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using   trees   to reduce stormwater runoff
stormwater runoff is the number one factor in the decline of urban streams and decreasing urban water quality !
old news ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],trees are the original “multi-taskers”
?? so if trees and forests provide so many benefits beyond reducing stormwater …shouldn’t they be more of a priority consideration  in site design. ?? ,[object Object],[object Object]
don’t trees get some credit already? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source: CWP
trees & stormwater: some conclusions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Approaches to use trees for stormwater management ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
incorporating trees into  stormwater practices ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
challenges… Urban  Foresters Engineers/ Planners Now remember, you have to work together  Leftover disturbed areas are not the only place for trees We can retain valuable trees that improve watershed functions We  can  use trees in SW practices if we design it differently We need wider streets and curbs Keep the trees in the park, we need the tax revenue Don’t worry, we’ll come back and plant trees later.
potential engineering conflicts  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source: Tim Schueler
conditions that limit tree growth in stormwater/urban practices   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
most stormwater projects are… ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Historic Approach to Stormwater Management: move water off the site as quickly as possible
typical stormwater pond with no trees More recent approach is to temporarily detain runoff to control peak flows – this does not reduce the volume of runoff or mimic pre-development hydrology
What opportunities are we missing?
Why integrate trees and stormwater? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Stormwater projects can reduce water quantity, improve water quality…and be beautiful.
 
Stormwater practices can be amenities for people…
[object Object]
how do we get there?
stormwater forestry practice concept designs…what if? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Wooded Wetland Third Generation The Forested Wetland—water quality + tree benefits
Tree Clusters in Stormwater Ponds and Wetlands
Bioretention with trees
tree check dams tree check dam section tree check dam axon
Alternating side slope plantings
Multi-zone filter strip
Forested filter strip
linear stormwater tree pits
stormwater drypond
 
stormwater drypond
Stormwater forestry opportunities in a watershed ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Opportunities to build urban tree canopy that can enhance stormwater treatment and improve watershed health
schools
parks
forest cover in parks limits runoff
highway right of way
 
vacant lots are a good opportunity for reforestation and neighborhood beautification
Combining Reforestation and Soil Compost Amendments to  Restore a Vacant Urban Lot
Reforesting stream buffers provides stream shading, bank stabilization, pollutant removal and other benefits
planting under utilities
Plant Trees During  Development/Redevelopment
More shade means more time between repaving. 20% shade on a street improves pavement condition by 11%, which is a 60% savings for resurfacing over 30 years. Planting along local roads
local roads median planting
Trees planted in a median strip
A typical cul-de-sac is a large expanse of pavement with no vegetation
Trees can be incorporated into cul-de-sac islands
No infiltration of rainfall & limited soil volume  Parking Lots
Trees in parking lots perimeter
What opportunities are we missing?
So what’s with turf cover?  fastest growing land cover in the US! Sources: MTC (1996), VASS (1998) and PTC (1989) (% of total turf cover)
the truth about turf  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],See Urban Watershed Forestry Manual Part 1
Trees planted on home lawns provide shade and other benefits at maturity
Use trees to:  block winter winds,  shade summer sun,  accent important views, and  screen private areas Residential landscapes can be functional and beautiful
Stormwater Design Amenities,  Emerging Discoveries ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Source: Echols, Pennypacker 06
12th street green street, portland oregon
Stormwater runoff from 8000 square feet flows downhill along the existing curb unit. Stormwater planter system reduces intensity of a 25 year storm event by 70% or more.
 
Infiltration = 4 inches per hours
 
 
 
Seattle SEA Streets Seattle SEA (Street Edge Alternatives) Streets Project uses graded swales  to reduce impervious cover by 11% over traditional streets. Project has decreased stormwater volume by 97 percent.
A concept drawing of the $800,000 street edge alternative (SEA) project shows 14-foot-wide curved street, swales, additional trees, vegetation and diagonal parking areas for cars.
SEA Streets
The Cascade Prototype project at N. 110th St. after most of the construction has been completed and before planting.
[object Object],Visible water trail that intrigues and Engages
 
“ beckoning cistern”  by buster simpson Growing Vine, Seattle Washington
 
alternative sidewalk design Traditional sidewalk designs utilize individual tree pits (left) which confine roots; alternative designs cluster trees (right), which allows them to share rooting space.  This reduces the need for tree roots to grow under pavement.
alternative sidewalk materials ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],*Goal is to allow tree roots to grow under sidewalks without causing damage
so what if we… ,[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object]

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Using Trees To Reduce Stormwater Runoff