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Africa: Water

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This is a presentation made by the invited speaker Bruce McCormack at the Waternomics final event on 31/01/2017 for discussing Water Issues in Africa

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Africa: Water

  1. 1. AFRICA WATER ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bruce McCormack Bruce McCormack Consulting Presentation at Waternomics Conference INSIGHT, University of Galway, Galway, Ireland 31 January 2017
  2. 2. AFRICA WHAT’S GOING ON Population
  3. 3. POPULATION GROWTH - 1.2b 2.5b (2016 approx.) 34years (2050 est.) …. 38m annually ….
  4. 4. WORLD POPULATION 2100 (guestimate) UN 2100 estimate Africa … 3.5b Europe …. 700m
  5. 5. FERTILITY RATES
  6. 6. WHAT’S GOING ON Urbanisation
  7. 7. GLOBAL URBAN LEVELS …2011 …
  8. 8. URBANISATION LEVELS …. estimated 450m rural > urban population addition by 2050 (UNEP 2016) …. …. another 13m annually ….
  9. 9. CITY SIZES 2050 FORECAST …. urban growth rate 2010-15 = 4.2%pa (double in 17 years) …. …. 2014 UN HABITAT estimate 203m living in slums ….
  10. 10. FORMAL URBAN DEVELOPMENT …. lots of it BUT ……62% of Africa population live in informal settlements (urban & rural) (UN Habitat 2013) Cape Town, S Africa Lagos, Nigeria
  11. 11. INFORMAL SETTLEMENT … major expanding issue … KIBERA, NAIROBI
  12. 12. KIBERA … approx. 250 000 people …
  13. 13. KIBERA WATERCOURSES
  14. 14. KIBERA WATER & SANITATION INFRASTRUCUTURE
  15. 15. WHAT’S GOING ON Economy
  16. 16. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT 2016
  17. 17. GDP PER CAPITA 2015
  18. 18. ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY (2010)
  19. 19. REAL GDP GROWTH 2016 (IMF)
  20. 20. MASSIVE MISSMATCH POPULATION 2050 GDP NOW
  21. 21. WHAT’S GOING ON Water
  22. 22. VERY DRY … VERY DRY WET MIXED DRY & VERY DRY …. MIXED VARIATIONVARIATION VARIATION VARIATION VARIATION VARIATION VARIATION VARIATION VARIATION VARIATION VARIATION
  23. 23. WATER ISSUES … someQUALITY ------------------------------------------------------ • SEDIMENTATION … eg overgrazing • EUTROPHICATION … biodiversity loss, fishing losses • CHEMICALS, HEAVY METALS • SOLID WASTE … litter, medical, etc. • SEWAGE … urban areas particularly • WETLAND LOSS … water & biodiversity loss implications • RIVER BANK VEGITATION LOSS • ZOONOSES …. potential global threats • GROUNDWATER QUALITY … pit latrines • ETC … QUANTITY ---------------------------------------------------------- • CAPTURE > STORAGE > DISTRIBUTION > USAGE ISSUES … inefficiencies at each stage • CLIMATE CHANGE … big challenge • DESERTIFICATION … creeping • VARIABILITY… floods / droughts • AQUIFER USAGE … big potential in some areas • DAMS … can radically impact on flows/availability downstream + biodiversity impacts • ETC …
  24. 24. DEATHS DUE TO WATER BORNE DISEASES +- 970 000 ….. PER ANNUM +- 970 00 ….. ANNUALLY …… approx. Galway City 2016 population dying each month ……
  25. 25. THE CHALLENGE TO US …. ALL OF US …. Here in Ireland Here in Europe Globally
  26. 26. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS - WATER GOAL ENSURE AVAILABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION FOR ALL TARGETS • 6.1 By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all • 6.2 By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations • 6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally • 6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity • 6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate • 6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes • 6.a By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies • 6.b Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
  27. 27. WHAT SHOULD GO ON (tech perspective) LOW TECH HIGH TECH… AND …
  28. 28. TECHNOLOGY LEAP ….. its possible
  29. 29. TECHNOLOGY LEAP ….. its happened before
  30. 30. VISION and POLICY FRAMEWORK … technology seen as a key driver …
  31. 31. OUR TODO LIST VIA ….. ---IRELAND Inc--- --- EUROPEAN UNION --- --- OWN ORGANISATION --- USE WATERNOMICS ….…and other knowledge/expertise
  32. 32. ITS COMPLEX …. not easy …. or quick … but possible …………
  33. 33. THANK YOU

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