The Core Periphery Relationship

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A Level AQA Geography

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The Core Periphery Relationship

  1. 1. The Core-Periphery Relationship
  2. 2. The Core-Periphery Relationship <ul><li>What is the core & periphery? </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the models of economic development </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions <ul><li>Core: part of a country with most economic activity and development and therefore is the most prosperous </li></ul><ul><li>Periphery: area of low or declining economic development within a country. Some refer to all areas outside the core as the periphery </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rostow’s Model of development
  5. 5. Friedmann’s Stages of growth Model <ul><li>Stage 1: Preindustrial Economy. country has a number of relatively independent local centres, each serving a small region. No hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Transitional Economy. Single core develops during initial industrialisation, underdeveloped periphery makes up reminder of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3: Industrial Economy. The core-periphery becomes transformed into multi-nuclear structure with a national core and a number of sub-cores. Upward spiral in core, downward in periphery </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4: Post-Industrial Economy. Functional interdependent system of cities develops, resulting in national integration and maximum growth potential. Friedmann believes USA reached this stage but with peripheral areas such as Alaska. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Friedmann’s model
  7. 7. Myrdal’s Cumulative Causation <ul><li>This was to explain regional differences. A reverse flow of selective migration from rural to urban areas causes greater regional inequalities. </li></ul><ul><li>Successful growing areas attract more economic activity causing even greater disparity. This economic concentration in core areas is called backwash or polarisation. The core has a cumulative & growing advantage over the periphery. These areas can use economies of scale, better technology etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Some areas will have upward spirals & some will have downward spirals due to the multiplier effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth will slowly spread to periphery areas as greater food & the core needs resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Land prices in the core rise & so some companies will decentralise to the periphery. </li></ul><ul><li>The gap between core & periphery depends on the relative rates of backwash & spread. If backwash dominates there is an increasing gap; if spread dominates there is a decreasing gap. </li></ul>

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