SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 52
B.PHARM. 5th SEMESTER
PHARMACOGNOSY ANDPHYTOCHEMISTRY-II
BP504T.
UNIT-III
Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents
Alkaloids: Atropine, Quinine,
Reserpine, Caffeine
ALKALOIDS
HISTORY OFALKALOIDS:
The term ‘alkaloid’ was coined by MEISSNER, a German pharmacist,
in 1819.
The French chemist, Derosne in 1803, isolated narcotine. In the same
year, morphine from opium was isolated by Serturner.
Pelletier and Caventon isolated emetine in 1817 and colchicine in
1819.
From the beginning of 19th century till to date, it has to proved to be
a perpetual work to discover new alkaloids from plants and animals.
As per a Russian review in 1973, the number of known alkaloids had
reached up to 4959, amongst which, the structures of 3293 alkaloids
were elucidated.
At present, the number of alkaloids discovered has exceeded 6000.
What is alkaloid ?
The term “alkaloid” (alkali-like) is commonly used to designate basic
heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds of plant origin that are
physiologically active.
They resemble some of the characters of naturally occurring
complex amines.
It posses specific physiological actions on human or animal body
,when used in small quantities.
STRUCUTE OF ALKALOID
The term alkaloid also covers Proto alkaloid, Pseudoalkaloids and True
alkaloids.
TRUE ALKALOIDS:
• The true alkaloids are toxic in nature and contain heterocyclic
nitrogen which is derived from amino acids and always basic in
nature. True alkaloids are normally present in plants as salts of
organic acids.
PROTOALKAOIDS:
• The ‘protoalkaloids’ or ‘amino alkaloids’ are simple amines in
which the nitrogen is not in a heterocyclic ring. They are basic in
nature and prepared in plants from amino acids
PSEUDOALKALOIDS:
• It includes mainly steroidal and terpenoid alkaloids and purines.
They are not derived from amino acids.
OCCURENCE OF ALKALOIDS:
• Alkaloids are occurs mostly in angiosperms and rarely in gymnosperms.
• But their presence is also detected in micro organisms, marine
organisms, insects, animals and some of the lower plants.
• In the lower plants, although the alkaloids are found in less number,
some important sources are ergot fungus giving peptide alkaloids,
ergometrine, ergotamine etc., and also gymnosperms like ephedra
alkaloids.
• Out of 60 different orders in higher plants, 34 orders contain alkaloids.
DISTRIBUTION
• Families with alkaloidal content are Apocynaceae, Berberidaceae,
Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Papaveraceae, Ranunculaceae, Rutaceae,
Rubiaceae and Solanaceae.
• In most of the plants alkaloids are highly localized and concentrated in
certain morphological parts only.
Examples
All Parts :e.g. Datura.
Barks :e.g. Cinchona,kurchi
Seeds :e.g. Nux vomica, areca, physostigma
Roots :e.g. Aconite , rauwolfia
Fruits :e.g. Black pepper, conicum
Leaves :e.g. Tobacco, coca, lobelia
Latex :e.g. Opium
PROPERTIES OFALKALOIDS:
Mostly all alkaloids are colourless, crystalline solids
Sharp melting point
Bitter taste
Some alkaloids are coloured in nature, e.g. Berberine is yellow
Soluble in organic non-polar, immiscible solvents.
The alkaloids containing quaternary bases are only water soluble.
Some of the pseudoalkaloids and proto-alkaloids shows higher solubility in water.
Some alkaloids are liquid because of lacking of oxygen in their molecules. (e.g.
coniine, nicotine, spartenine)
Alkaloids are decomposed by heat, except Strychnine and caffeine.
Give a precipitate with heavy metal iodides.
The various methods proposed for classification of alkaloids are
explained as follows,
Pharmacological classification
Taxonomic classification
Biosynthetic classification
Chemical classification
CLASSIFICATION:
TAXONOMIC CLASSIFICATION:
This method classifies vast number of alkaloids based on their
distribution in various plant Families, like solanaceous or
papillionaceous alkaloids.
From this classification, the chemotaxonomic classification has
been further derived.
PHARMACOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION
Depending on the physiological response, the alkaloids are classified under various
pharmacological categories, like central nervous system stimulants or depressants,
analgesics, purgatives etc.
Some of the
examples are
explained as
follows,
• Narcotic analgesic e.g.Morphine
• Antimalarial e.g. Quinine
• Reflux excitability e.g.Strychnine
• Respiratory stimulant e.g.Lobeline
• Neuralgia e.g. Aconitine
• Oxytoxic e.g. Erogotometrine
• Bronchodilator e.g. Ephedrine, vasicine
• Anticholinergic e.g. Atropine
• CNS stimulant e.g. Caffeine
• Antitussive e.g. Codeine
• Antiarrythmic e.g.Quinidine
• Antihypertensive e.g. Reserpine
• Anticancer e.g. Vincristine
• Antiglucoma e.g. Pilocarpine
BIOSYNTHETIC CLASSIFICATION
This method give significance to the precursor from which the alkaloids are biosynthesized in
plants.
The alkaloidal drugs are categorised on the fact whether they are derived from amino acid
precursor as ornithine, lysine, tyrosine, tryptophan, phenylalanine etc.
1. Ornithine derived alkaloids
• e.g. Pyrrolidine alkaloid-Nicotine
• Tropane alkaloid - Atropine, hyosyamine, coacaine
2. Lysine derived alkaloids
• e.g. Piperidine and pyridine alkaloid - conine, lobaline, arecoline
• Quinazolidine alkaloid- lupinine
3. Tyrosine derived alkaloids
• e.g. Isoquinoline alkaloid-Morphine, codeine, emetine, cephaline, berberine,d- tubocurine
• Amino alkaloid- colchicine
4. Tryptophan derived alkaloids
• e.g. Indole alkaloid- ergot alkaloid, vincristine, vinblastine, reserpine, strychnine, physostigmine,
strychinine, brucine
• Quinoline alkaloid- cinchonine, quinine.
5. Histidine derived alkaloids
• e.g. Imidazole alkaloid - Pilocrpine
6. Phenylalanine derived alkaloids
• e.g. Amino alkaloid- Ephedrine
CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION
The alkaloidal drug care broadly categorised into 2 divisions.
Heterocyclic alkaloids (True
alkaloids) are divided into 12
groups according to nature
of their heterocyclic ring.
Non- heterocyclic alkaloids
or protoalkaloids or
Biological amines or
pseudoalkaloids.
This is the most accepted way of classification of alkaloids. The main
criterion for chemical classification is the type of fundamental
(normal heterocyclic) ring structure present in alkaloid.
A) True alkaloids
Sr. no. Type Structure Examples
1. Pyrrole and
pyrrolidine
N
H
N
H
e.g. Hygrine, coca species
2. Pyiridine
and
piperidine N N
H
e.g. Arecoline, anabasine,
lobeline, conine, trigonelline
3. Pyrrolizidine
N
e.g. Echimidine, senecionine,
seneciphylline
4. Tropane
N
e.g. Atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine,
