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6. io device


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6. io device

  2. 2. CHAPTER 6: INPUT / OUTPUT DEVICES Where we will se there is not only mouse in the world …
  3. 3. INPUT DEVICES: HISTORY REVIEW 1950 1960 1970
  4. 4. INPUT DEVICES: HISTORY REVIEW 1980 1990 2000
  5. 5. INPUT DEVICE <ul><li>Choosing a good device for the system </li></ul><ul><li>Multi input devices possible a priori </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise between contradictory constraints and not only on ergonomic: no ideal device </li></ul><ul><li>Utilization jointly many devices: complementary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example : Mouse + Keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance of feedback associated to device: do not neglect in the choices of devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>move the cursor on the screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>key typing vs. touchscreen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>joystick feedback </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. INPUT DEVICES: TYPOLOGY <ul><li>Input type </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete Keyboard … </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous trackball, joystick, optical stylus … </li></ul><ul><li>Localization </li></ul><ul><li>Direct optical stylus, touchscreen … </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect mouse, trackball, joystick, graphical tablet … </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute optical stylus, touchscreen, graphical tablet </li></ul><ul><li>Relative mouse, trackball, joystick … </li></ul>
  7. 7. INPUT DEVICES: KEYBOARD <ul><li>Keys: pressing type </li></ul><ul><li>Electro-mechanics good feedback, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less resistance (problem dirty mark) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Membrane resistance, less incident </li></ul><ul><li>mediocre feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Keys: disposition </li></ul><ul><li>Essential ergonomic factor: quick input, fatigue the articulation and muscles … </li></ul><ul><li>However, a solution under optimal: keyboard AZERTY / QWERTY </li></ul><ul><li>Remark : less than 15 days to adapt to the new keyboard </li></ul>
  8. 8. INPUT DEVICES: KEYBOARD (DISPOSITION) <ul><li>QWERTY / AZERTY </li></ul><ul><li>1874 typewriter: jamming hammer </li></ul><ul><li>Non ergonomic coupling the separated keys </li></ul><ul><li>most frequent keys on the left </li></ul><ul><li>DVORAK </li></ul><ul><li>1932 vowels and frequent consonant on 2 nd line </li></ul><ul><li>balance on both hands </li></ul><ul><li>Result reduction 90% of movement </li></ul>DVORAK English DVORAK French
  9. 9. INPUT DEVICES: KEYBOARD (DISPOSITION) <ul><li>Natural keyboards </li></ul><ul><li>DVORAK disposition </li></ul><ul><li>Curvature keyboard, sculptured keyboard limiting the articulation tension </li></ul>Microsoft Maltron Kinesis <ul><li>Chord keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of keys to input a character: reduce the number of keys </li></ul><ul><li>Industry: one hand input </li></ul><ul><li>Used to transcripts of debates in some parliament or courts </li></ul>
  10. 10. POINTING DEVICES <ul><li>Localization </li></ul><ul><li>Direct optical stylus, touchscreen </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect mouse, trackball, joystick, graphical tablet … </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse, trackball, touchpad </li></ul><ul><li>Indication of an localization </li></ul><ul><li>Indication of a movement </li></ul><ul><li>Remark: facilitate the use of an input device by software constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid interaction style (click + localization) more grid of discrete position to draw geometric figure using a mouse </li></ul>Microsoft trackball + Optical mouse
  11. 11. POINTING DEVICES <ul><li>Touch screen </li></ul><ul><li>Direct interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme facility of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant and without movable extern element (devices) </li></ul><ul><li>_________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of precision (error of pointing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New screen with high precision, stylus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fatigue arm / hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen with horizontal position </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Screen masking </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stylus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Optical stylus </li></ul>
  12. 12. ADVANCE INPUT DEVICES <ul><li>Handwriting recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion of different modalities of input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text input and pointing with only one device: touch screen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Natural language: learning facility </li></ul>
  13. 13. ADVANCE INPUT DEVICES <ul><li>Handwriting recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Error rate is not negligible </li></ul><ul><li>Input of special symbols: learnabillity, familiarity </li></ul>Unistrokes Graffiti
