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DISCOVERY BEYOND 
MISCONCEPTIONS
Back in early 1900’s, Ehrlich hypothesized that 
certain dyes could selectively “stain” harmful bacteria 
cells without ha...
Building on Ehrlich’s early work, Gerhard Domagk, a medical doctor 
employed by a German dye manufacturer made a breakthro...
Sulfanilamide (sulphanilamide) 
is a sulfonamide antibacterial. Chemically, it is a molecule 
containing the sulfonamide f...
Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) catalyses the 
condensation of 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropteridine 
pyrophosphate to para...
“discovery triggered a flurry of research on structural derivatives of 
sulfanilamide which resulted in development of a f...
rash; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness 
in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, 
lips, or tongue ; fever, chill...
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
Sulfalinamide synthesis
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Sulfalinamide synthesis

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Synthesis Presentation on Sulfalinamide

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Sulfalinamide synthesis

  1. 1. DISCOVERY BEYOND MISCONCEPTIONS
  2. 2. Back in early 1900’s, Ehrlich hypothesized that certain dyes could selectively “stain” harmful bacteria cells without harming host cells. He referred to such compounds as “magic bullets” and coined the term chemotherapy as a general descriptor for chemical remedies targeted to selectively kill infectious cells.
  3. 3. Building on Ehrlich’s early work, Gerhard Domagk, a medical doctor employed by a German dye manufacturer made a breakthrough discovery by finding that a dye known as prontosil, dosed orally, was effective in curing life threatening streptococci infections in humans. He made the discovery in a desperate, but successful attempt to save his daughter who was dying of a streptococci infection.
  4. 4. Sulfanilamide (sulphanilamide) is a sulfonamide antibacterial. Chemically, it is a molecule containing the sulfonamide functional group attached to an aniline.Its molecular structure is similar to p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) which is needed in bacteria organisms as a substrate of the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase for the synthesis of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF). Sulfonamides, derived from chiefly sulfanilamide, are capable of interfering with the metabolic processes in bacteria that require PABA. They act as antimicrobial agents by inhibiting bacterial growth and activity and commonly called sulfa drugs.
  5. 5. Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) catalyses the condensation of 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropteridine pyrophosphate to para-aminobenzoic acid to form 7,8- dihydropteroate. This is the second step in the three-step pathway leading from 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin to 7,8-dihydrofolate. DHPS is the target of sulphonamides, which are substrate analogues that compete with para-aminobenzoic acid. Bacterial DHPS is the C-terminal domain of a multifunctional folate synthesis enzyme which then proceeds to their rapid replication.
  6. 6. “discovery triggered a flurry of research on structural derivatives of sulfanilamide which resulted in development of a family of highly successful antibiotics. . .”  Sulfapyridine was shown to be effective against pneumonia in 1938.  Sulfacetamide found highly successful use in fighting urinary tract infections starting in 1941.  Succinoylsulfathiazole has been used against gastrointestinal tract infections since 1942.  Sulfathiazole was used very effectively during World War II to fight infection in soldiers with battle wounds.  Sulfanilamide itself, a potent antibiotic, never gained widespread use due to its greater human toxicity versus its various derivatives.
  7. 7. rash; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue ; fever, chills, or persistent sore throat; increased discomfort; unusual itching or burning.

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