cocaine, pseudopelletirine
5. Quinoline
N
e.g. Quinine, quinidine, cinchonine,
cupreine, camptothecine
6. Isoquinoline
N
e.g.Morphine, codeine, emetine,
cephaline, narcotine, narceine, d-
tubocurarine
The following chart indicates types of alkaloids and their occurence in
various plants along with basic chemical ring.
7 Indole
N
H
e.g. Erotamine, ergotametriene,
reserpine, vincristine, vinblastine,
strychnine, brucine
8 Imidazole N
N
H
e.g. Pilocrpine, isopilocarpine,
pilosine
9 Norlupinane
N
e.g. Cystisine, laburinine
10 Aporphine
(reduced
isoquinoline
napthalene)
N
e.g. Boldine
B) PROTO ALKALOID
1. Alkyalamine
Ephedrine,
Pseudoephedrine
HO
NH
1. Purine
N
N N
HN
e.g. Caffeine, thophylline,
theobromine
2. Steroidal e.g. Solanidine, conessine,
protoveratrine
3. Diterpene C20H32 e.g. Aconitine, aconine, hypoaconine
C) PSEUDO ALKALOID
ISOLATION OFALKALOID:
Plant material is dried at a temperature not exceeding 60˚c and
finely powdered.
Macerate the powdered material with sufficient quantity of ethanol
and set aside over night. Most alkaloids and their salts being alcohol
soluble will get dissolved in the solution.
Filter and concentrate the extract to ¼ the initial volume. complete
the evaporation of the remaining solvent at a temperature not
exceeding 50˚c.
Treat the residue with dil. sulphuric acid and filter to remove resins,
fatty matter and other unwanted substances.
Basify the solution by the addition of alkali such as ammonia as it
effectively precipitates most alkaloids and because of its volatility.
ISOLATION OFALKALOID:
Extract this solution with successive portion of chloroform
or till complete extraction of all the alkaloids is effected.
Concentrate the pooled organic layer to yield a crude
mixture of alkaloids of the plant material.
Dissolve the above residue in dil. sulphuric acid and filter if
necessary.
Basify the solution with ammonia and successively extract
with chloroform.
Run the pooled chloroform layers through a bed of
anhydrous sodium sulphate and evaporate to dryness.
Note the weight of the mixture of total alkaloids.
QUALITATIVE CHEMICAL TEST:
Wagner’s Test
• (+) Reddish brown precipitate Reagent used: Wagner’s Reagent [Solution of
iodine in potassium iodide]
Mayer’s Test
• (+) Cream color precipitates Reagent used: Mayer’s Reagent [Potassium
mercuric iodide solution]
Dragendorff’s test
• (+) Orange precipitate Reagent used: Dragendorff’s reagent [Potassium
bismuth iodide solution]
Hager's test
• (+) Yellow color precipitate Reagent used: Hager's reagent [saturated
solution of Picric acid]
Tannic acid test
• (+)buff color precipitate Reagent used: 10% Tannic acid solution
Atropine
Atropine
Biological source: Atropine is a tropane alkaloid obtained
from the fresh or dried leaves and flowering tops of
• Atropa belladonna,
• Datura stramonium (Not less than 0.25%) and
• Hyoscyamus niger (Not less than 0.05%).
Family – Solanaceae
Isolation Required quantity of coarse powder is taken and
moistens with sodium carbonate solution.
The blended mixture is extracted in petroleum ether
and filters it.
To the filtrate aqueous acetic acid is added and
further the aqueous fraction is extracted with ether.
Both fraction are separated by separating funnel and
discard solvent ether fraction.
Aqueous (Acidic fraction) is made alkaline with
sodium carbonate solution to obtain precipitates of
tropane alkaloids.
Atropine
Atropine
Isolation The precipitate is filtered and dry to obtain residue.
The residue is dissolved in diethyl ether, filtered it
and concentrated the filtrate.
Atropine crystals will be separated out.
The crystals are filtered and dissolve in alcohol
containing sodium hydroxide solution (Hyocyamine
is converted to atropine).
The atropine sulphate is recrystallized from acetone
and crystals of atropine are separated
Atropine
Properties Appearance :Colourless crystal or white
crystalline powder.
Odour :Odourless
Taste :Bitter taste
Solubility :Easily soluble in water,
soluble in ethanol, but insoluble in
ether and chloroform
Atropine
Identification by chemical test
• Vitali–Morin test: Small quantity of the solid
atropine is taken and added 2 drops of Conc.
nitric acid in an evaporating dish and evaporated
to dryness on water bath.
• Then the residue is dissolved in 1ml of acetone
and few drops of freshly prepared alcoholic
potassium hydroxide solution is added.
• Violet coloration takes place due to tropane
nucleus
Atropine
Analysis
by
TLC
Sample preparation :1mg of Atropine is dissolved in 1ml
of chloroform
Standard sample :Atropine
Stationary phase :Pre-coated Silica gel
Mobile phase :Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Diethyl
amine (70:20:10)
Detecting agent :Dragendorff’s reagent
RF Value :0.70
Color spot :Yellow orange spot
Utilization :It is used as antispasmodic,
mydriatic and antidote in opium poisoning.
Storage condition :It should be store in air-tight containers
protected from light and in cool place.
Quinine
Background & Historical Perspectives
▶Important medical discovery of 17th
century
▶Component of bark of cinchona trees.
▶In early 1600s it was referred as “Jesuits
bark” “cardinal’s bark” or “sacred bark.”
▶Quina-quina trees in Andean Jungle.
▶Introduction to Europe in 1638.
▶Use before 1820 and in 1820.
Quinine
Biological source: Quinine is a quinolone alkaloid obtained from the
dried bark of Cinchona calisaya, Cinchona officinalis, Cinchona
ledgeriana and Cinchona succirubra.
Family: Rubiaceae.
Quinine and quinidine are stereo-isomers.
Quinine is levorotatory and quinidine is dextrorotatory.
Effective cinchona alkaloids against malaria
EFFECTIVE
CINCHONA
Cinchonine
Quinidine
Cinchonidine
Quinine
Properties of quinine
▶ Aryl amino alcohol group of drugs.
▶ Basic compound.
▶ Rapid action against intra-erythrocytic malarial parasites.
▶ Gametocytocidal.
▶ Analgesic properties.
▶ White crystalline.
▶ Insoluble in water.
▶ Bitter taste and levorotatory.
▶ Anti inflammatory.
OVERVIEW OF QUININE
▶ Distribution in our body.
▶ Treatment for uncomplicated malaria.
▶ Lower cure rate.
▶ Higher cure rate (sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, tetracycline or
clindamycin).
2010 World health Organization 2009 by 31 African countries
Quinine+ Doxycycline+
Tetracycline
(2nd line treatment)
Quinine
(2nd line treatment)
Isolation: Quinine
Required quantity of dry powder bark material is first well mixed with about 30% of its weight of
alcoholic calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide or calcium oxide (20%) and sufficient quantity of sodium
hydroxide solution (5%) to make a paste.
It is allowed to stand for few hours so that alkali can convert cinchona alkaloids to free bases.
