A civic hero, he was awarning...whoever governed Florenceshould govern justly and defend itbravely. Eyes watchful...the neck of abull...hands of a killer...the body, areservoir of energy. He stands poised tostrike." -MichelangeloCombined beauty with powerfulmeaningStatue stood Palazzo Vecchio, as asymbol of our RepublicStatue took 40 men 5 days to move itin place
Sistine Chapel How it began: Michelangelo, while working on what he loves most (sculpture), is summoned to The Vatican by Pope Julius II to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Bramante, persuaded the Pope to commission Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Bramnate did not want Michelangelo involved in the construction of the St. Peters Cathedral Bramante knew that Michelangelo was a self-proclaimed “terrible painter” Hoping he would “screw” up the paintings and the Pope would have him killed and Raphael (his friend) would take the paintings over. Plan did not succeed
Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel “Genius is Internal Patience” Commissioned by Julius II Began creating drawings and studies in 1508 Him and a team of artist starting painting in the fall of 1508 1509, Michelangelo fired all of his assistants and removed all paintings and took the job over himself Kept his work hidden to all except the Pope He painted high on scaffolding on his back
Much pressure was put on the artist to complete the paintings In 1511, as a result of the pressure, the paintings were uncovered even though they were not completely finished In 1512 he finally completed the Sistine Chapel Many artists were influenced by Michelangelo’s unique style of paintings
"After four tortured years, more than 400over life-sized figures, Ifelt as old and as wearyas Jeremiah. I was only 37, yet friends did notrecognize the old man I had become." -Michelangelo
Nine scenes from the Book of Genesis, beginning with God Separating Light from Darkness and including the Creation of Adam and Eve, the Temptation and Fall of Adam and Eve, and the Flood. In order to prepare for this enormous work, Michelangelo drew numerous figure studies and cartoons, devising scores of figure types and poses. These awesome, mighty images, demonstrating Michelangelos masterly understanding of human anatomy and movement, changed the course of painting in the West.
Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520) Raphael was strictly a painter Raphael was well liked with an easy going attitude Had a tough artistic reputation to live up with Leonardo (31 years older) and Michelangelo (8 years older) Heavily influenced by both Had a short career
Plato and Aristotle in the middle of painting and Greek philosophers, poets, mathematicians congregate around them The Classical architecture acts as a backdrop, pulling the viewer into the work by means of 1 point perspective. The figures are highly sculptural, twisting and turning with high movement, influenced by Michelangelo
Galatea 1513 B.C. Light and playful theme.. The movement, the twisting and turning of the figures is reminisce of The Sistine Chapel Painting has a triangular composition, a circular movement and rhythm.
Madonna with a Goldfinch The Madonna shows us all the gentle tenderness of a Leonardo and the sculptural presence of a Michelangelo. Notice the triangular composition
Romanticism Era 1,600 A.D. - 1,850 A.D. Romanticism rebelled against classical forms and rules 1)Paintings were given personality 2)Emotional/dramatic paintings 3)Landscapes Paintings 4)Very Realistic
Small pox vaccine Steam Engine Patent American Revolution French Revolution Artists: Rembrandt, Goya, Hogarth, Halls, Rubens.
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Very talented painter Great at organizing figures in a painting Paintings had great detail and very life-like
Rembrandt Van Rijn (1606-1669) Dutch painter, draftsmen, and etcher Greatest artist of the 17th century His paintings are characterized by luxuriant brushwork, rich color, and a mastery of chiaroscuro.
Numerous portraits and self-portraits exhibit a profound penetration of character. His drawings constitute a vivid record of contemporary Amsterdam life. The greatest artist of the Dutch school, he was a master of light and shadow whose paintings, drawings, and etchings made him a giant in the history of art. Could bring the “personality” alive in paintings