  14. 14. ADVANCE INPUT DEVICES <ul><li>Speech recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Natural interaction style </li></ul><ul><li>Absent of particular device: hand free, telephony </li></ul><ul><li>______________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>High error rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5% of WER in reading and finalized spontaneous speech (DOHM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% to 50% of WER in generic spontaneous speech </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ambiguity of natural language </li></ul><ul><li>Replace the keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of design too anthropomorphic </li></ul><ul><li>______________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Research and some well targeting applications </li></ul><ul><li>Medical reports </li></ul><ul><li>Reservation and Information server (ex: 3000) </li></ul>
  15. 15. ADVANCE INPUT DEVICES <ul><li>Gloves and other 3D devices </li></ul><ul><li>Increase virtual reality </li></ul><ul><li>Hot research </li></ul><ul><li>Some applications: video game, simulators, telemedicine </li></ul><ul><li>Future technique and dream of researcher? </li></ul>3D glove ( data glove) Haptic glove (force feedback or gesture)
  16. 16. INPUT DEVICES FOR HANDICAPPED <ul><li>Eye trackers </li></ul><ul><li>Head movement detection </li></ul><ul><li>Breath detection </li></ul><ul><li>Joystick microgravity </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Speech recognition </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  17. 17. PREDICTIVE MODEL: GOMS <ul><li>Predictive model </li></ul><ul><li>Measure predictive the behavior of user without real test </li></ul><ul><li>Base on the result in psychology cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for conception and evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>GOMS </li></ul><ul><li>Goals – goals/objectives that user want to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>Methods – procedure (sequence of actions or cognitive activities) required to accomplish the goals </li></ul><ul><li>Operators – cognitive process and physic actions taken at the end of different possible methods </li></ul><ul><li>Selection – rules used to choose a method in a giving moment </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate the execution time base on average known time for each operator </li></ul>[Card, Moran, Newell, 1983]
  18. 18. PREDICTIVE MODEL: GOMS <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Goals Text Editor: delete a word in a phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Operators </li></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul>
  19. 19. PREDICTIVE METHOD: KEYSTROKE <ul><li>Keystroke level model </li></ul><ul><li>Independent of GOMS </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate the execution time of basic commands </li></ul><ul><li>Model base on the observation of multiple experimental data on the time to complete the elementary operators </li></ul><ul><li>Operators </li></ul><ul><li>K Key selection (keystroke) </li></ul><ul><li>P Pointing </li></ul><ul><li>H reposition of hand on input device </li></ul><ul><li>D display/drawing a line on the screen </li></ul><ul><li>M mental action </li></ul><ul><li>R (eventual) response time of system </li></ul>[Card, Moran, Newell, 1983]
  20. 20. PREDICTIVE MODEL: KEYSTROKE <ul><li>Operators: average execution time </li></ul><ul><li>K simple key press </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced secretary input </li></ul><ul><li>Average user input </li></ul><ul><li>Novice user input </li></ul><ul><li>Press <Shift> or <Ctrl> </li></ul><ul><li>P Mouse pointing on a target </li></ul><ul><li>mouse click </li></ul><ul><li>H reposition of keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>D drawing a line </li></ul><ul><li>M mental action </li></ul>T exec = T K + T P + T H + T D + T M + (T R )
  21. 21. PREDICTIVE MODEL: FITTS’S LAW <ul><li>Principle </li></ul><ul><li>The time taken to achieve a target is proportional to the distance of the target and inversely proportional to its size </li></ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul><ul><li>The necessary time to move a pointing device which is placed at a distance D from the target of larger d: </li></ul><ul><li>Limits </li></ul><ul><li>Limit of scale – beyond a certain critical value of distance D, the time required to reach the target will just depend on D, instead of the D/d </li></ul><ul><li>Limit of difficulty – for ratio D/d well above 1000, achieving the target is generally not possible (subject failure) </li></ul><ul><li>Limit of device – law does not valid for all types of pointing devices </li></ul>T = C1 + C2 log 2 (2D/d) C1,C2: constant depend on device (example: C1=0.05s and C2=0.1s) and determined by experimentations [Fitts, 1954]
  22. 22. BIBLIOGRAPHIES <ul><li>Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Card S., Moran T., Newell A. (1983) The psychology of Human-Computer Interaction, Laurence Erlbaum Ass., Hillsdale, NJ. </li></ul><ul><li>Fitts P.M. (1954) The information capacity of the human motor system in controlling amplitude of movement. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 47, 381-391. </li></ul><ul><li>Gray W.D., John B.E., Atwood M.E. (1993) Project Ernestine: validating a GOMS analysis for predicting and explaining real-world performance. Human-Computer Interaction. 8(3), 237-309. </li></ul>