Better Site Design Part1


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This is the first half of an extensive outline of all 22 model land development principles

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  • The land development process has a documented impact on the quality of our watersheds. One of the best ways to mitigate these impacts is to control the way that development sites are designed. Better site design is a process by which local governments can review their zoning and ordinance codes to minimize impervious cover and promote conservation of natural areas. This presentation outlines 22 model principles for land development that focus on streets, parking lots, lot design, and conservation of natural areas in new developments.
  • Better Site Design Part1

    1. 1. Better Site Design: Model Development Principles to Protect Our Streams, Lakes, and Wetlands Presented by:
    2. 2. Model Development Principles <ul><li>Three Categories of Development: </li></ul><ul><li>Residential Streets and Parking Lots </li></ul><ul><li>Lot Development </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of Natural Areas </li></ul>
    3. 3. Model Development Principles <ul><li>Need to be adapted to meet unique conditions in your community </li></ul><ul><li>Will not apply to all developments </li></ul><ul><li>Act as benchmarks, but are not cookie cutters </li></ul><ul><li>Do not address infill and redevelopment </li></ul><ul><li>Need to be consistent with environmental and watershed plans </li></ul>
    4. 4. Residential Streets and Parking Lots <ul><li>1. Street Width </li></ul><ul><li>2. Street Length </li></ul><ul><li>3. Right-of-Way Width </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cul-de-Sacs </li></ul><ul><li>5. Vegetated Open </li></ul><ul><li> Channels </li></ul><ul><li>6. Parking Ratios </li></ul><ul><li>7. Parking Codes </li></ul><ul><li>8. Parking Lot Design </li></ul><ul><li>9. Structured Parking </li></ul><ul><li>10. Parking Lot Runoff </li></ul>
    5. 6. PRINCIPLE NO. 1 Reduce Residential Street Width <ul><li>Design residential streets for minimum pavement width needed to support travel lanes; on-street parking; and emergency, maintenance, and service vehicle access. </li></ul><ul><li>Street widths should be based on traffic volume. </li></ul>
    6. 7. Residential streets are often excessively wide, especially when blanket application of highway design criteria are used. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    7. 8. Narrow residential streets reduce traffic speeds, improve safety, provide sufficient access and parking, and reduce the amount of impervious cover created. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    8. 10. Traditional Streets vs. Queuing Streets Traditional Street Queuing Street
    9. 11. PRINCIPLE NO. 2 Reduce Residential Street Length <ul><li>Reduce the total length of residential streets by examining alternative layouts that increase the number of homes served per unit length. </li></ul>
    10. 12. Alternative Road Patterns
    11. 13. Side yard setbacks have been reduced in this development to maximize use of the street length. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    12. 14. PRINCIPLE NO. 3 Reduce Residential Right-of-Way Widths <ul><li>Residential street right-of-way widths should be the minimum to accommodate the travel-way, the sidewalk, and open channels . </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities and storm drains should be located within the pavement section of the right-of-way. </li></ul>
    13. 15. Blanket application of street design standards can create excessively wide right-of-ways. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    14. 16. Rather than a small median dividing the street right-of-ways, this monumental entryway can provide open space and a more attractive street layout between right-of-ways. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    15. 17. PRINCIPLE NO. 4 Minimize Cul-de-Sacs <ul><li>Minimize the number of residential street cul-de-sacs and incorporate landscaped areas to reduce their impervious cover. </li></ul><ul><li>The radius should be the minimum needed for emergency and maintenance vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative turnarounds should be considered. </li></ul>
    16. 18. This aerial photograph emphasizes the excessive amount of impervious cover created by large cul-de-sacs. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    17. 19. The amount of impervious surface created by cul-de-sacs can be reduced by creating a pervious island in the center. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    18. 20. 40 FT CUL-DE-SAC W/ ISLAND 30 FT RADIUS CUL-DE-SAC T-SHAPED TURNAROUND LOOP ROAD Alternative Turnaround Options
    19. 21. PRINCIPLE NO. 5 Use Vegetated Open Channels <ul><li>Where density, topography, soils, and slope permit, vegetated open channels should be used in the street right-of-way to convey and treat stormwater runoff. </li></ul>
    20. 22. Many conventional neighborhoods use curbs and gutters to convey stormwater runoff away from residential streets as quickly as possible. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    21. 23. Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    22. 24. Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    23. 25. Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    24. 26. This photograph is an example of an open channel. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    25. 27. PRINCIPLE NO. 6 Lower Parking Ratios <ul><li>The required parking ratio for a land use should be enforced as both a maximum and a minimum in order to curb excess parking. </li></ul><ul><li>Existing parking ratios should conform to local and/or national rates. </li></ul>
    26. 29. One of the goals of principle #6 is to avoid big, empty parking lots like this. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    27. 31. The use of most of the parking spaces provided in a lot, most of the time, is one of the goals of principle #6. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    28. 32. PRINCIPLE NO. 7 Reduce Parking Ratios for Mass Transit or Shared Parking <ul><li>Parking codes should be revised to lower parking requirements where mass transit is available or enforceable shared parking arrangements are made. </li></ul>
    29. 33. Washington D.C’s Metro system not only reduces demand for parking and highways, but also provides a more pleasant alternative for the daily commute.
    30. 34. PRINCIPLE NO. 8 Reduce Parking Lot Imperviousness <ul><li>Reduce the impervious cover of parking lots by providing compact car spaces, minimizing stall dimensions, incorporating efficient parking lanes, and using pervious materials in spillover parking areas. </li></ul>
    31. 35. Communities seldom allow smaller parking spaces that can handle compact cars, despite the fact that these smaller cars comprise 40 to 50% of all cars on the road.
    32. 36. Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    33. 37. Impervious Cover Reduction