The mass is then transferred to a Soxhlet apparatus and extraction is carried out with benzene for 6
hours.
After competition of extraction the benzene extract is shaken with successive portions of 5% sulphuric
acid in separating funnel.
The aqueous acid extract is separated from benzene layer and adjusted the pH 6.5 with dilute sodium
hydroxide, cooled.
Crystals of quinine sulphate are formed, filtered and recrystallized with hot water
Quinine
Properties:
• Appearance :Colourless crystal or white crystalline
powder
• Odour :Odourless
• Taste :Intensely bitter taste
• Solubility :Sparingly soluble in water, readily soluble
in chloroform, alcohol and ether
Identification by chemical test:
• Thalleoquin test: Bromine water and ammonia solution is
added in small quantity of powdered the sample. Emerald
green colour takes place which indicates the presence of
quinine
Quinine
Analysis
by
TLC
Sample preparation :1mg of Quinine is dissolved
in 1ml of methanol
Standard sample : Quinine
Stationary phase :Silica gel-G
Mobile phase :Chloroform: Diethyl amine (9:1)
Detecting agent :Dragendorff’s reagent
RF Value : 0.17
Analysis by HPLC
• Method : Isocratic
• Stationary phase : C18 Column
• Mobile phase :Methanol: Acetonitrle-0.1mol/L:
ammonia: acetone (45:15:40)
• Detection : Fluorescence at excitation 325nm.
• Emission : 375nm
Utilization:
• Quinine is antimalarial. Quinidine is a cardiac depressant
therefore used in cardiac arrhythmias.
Storage condition:
• It should be store in well closed and air-tight containers
protected from light and in cool place.
Quinine
Reserpine
Reserpine
Biological source: Reserpine is an indole alkaloid
obtained from the dried roots of Atropa
belladonna, Rauwolfia serpentine.
Family: Apocynaceae.
Sarpagandha contains not less than 0.15% of
reserpine and ajmalcine
Isolation
Rauwolfia root powder is exhaustively extracted with 90% alcohol in Soxhlet
apparatus.
The alcoholic extract is filtered, concentrated and dried under reduced pressure
below 60°C to yield dry extract.
The dry extract is extracted with ether-chloroform- 90% alcohol (20:8:2.5) and
filtered.
In filtrate dilute ammonia is added with intermittent shaking.
Then water is added to precipitate the crude alkaloids mixture and allowed the drug
to settle after vigorous shaking.
Isolation
The solution is filtered off and extracted the residue with 4 volumes of 0.5N
Ammonium sulphate in separating funnel and combined all the extracts.
The extract is made alkaline with dilute ammonia to liberate alkaloid.
Finally it is extracted with 3 portion of chloroform. Chloroform extract is
collected, concentrated and evaporated on water bath to yield total rauwolfia
alkaloids.
Residue is subjected to column chromatographic fraction for the separation of
reserpine
Reserpine
Properties:
• Appearance : White or pale buff to slightly yellow
crystalline powder, darkening slowly
on exposure to light.
• Odor : Odourless
• Taste : Bitter taste
• Solubility :Soluble in alcohol, chloroform and
acetone, partially soluble in water,
freely soluble in acetic acid
Reserpine
Identification by chemical test:
• When sample is treated with solution of vanillin in acetic acid, a violet
red colour is produced which indicates the presence of reserpine
Analysis by TLC
• Sample preparation : 1mg of Reserpine is dissolved in 1ml
of methanol
• Standard sample : Reserpine
• Stationary phase : Silica gel-G
• Mobile phase : Chloroform: Acetone: Diethyl ether
(50:40:10)
• Detecting agent : Dragendorff’s reagent
• RF Value : 0.72-0.35
• Color spot : Orange spot
Mode of Action
Reserpine acts by blocking the vasicular monoamine transporter
VMAT, which normally transports free norepinephrine, serotonin,
and dopamine from the cytoplasm of the presynaptic nerve into
vesicles for subsequent release into the synaptic cleft.
The unprotected neurotransmitters then metabolized by MAO and
therefore never reach the synapse.
By this mode of action this give mainly the antihypertensive action
and also use in the treatment of dykynesia mania etc.
Therapeutic application:
Essential hypertension
Mild anxiety
Dyskinesia
Psychosis symptoms
Maintenance dose: 100 to 250 mg (once a day)
Side effects:
Nasal congestion
Nausia
Vomiting
Gastric intolerance
Gastric ulceration
diarrhoeia
Reserpine
Storage condition:
• It should be store in well closed and air-tight containers
protected from light and in cool place.
Caffeine
• Thea sinensis (Tea leaves)
Caffeine
Biological source: Caffeine is a purine alkaloid
obtained from Tea leaves, Coffee seeds, cocoa, and
other species. It is chemically 1,3,7, trimethyl
xanthine which is isolated from tea and coffee seeds
during decaffeination process. It is obtained from the
prepared leaves and leaf buds of Thea sinensis.
Family:Theaceae and
Dried ripe seeds of Coffea Arabica, C. liberica,
Family: Rubiceae.
Tea leaves contains 1-4% of caffeine and coffee
contains 1- 2% of caffeine.
Isolation: Caffeine
The powder tea leaves is extracted with boiling water and the aqueous extract is filtered while hot.
The warm extract is treated with lead acetate to precipitate tannins and filtered.
The filtrate is treated with excess of dilute sulphuric acid to precipitate lead in the form of lead
sulphate.
The filtrate is boiled with activated charcoal to remove colouring matter, if any and filtered to
remove charcoal.
The filtered decolourized solution is extracted with chloroform successively.
Combined the chloroform extracts and evaporated on water bath to yield caffeine (white powder).
It is recrystallized with alcohol
Caffeine
Properties:
• Appearance : White powder or white glistering needles
• Odor : Odourless
• Taste : Bitter taste
• Solubility : Soluble in hot water
Identification by chemical test:
• Murexide test: Sample is taken in a Petri dish to which
hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate are added and
heated to dryness. A purple color is obtained by exposing
the residue to vapors of dilute ammonia. The purple color is
lost on addition of fixed alkali.
Caffeine
• Analysis by TLC
• Sample preparation : 1mg of Caffeine is dissolved in 1ml
of methanol or chloroform
• Standard sample : Caffeine
• Stationary phase : Silica gel-G
• Mobile phase : Ethyl acetate: methanol: acetic acid
(80:10:10)
• Detecting agent : Expose to vapors of iodine
• RF Value : 0.41
• Color spot : Brown spot [4, 5]
• Analysis by HPLC
• Method : Isocratic
• Stationary phase : C18 column
• Mobile phase : Methanol: Water (25:75)
• Detection : UV-Visible detection 254nm
Caffeine
Utilization:
• Caffeine is a CNS stimulant and Diuretic. It is used in
beverage.
Storage condition:
• It should be store in well closed and air-tight containers
protected from light and in cool place.

