F.D UGESEI, K. P. BAIYERI2 & B.N. MBAH2 1 Department of Crop Production, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria2 Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Shea fat an important product from the shea tree. Has different uses: Illumination Bone setting Food industry Cosmetic industry
BACKGROUNDFatty acid composition determines end use of shea fat:Hard butter – chocolate industrySoft butter – cosmetic industryNot much information about fatty acid variation across Nigerian shea belt.
Objective Determination of fatty acid composition of shea fat across the Nigeria savannah.
MATERIALS AND METHODS Samples collected from 9 locations across the savannah.o Ilorin, Lokoja, Makurdi, Akwanga, Minna (Southern Guinea Savannah)o Jalingo, Kachia (Northern Guinea Savannah)o Yola and Kano (Sudan Savannah) 15-25 trees sampled per location. Fat extracted with petroleum ether. Fatty acid determination by gas chromatography.
Analysis of variance Mean separation by DNMRT
Table 1. Fatty acid composition of Nigerian shea butter basedon agroecological zone Agroecolo Stearic acid Oleic acid Linoleic Palmitic gical zone (%) (%) acid (%) acid (%) Southern 46.3b 41.8b 6.6a 4.3a guinea savanna Northern 48.2a 39.7c 6.9a 4.4a guinea savanna savanna 46.1b 42.1ab 6.5a 4.6a Means within a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different according to Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test at P = 0.05
Table 2. Fatty acid composition of Nigerian shea butter based onaccession Accessio Stearic Oleic Linoleic Palmitic n acid (%) acid (%) acid (%) acid (%) Lokoja 45.1d 43.4a 6.5b 4.2ab Makurdi 47.0abc 41.3d 6.5b 3.7c Akwanga 46.6abc 42.2bc 6.1bc 3.9bc Minna 46.5abc 40.2e 7.2a 5.4a Kachia 46.7abc 42.2bc 6.3b 4.1ab Jalingo 49.7a 37.2f 7.4a 4.6a Yola 46.2bc 42.7a 5.8c 4.6a 46.0bc 41.5bcd 7.2a 4.5a Means within a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different according to Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test at P = 0.05
CONCLUSION Nigerian shea fat dominated by stearic acid. The shea fat most suited for the food industry.
More populations could be sampled to get more information on butter fatty acid composition. Could help in easy sourcing of butter for the different end uses.
KEY REFERENCEUgese, F. D., Baiyeri, K. P. and Mbah, B.N. 2010. Fatty acid profile of the fat ofshea butter tree (Vitellaria paradoxa C. F.Gaertn.) seeds obtained from the savannaof Nigeria. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods19: 393-398