WATER –HISTORICALWATER –HISTORICALPORTFOLIOPORTFOLIO
The Timeless Water CycleThe Timeless Water Cycle It may be hard toIt may be hard tobelieve, but the waterbelieve, but the waterdinosaurs drank millionsdinosaurs drank millionsofof years ago and theyears ago and thewater thatwater that oldoldBulgariansBulgarians used forused forcooking and drinkingcooking and drinkingabout 1 300about 1 300 years agoyears agomay have been themay have been thesame water!same water!
In fact, we may be usingIn fact, we may be usingthat same waterthat same watereveneven today. This istoday. This ispossible because thepossible because thewater onwater on EEarth recyclesarth recyclesitself overitself over and overand overagain through theagain through theenvironment. Thisenvironment. Thistimeless process istimeless process iscalled thecalled the hydrologichydrologiccyclecycle,or water cycle.,or water cycle.
It is essential that weIt is essential that weappreciateappreciate the importancethe importanceofof ouourr naturalnatural environmentenvironmentand encourageand encourage others toothers toprotectprotect VratsaVratsa’s’s waterwaterresources. Just as manyresources. Just as manywater drops make up thewater drops make up theflow of aflow of a river, events inriver, events inour history createour history create patternspatternsthat helpthat help toto describe whodescribe whowe are and how we live inwe are and how we live inourour environmentenvironment..
TTHow Water ResourcesHow Water ResourcesShape Our HistoryShape Our History
Vratsa lies and isVratsa lies and issurrounded bysurrounded by highlyhighlyporous rock calledporous rock calledlimestonelimestone. Because. Becausethis rock is so porous,this rock is so porous,these undergroundthese undergroundlayers oflayers of limestone,limestone,can hold and releasecan hold and releasewater.water. ItIt is calledis calledgroundwatergroundwater..
Reserve "Vratsa Karst" wasReserve "Vratsa Karst" wasestablished in August 1983 andestablished in August 1983 andoccupies an area of 1467.6 hectares.occupies an area of 1467.6 hectares. It is a protected areaIt is a protected areawhich aim is to preservewhich aim is to preservethe distinctive local karstthe distinctive local karstterrain .terrain . variety ofvariety ofgeomorphologicalgeomorphologicalformationsformations unique cave faunaunique cave fauna sub-Mediterranean florasub-Mediterranean flora many relict speciesmany relict species..
Between the pine trees and the rocks of theBalkan of Vratza there is a miraculous creation ofnature. It is an amazing work out of limestone,made by the water from a river above it. It isSkaklya - the highest waterfall in Bulgaria. Thewater jumps from about a hundred and forty onemeters (about 420 ft). During the summer thewater almost vanishes due to the hightemperatures. What is left of it falls down just likea cloud of tiny drops and refracts the sunbeams,thus making an amazingly beautiful rainbow…
This happened towards the end of the Ottoman Empirerule of the Balkans. Turkish were passing by the placeand the darkness of the night made them stop andcamp under the waterfall. When the morning came andthe golden beams of the sun hit the mountain with thewaterfall, their leader just sighed and said: "Mashallah,Skaklya". The beautiful sight reminded him of onewoman in his harem that had the name Skaklya. Thewoman was from this area …And that is how the nameless at the time water fall gotits name - Skaklya.
God’s bridgeGod’s bridge remnant of karst caveremnant of karst caveformed relatively close toformed relatively close tothe surface from thethe surface from theunderground path ofunderground path ofLilyachka RiverLilyachka River It is a typical passageIt is a typical passagecave with three entrancescave with three entrances
““Ledenika cave”Ledenika cave” It is in the heart of theIt is in the heart of theNatural Park "VratsaNatural Park "VratsaBalkan"Balkan" The cave is 320 mThe cave is 320 mlong and it is one oflong and it is one ofthe most beautiful inthe most beautiful inBulgariaBulgaria..
””Ledenika cave”Ledenika cave” There are 10 bigThere are 10 bighalls and manyhalls and manygalleries with reallygalleries with reallyinteresting karstinteresting karstformations.formations.
Mineral waterMineral water Varshets is a lovely smallVarshets is a lovely smalltown very close to Vratsatown very close to Vratsaand which is in the lap ofand which is in the lap ofOld MountainsOld Mountains The healing thermalThe healing thermalsprings attracted lots ofsprings attracted lots ofpeople in the ancientpeople in the ancienttimes .They visited thistimes .They visited thisregion because of theregion because of themagical properties of themagical properties of thewater there.water there.
SPASPA centrecentre The temperature of theThe temperature of thesprings is between 36springs is between 36and 38 degrees.and 38 degrees. The total flow rate is 15The total flow rate is 15liters per secondliters per second The mineralisation isThe mineralisation islowlow The water is very clearThe water is very clearwithout any colour andwithout any colour andsmell.smell.
The mineral water is suitable for theThe mineral water is suitable for thetreatment of:treatment of: cardiovascularcardiovasculardiseasedisease liver diseaseliver disease problems of theproblems of theperipheral nervousperipheral nervoussystemsystem..
Water millsWater mills There were lots of water millsThere were lots of water millsIt is a hydro-technical facilityIt is a hydro-technical facilitywhich used water power towhich used water power togrind the grain into flour.grind the grain into flour.
Tepavitsa – “washing machineTepavitsa – “washing machineon the river”on the river” It is a facility whichIt is a facility whichwas built on fast –was built on fast –flowing rivers.flowing rivers.
TepavitsaTepavitsa It was mostly usedIt was mostly usedfor washing woolenfor washing woolenmaterials just withmaterials just withclear water.clear water.
The water was used also forThe water was used also forwatering in the pastwatering in the past
The big flooding in Vratsa in 1966The big flooding in Vratsa in 1966 The water when it is notThe water when it is notused properly could beused properly could benot only the source of lifenot only the source of lifebut also a big dangerbut also a big dangerbecause of its incrediblebecause of its incrediblepower.power.
Twenty minutes were enough to:Twenty minutes were enough to: die 120 peopledie 120 people More than 310More than 310houses were ruinedhouses were ruined All communicationsAll communicationswere cut and thewere cut and theentire infrastructureentire infrastructurewas destroyed.was destroyed.