More Related Content

What's hot

Introduction to Pharmacognosy
Introduction to PharmacognosyIntroduction to Pharmacognosy
Introduction to PharmacognosyNilesh Thorat
 
Amino acid pathway
Amino acid pathwayAmino acid pathway
Amino acid pathwaySONALI GADGE
 
Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents
Isolation, Identification and Analysis of PhytoconstituentsIsolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents
Isolation, Identification and Analysis of PhytoconstituentsDr. Siddhi Upadhyay
 
Amino acid pathway, IVth semester, Unit-I
Amino acid pathway, IVth semester, Unit-IAmino acid pathway, IVth semester, Unit-I
Amino acid pathway, IVth semester, Unit-IMs. Pooja Bhandare
 
Alkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIK
Alkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIKAlkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIK
Alkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIKImran Nur Manik
 
Pharmacognosy Volatile oils
Pharmacognosy Volatile oilsPharmacognosy Volatile oils
Pharmacognosy Volatile oilsshveta arya
 
Industrial production,estimation and utilization of Diosgenin
Industrial production,estimation and utilization of DiosgeninIndustrial production,estimation and utilization of Diosgenin
Industrial production,estimation and utilization of DiosgeninNadeemSiddiqui37
 
Biosynthetic classification of alkaloids
Biosynthetic classification of alkaloidsBiosynthetic classification of alkaloids
Biosynthetic classification of alkaloidsMuhammad Jamal
 
Industrial production, estimation and utilization of phytoconstituents
Industrial production, estimation and utilization of phytoconstituentsIndustrial production, estimation and utilization of phytoconstituents
Industrial production, estimation and utilization of phytoconstituentsMahewash Sana Pathan
 
Isolation Extraction Estimation of Artemisinin
Isolation Extraction Estimation of ArtemisininIsolation Extraction Estimation of Artemisinin
Isolation Extraction Estimation of ArtemisininAFSATH
 
Pharmacognosy of Atropa belladona
Pharmacognosy of Atropa belladonaPharmacognosy of Atropa belladona
Pharmacognosy of Atropa belladonaRomaJoshi9
 
Alkaloids Pharmacognosy
Alkaloids PharmacognosyAlkaloids Pharmacognosy
Alkaloids PharmacognosyUnnati Garg
 
Metabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their Determination
Metabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their DeterminationMetabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their Determination
Metabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their DeterminationDr. Siddhi Upadhyay
 
alkaloids and extraction of alkaloids
alkaloids and extraction of alkaloids alkaloids and extraction of alkaloids
alkaloids and extraction of alkaloids Manoj Kumar
 
Introduction to secondary metabolites
Introduction to secondary metabolitesIntroduction to secondary metabolites
Introduction to secondary metabolitesZuli Shingala
 
