( major
autotrophic community )
(Biotic
community)
-
-
-
-
(biodiversity)
:
3
1. (genetic
diversity)
2. (species
diversity)
3.
(ecosystem diversity)
(
species diversity index )
( Simson’s index )
D = N ( N –
N ( n -
D =
N =
n =
Shannon Wiener index
H = - s
i=1 Pi ln Pi
H =
Pi =
S =
dominance
species
-
-
-
-
( ecotone )
( edge
Changes in Ecosystems:
Ecological Succession
Definition:
• Natural, gradual changes in the types of
species that live in an area; can be
primary or secondary
• The gra...
(community succession)
(sere)
(
climax community )
Climax Community
• A stable group of plants and animals that
is the end result of the succession process
• Does not always...
1.
primary succession
Primary Succession
• Begins in a place without any soil
– Sides of volcanoes
– Landslides
– Flooding
• Starts with the arr...
xerosere
crustose lichen
foliose lichen
fructicose lichen
herbs
shrub
tree
Succession
pioneer stage
floating stage
submerged
vegetation stage
emerging
vegetating stage
marsh temporary pond
stage
pond successi...
As the lake
becomes smaller
and smaller, it
may not be able
to provide enough
oxygen or food for
some fish But this
happen...
interactive usask ca/.../forest_succession.html
secondary succesion)
Secondary Succession
• Begins in a place that already has soil and
was once the home of living organisms
• Occurs faster a...
Succession
-
protozoa
succession
การเปลี่ยนแปลงแทนที่
การเปลี่ยนแปลงแทนที่
การเปลี่ยนแปลงแทนที่
การเปลี่ยนแปลงแทนที่
การเปลี่ยนแปลงแทนที่
การเปลี่ยนแปลงแทนที่
การเปลี่ยนแปลงแทนที่
การเปลี่ยนแปลงแทนที่
การเปลี่ยนแปลงแทนที่
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การเปลี่ยนแปลงแทนที่

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การเปลี่ยนแปลงแทนที่

  1. 1. ( major autotrophic community ) (Biotic community)
  2. 2. - - - -
  3. 3. (biodiversity) : 3
  4. 4. 1. (genetic diversity) 2. (species diversity) 3. (ecosystem diversity)
  5. 5. ( species diversity index ) ( Simson’s index ) D = N ( N – N ( n - D = N = n =
  6. 6. Shannon Wiener index H = - s i=1 Pi ln Pi H = Pi = S =
  7. 7. dominance species - - - -
  8. 8. ( ecotone ) ( edge
  9. 9. Changes in Ecosystems: Ecological Succession
  10. 10. Definition: • Natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary • The gradual replacement of one plant community by another through natural processes over time
  11. 11. (community succession) (sere) ( climax community )
  12. 12. Climax Community • A stable group of plants and animals that is the end result of the succession process • Does not always mean big trees – Grasses in prairies – Cacti in deserts
  13. 13. 1. primary succession
  14. 14. Primary Succession • Begins in a place without any soil – Sides of volcanoes – Landslides – Flooding • Starts with the arrival of living things such as lichens that do not need soil to survive • Called PIONEER SPECIES
  15. 15. xerosere crustose lichen foliose lichen fructicose lichen herbs shrub tree
  16. 16. Succession
  17. 17. pioneer stage floating stage submerged vegetation stage emerging vegetating stage marsh temporary pond stage pond succession
  18. 18. As the lake becomes smaller and smaller, it may not be able to provide enough oxygen or food for some fish But this happens so slowly that they have plenty of time to move on to other lakes, if the lake ishttp www kidfish bc ca o
  19. 19. interactive usask ca/.../forest_succession.html
  20. 20. secondary succesion)
  21. 21. Secondary Succession • Begins in a place that already has soil and was once the home of living organisms • Occurs faster and has different pioneer species than primary succession • Example: after forest fires
  22. 22. Succession
  23. 23. - protozoa succession

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