ISOLATION AND ESTIMATION OF GLYCERRHIZIN AND PHYLLANTHIN
ISOLATION  AND  ESTIMATION  OF GLYCERRHIZIN  AND  PHYLLANTHINISOLATION  AND  ESTIMATION  OF GLYCERRHIZIN  AND  PHYLLANTHIN
ISOLATION AND ESTIMATION OF GLYCERRHIZIN AND PHYLLANTHINnaseefa
 

What's hot (20)

Introduction to Pharmacognosy
Introduction to PharmacognosyIntroduction to Pharmacognosy
Introduction to Pharmacognosy
 
Lignans and flavonoids
Lignans and flavonoidsLignans and flavonoids
Lignans and flavonoids
 
Amino acid pathway
Amino acid pathwayAmino acid pathway
Amino acid pathway
 
Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents
Isolation, Identification and Analysis of PhytoconstituentsIsolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents
Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents
 
Amino acid pathway, IVth semester, Unit-I
Amino acid pathway, IVth semester, Unit-IAmino acid pathway, IVth semester, Unit-I
Amino acid pathway, IVth semester, Unit-I
 
Alkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIK
Alkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIKAlkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIK
Alkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIK
 
Pharmacognosy Volatile oils
Pharmacognosy Volatile oilsPharmacognosy Volatile oils
Pharmacognosy Volatile oils
 
Industrial production,estimation and utilization of Diosgenin
Industrial production,estimation and utilization of DiosgeninIndustrial production,estimation and utilization of Diosgenin
Industrial production,estimation and utilization of Diosgenin
 
Biosynthetic classification of alkaloids
Biosynthetic classification of alkaloidsBiosynthetic classification of alkaloids
Biosynthetic classification of alkaloids
 
Vinca alkaloids
Vinca alkaloidsVinca alkaloids
Vinca alkaloids
 
Industrial production, estimation and utilization of phytoconstituents
Industrial production, estimation and utilization of phytoconstituentsIndustrial production, estimation and utilization of phytoconstituents
Industrial production, estimation and utilization of phytoconstituents
 
Isolation Extraction Estimation of Artemisinin
Isolation Extraction Estimation of ArtemisininIsolation Extraction Estimation of Artemisinin
Isolation Extraction Estimation of Artemisinin
 
Pharmacognosy of Atropa belladona
Pharmacognosy of Atropa belladonaPharmacognosy of Atropa belladona
Pharmacognosy of Atropa belladona
 
Tannins
TanninsTannins
Tannins
 
Alkaloids Pharmacognosy
Alkaloids PharmacognosyAlkaloids Pharmacognosy
Alkaloids Pharmacognosy
 
Caffeine
 Caffeine Caffeine
Caffeine
 
Metabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their Determination
Metabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their DeterminationMetabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their Determination
Metabolic Pathways in Higher Plants and their Determination
 
alkaloids and extraction of alkaloids
alkaloids and extraction of alkaloids alkaloids and extraction of alkaloids
alkaloids and extraction of alkaloids
 
Introduction to secondary metabolites
Introduction to secondary metabolitesIntroduction to secondary metabolites
Introduction to secondary metabolites
 
ISOLATION AND ESTIMATION OF GLYCERRHIZIN AND PHYLLANTHIN
ISOLATION  AND  ESTIMATION  OF GLYCERRHIZIN  AND  PHYLLANTHINISOLATION  AND  ESTIMATION  OF GLYCERRHIZIN  AND  PHYLLANTHIN
ISOLATION AND ESTIMATION OF GLYCERRHIZIN AND PHYLLANTHIN
 

Similar to 3.3 C-Alkaloids-Atropine-Quinine-Reserpine-Caffeine.pptx

Similar to 3.3 C-Alkaloids-Atropine-Quinine-Reserpine-Caffeine.pptx (20)

Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Alkaloids.pptx
Alkaloids.pptxAlkaloids.pptx
Alkaloids.pptx
 
Secondary metabolites
Secondary metabolitesSecondary metabolites
Secondary metabolites
 
Alkaloids(2)
Alkaloids(2)Alkaloids(2)
Alkaloids(2)
 
Alkaloids(2)
Alkaloids(2)Alkaloids(2)
Alkaloids(2)
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Alkaloids in plants
Alkaloids in plantsAlkaloids in plants
Alkaloids in plants
 
Introduction to alkaloids
Introduction to alkaloidsIntroduction to alkaloids
Introduction to alkaloids
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Occurrence and classification of alkaloids
Occurrence and classification of alkaloidsOccurrence and classification of alkaloids
Occurrence and classification of alkaloids
 
Chemistry of Natural Products
Chemistry of Natural ProductsChemistry of Natural Products
Chemistry of Natural Products
 
Alkaloids-New S 2020.pdfyrhfeettsswarttte
Alkaloids-New S 2020.pdfyrhfeettsswarttteAlkaloids-New S 2020.pdfyrhfeettsswarttte
Alkaloids-New S 2020.pdfyrhfeettsswarttte
 
Alkaloids
Alkaloids Alkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Alkaloids (detail study)
Alkaloids (detail study)Alkaloids (detail study)
Alkaloids (detail study)
 
Tmp 21671 py504 cogno.1315329853
Tmp 21671 py504 cogno.1315329853Tmp 21671 py504 cogno.1315329853
Tmp 21671 py504 cogno.1315329853
 
Alkaloids: Pharmacognosy MANIK
Alkaloids: Pharmacognosy MANIKAlkaloids: Pharmacognosy MANIK
Alkaloids: Pharmacognosy MANIK
 
D.PHARM ALKALOID.pdf
D.PHARM ALKALOID.pdfD.PHARM ALKALOID.pdf
D.PHARM ALKALOID.pdf
 
Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification
Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification
Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification
 

Recently uploaded

Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...DhatriParmar
 
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxkarenfajardo43
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxHumphrey A Beña
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptxmary850239
 
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 DatabaseHow to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 DatabaseCeline George
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptxDhatriParmar
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfPrerana Jadhav
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxVanesaIglesias10
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17Celine George
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDhatriParmar
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Developmentchesterberbo7
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptxmary850239
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Seán Kennedy
 
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young mindsMental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young mindsPooky Knightsmith
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
 
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
 
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of EngineeringFaculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
 
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 DatabaseHow to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
 
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTAParadigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
 
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
 
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young mindsMental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
 

3.3 C-Alkaloids-Atropine-Quinine-Reserpine-Caffeine.pptx

  • 1. B.PHARM. 5th SEMESTER PHARMACOGNOSY ANDPHYTOCHEMISTRY-II BP504T. UNIT-III Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents Alkaloids: Atropine, Quinine, Reserpine, Caffeine
  • 3. HISTORY OFALKALOIDS: The term ‘alkaloid’ was coined by MEISSNER, a German pharmacist, in 1819. The French chemist, Derosne in 1803, isolated narcotine. In the same year, morphine from opium was isolated by Serturner. Pelletier and Caventon isolated emetine in 1817 and colchicine in 1819. From the beginning of 19th century till to date, it has to proved to be a perpetual work to discover new alkaloids from plants and animals. As per a Russian review in 1973, the number of known alkaloids had reached up to 4959, amongst which, the structures of 3293 alkaloids were elucidated. At present, the number of alkaloids discovered has exceeded 6000.
  • 4. What is alkaloid ? The term “alkaloid” (alkali-like) is commonly used to designate basic heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds of plant origin that are physiologically active. They resemble some of the characters of naturally occurring complex amines. It posses specific physiological actions on human or animal body ,when used in small quantities. STRUCUTE OF ALKALOID
  • 5.
  • 6. The term alkaloid also covers Proto alkaloid, Pseudoalkaloids and True alkaloids. TRUE ALKALOIDS: • The true alkaloids are toxic in nature and contain heterocyclic nitrogen which is derived from amino acids and always basic in nature. True alkaloids are normally present in plants as salts of organic acids. PROTOALKAOIDS: • The ‘protoalkaloids’ or ‘amino alkaloids’ are simple amines in which the nitrogen is not in a heterocyclic ring. They are basic in nature and prepared in plants from amino acids PSEUDOALKALOIDS: • It includes mainly steroidal and terpenoid alkaloids and purines. They are not derived from amino acids.
  • 7. OCCURENCE OF ALKALOIDS: • Alkaloids are occurs mostly in angiosperms and rarely in gymnosperms. • But their presence is also detected in micro organisms, marine organisms, insects, animals and some of the lower plants. • In the lower plants, although the alkaloids are found in less number, some important sources are ergot fungus giving peptide alkaloids, ergometrine, ergotamine etc., and also gymnosperms like ephedra alkaloids. • Out of 60 different orders in higher plants, 34 orders contain alkaloids. DISTRIBUTION • Families with alkaloidal content are Apocynaceae, Berberidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Papaveraceae, Ranunculaceae, Rutaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae. • In most of the plants alkaloids are highly localized and concentrated in certain morphological parts only.
  • 8. Examples All Parts :e.g. Datura. Barks :e.g. Cinchona,kurchi Seeds :e.g. Nux vomica, areca, physostigma Roots :e.g. Aconite , rauwolfia Fruits :e.g. Black pepper, conicum Leaves :e.g. Tobacco, coca, lobelia Latex :e.g. Opium
  • 9. PROPERTIES OFALKALOIDS: Mostly all alkaloids are colourless, crystalline solids Sharp melting point Bitter taste Some alkaloids are coloured in nature, e.g. Berberine is yellow Soluble in organic non-polar, immiscible solvents. The alkaloids containing quaternary bases are only water soluble. Some of the pseudoalkaloids and proto-alkaloids shows higher solubility in water. Some alkaloids are liquid because of lacking of oxygen in their molecules. (e.g. coniine, nicotine, spartenine) Alkaloids are decomposed by heat, except Strychnine and caffeine. Give a precipitate with heavy metal iodides.
  • 10. The various methods proposed for classification of alkaloids are explained as follows, Pharmacological classification Taxonomic classification Biosynthetic classification Chemical classification CLASSIFICATION: TAXONOMIC CLASSIFICATION: This method classifies vast number of alkaloids based on their distribution in various plant Families, like solanaceous or papillionaceous alkaloids. From this classification, the chemotaxonomic classification has been further derived.
  • 11. PHARMACOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION Depending on the physiological response, the alkaloids are classified under various pharmacological categories, like central nervous system stimulants or depressants, analgesics, purgatives etc. Some of the examples are explained as follows, • Narcotic analgesic e.g.Morphine • Antimalarial e.g. Quinine • Reflux excitability e.g.Strychnine • Respiratory stimulant e.g.Lobeline • Neuralgia e.g. Aconitine • Oxytoxic e.g. Erogotometrine • Bronchodilator e.g. Ephedrine, vasicine • Anticholinergic e.g. Atropine • CNS stimulant e.g. Caffeine • Antitussive e.g. Codeine • Antiarrythmic e.g.Quinidine • Antihypertensive e.g. Reserpine • Anticancer e.g. Vincristine • Antiglucoma e.g. Pilocarpine
  • 12. BIOSYNTHETIC CLASSIFICATION This method give significance to the precursor from which the alkaloids are biosynthesized in plants. The alkaloidal drugs are categorised on the fact whether they are derived from amino acid precursor as ornithine, lysine, tyrosine, tryptophan, phenylalanine etc. 1. Ornithine derived alkaloids • e.g. Pyrrolidine alkaloid-Nicotine • Tropane alkaloid - Atropine, hyosyamine, coacaine 2. Lysine derived alkaloids • e.g. Piperidine and pyridine alkaloid - conine, lobaline, arecoline • Quinazolidine alkaloid- lupinine 3. Tyrosine derived alkaloids • e.g. Isoquinoline alkaloid-Morphine, codeine, emetine, cephaline, berberine,d- tubocurine • Amino alkaloid- colchicine 4. Tryptophan derived alkaloids • e.g. Indole alkaloid- ergot alkaloid, vincristine, vinblastine, reserpine, strychnine, physostigmine, strychinine, brucine • Quinoline alkaloid- cinchonine, quinine. 5. Histidine derived alkaloids • e.g. Imidazole alkaloid - Pilocrpine 6. Phenylalanine derived alkaloids • e.g. Amino alkaloid- Ephedrine
  • 13. CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION The alkaloidal drug care broadly categorised into 2 divisions. Heterocyclic alkaloids (True alkaloids) are divided into 12 groups according to nature of their heterocyclic ring. Non- heterocyclic alkaloids or protoalkaloids or Biological amines or pseudoalkaloids. This is the most accepted way of classification of alkaloids. The main criterion for chemical classification is the type of fundamental (normal heterocyclic) ring structure present in alkaloid.
  • 14. A) True alkaloids Sr. no. Type Structure Examples 1. Pyrrole and pyrrolidine N H N H e.g. Hygrine, coca species 2. Pyiridine and piperidine N N H e.g. Arecoline, anabasine, lobeline, conine, trigonelline 3. Pyrrolizidine N e.g. Echimidine, senecionine, seneciphylline 4. Tropane N e.g. Atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine, cocaine, pseudopelletirine 5. Quinoline N e.g. Quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, cupreine, camptothecine 6. Isoquinoline N e.g.Morphine, codeine, emetine, cephaline, narcotine, narceine, d- tubocurarine The following chart indicates types of alkaloids and their occurence in various plants along with basic chemical ring.
  • 15. 7 Indole N H e.g. Erotamine, ergotametriene, reserpine, vincristine, vinblastine, strychnine, brucine 8 Imidazole N N H e.g. Pilocrpine, isopilocarpine, pilosine 9 Norlupinane N e.g. Cystisine, laburinine 10 Aporphine (reduced isoquinoline napthalene) N e.g. Boldine
  • 16. B) PROTO ALKALOID 1. Alkyalamine Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine HO NH 1. Purine N N N HN e.g. Caffeine, thophylline, theobromine 2. Steroidal e.g. Solanidine, conessine, protoveratrine 3. Diterpene C20H32 e.g. Aconitine, aconine, hypoaconine C) PSEUDO ALKALOID
  • 17. ISOLATION OFALKALOID: Plant material is dried at a temperature not exceeding 60˚c and finely powdered. Macerate the powdered material with sufficient quantity of ethanol and set aside over night. Most alkaloids and their salts being alcohol soluble will get dissolved in the solution. Filter and concentrate the extract to ¼ the initial volume. complete the evaporation of the remaining solvent at a temperature not exceeding 50˚c. Treat the residue with dil. sulphuric acid and filter to remove resins, fatty matter and other unwanted substances. Basify the solution by the addition of alkali such as ammonia as it effectively precipitates most alkaloids and because of its volatility.
  • 18. ISOLATION OFALKALOID: Extract this solution with successive portion of chloroform or till complete extraction of all the alkaloids is effected. Concentrate the pooled organic layer to yield a crude mixture of alkaloids of the plant material. Dissolve the above residue in dil. sulphuric acid and filter if necessary. Basify the solution with ammonia and successively extract with chloroform. Run the pooled chloroform layers through a bed of anhydrous sodium sulphate and evaporate to dryness. Note the weight of the mixture of total alkaloids.
  • 19. QUALITATIVE CHEMICAL TEST: Wagner’s Test • (+) Reddish brown precipitate Reagent used: Wagner’s Reagent [Solution of iodine in potassium iodide] Mayer’s Test • (+) Cream color precipitates Reagent used: Mayer’s Reagent [Potassium mercuric iodide solution] Dragendorff’s test • (+) Orange precipitate Reagent used: Dragendorff’s reagent [Potassium bismuth iodide solution] Hager's test • (+) Yellow color precipitate Reagent used: Hager's reagent [saturated solution of Picric acid] Tannic acid test • (+)buff color precipitate Reagent used: 10% Tannic acid solution
  • 21. Atropine Biological source: Atropine is a tropane alkaloid obtained from the fresh or dried leaves and flowering tops of • Atropa belladonna, • Datura stramonium (Not less than 0.25%) and • Hyoscyamus niger (Not less than 0.05%). Family – Solanaceae
  • 22. Isolation Required quantity of coarse powder is taken and moistens with sodium carbonate solution. The blended mixture is extracted in petroleum ether and filters it. To the filtrate aqueous acetic acid is added and further the aqueous fraction is extracted with ether. Both fraction are separated by separating funnel and discard solvent ether fraction. Aqueous (Acidic fraction) is made alkaline with sodium carbonate solution to obtain precipitates of tropane alkaloids. Atropine
  • 23. Atropine Isolation The precipitate is filtered and dry to obtain residue. The residue is dissolved in diethyl ether, filtered it and concentrated the filtrate. Atropine crystals will be separated out. The crystals are filtered and dissolve in alcohol containing sodium hydroxide solution (Hyocyamine is converted to atropine). The atropine sulphate is recrystallized from acetone and crystals of atropine are separated
  • 24. Atropine Properties Appearance :Colourless crystal or white crystalline powder. Odour :Odourless Taste :Bitter taste Solubility :Easily soluble in water, soluble in ethanol, but insoluble in ether and chloroform
  • 25. Atropine Identification by chemical test • Vitali–Morin test: Small quantity of the solid atropine is taken and added 2 drops of Conc. nitric acid in an evaporating dish and evaporated to dryness on water bath. • Then the residue is dissolved in 1ml of acetone and few drops of freshly prepared alcoholic potassium hydroxide solution is added. • Violet coloration takes place due to tropane nucleus
  • 26. Atropine Analysis by TLC Sample preparation :1mg of Atropine is dissolved in 1ml of chloroform Standard sample :Atropine Stationary phase :Pre-coated Silica gel Mobile phase :Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Diethyl amine (70:20:10) Detecting agent :Dragendorff’s reagent RF Value :0.70 Color spot :Yellow orange spot Utilization :It is used as antispasmodic, mydriatic and antidote in opium poisoning. Storage condition :It should be store in air-tight containers protected from light and in cool place.
  • 28. Background & Historical Perspectives ▶Important medical discovery of 17th century ▶Component of bark of cinchona trees. ▶In early 1600s it was referred as “Jesuits bark” “cardinal’s bark” or “sacred bark.” ▶Quina-quina trees in Andean Jungle. ▶Introduction to Europe in 1638. ▶Use before 1820 and in 1820.
  • 29. Quinine Biological source: Quinine is a quinolone alkaloid obtained from the dried bark of Cinchona calisaya, Cinchona officinalis, Cinchona ledgeriana and Cinchona succirubra. Family: Rubiaceae. Quinine and quinidine are stereo-isomers. Quinine is levorotatory and quinidine is dextrorotatory.
  • 30.
  • 31. Effective cinchona alkaloids against malaria EFFECTIVE CINCHONA Cinchonine Quinidine Cinchonidine Quinine
  • 32. Properties of quinine ▶ Aryl amino alcohol group of drugs. ▶ Basic compound. ▶ Rapid action against intra-erythrocytic malarial parasites. ▶ Gametocytocidal. ▶ Analgesic properties. ▶ White crystalline. ▶ Insoluble in water. ▶ Bitter taste and levorotatory. ▶ Anti inflammatory.
  • 33. OVERVIEW OF QUININE ▶ Distribution in our body. ▶ Treatment for uncomplicated malaria. ▶ Lower cure rate. ▶ Higher cure rate (sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, tetracycline or clindamycin). 2010 World health Organization 2009 by 31 African countries Quinine+ Doxycycline+ Tetracycline (2nd line treatment) Quinine (2nd line treatment)
  • 34. Isolation: Quinine Required quantity of dry powder bark material is first well mixed with about 30% of its weight of alcoholic calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide or calcium oxide (20%) and sufficient quantity of sodium hydroxide solution (5%) to make a paste. It is allowed to stand for few hours so that alkali can convert cinchona alkaloids to free bases. The mass is then transferred to a Soxhlet apparatus and extraction is carried out with benzene for 6 hours. After competition of extraction the benzene extract is shaken with successive portions of 5% sulphuric acid in separating funnel. The aqueous acid extract is separated from benzene layer and adjusted the pH 6.5 with dilute sodium hydroxide, cooled. Crystals of quinine sulphate are formed, filtered and recrystallized with hot water
  • 35. Quinine Properties: • Appearance :Colourless crystal or white crystalline powder • Odour :Odourless • Taste :Intensely bitter taste • Solubility :Sparingly soluble in water, readily soluble in chloroform, alcohol and ether Identification by chemical test: • Thalleoquin test: Bromine water and ammonia solution is added in small quantity of powdered the sample. Emerald green colour takes place which indicates the presence of quinine
  • 36. Quinine Analysis by TLC Sample preparation :1mg of Quinine is dissolved in 1ml of methanol Standard sample : Quinine Stationary phase :Silica gel-G Mobile phase :Chloroform: Diethyl amine (9:1) Detecting agent :Dragendorff’s reagent RF Value : 0.17
  • 37. Analysis by HPLC • Method : Isocratic • Stationary phase : C18 Column • Mobile phase :Methanol: Acetonitrle-0.1mol/L: ammonia: acetone (45:15:40) • Detection : Fluorescence at excitation 325nm. • Emission : 375nm Utilization: • Quinine is antimalarial. Quinidine is a cardiac depressant therefore used in cardiac arrhythmias. Storage condition: • It should be store in well closed and air-tight containers protected from light and in cool place. Quinine
  • 39. Reserpine Biological source: Reserpine is an indole alkaloid obtained from the dried roots of Atropa belladonna, Rauwolfia serpentine. Family: Apocynaceae. Sarpagandha contains not less than 0.15% of reserpine and ajmalcine
  • 40. Isolation Rauwolfia root powder is exhaustively extracted with 90% alcohol in Soxhlet apparatus. The alcoholic extract is filtered, concentrated and dried under reduced pressure below 60°C to yield dry extract. The dry extract is extracted with ether-chloroform- 90% alcohol (20:8:2.5) and filtered. In filtrate dilute ammonia is added with intermittent shaking. Then water is added to precipitate the crude alkaloids mixture and allowed the drug to settle after vigorous shaking.
  • 41. Isolation The solution is filtered off and extracted the residue with 4 volumes of 0.5N Ammonium sulphate in separating funnel and combined all the extracts. The extract is made alkaline with dilute ammonia to liberate alkaloid. Finally it is extracted with 3 portion of chloroform. Chloroform extract is collected, concentrated and evaporated on water bath to yield total rauwolfia alkaloids. Residue is subjected to column chromatographic fraction for the separation of reserpine
  • 42. Reserpine Properties: • Appearance : White or pale buff to slightly yellow crystalline powder, darkening slowly on exposure to light. • Odor : Odourless • Taste : Bitter taste • Solubility :Soluble in alcohol, chloroform and acetone, partially soluble in water, freely soluble in acetic acid
  • 43. Reserpine Identification by chemical test: • When sample is treated with solution of vanillin in acetic acid, a violet red colour is produced which indicates the presence of reserpine Analysis by TLC • Sample preparation : 1mg of Reserpine is dissolved in 1ml of methanol • Standard sample : Reserpine • Stationary phase : Silica gel-G • Mobile phase : Chloroform: Acetone: Diethyl ether (50:40:10) • Detecting agent : Dragendorff’s reagent • RF Value : 0.72-0.35 • Color spot : Orange spot
  • 44. Mode of Action Reserpine acts by blocking the vasicular monoamine transporter VMAT, which normally transports free norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine from the cytoplasm of the presynaptic nerve into vesicles for subsequent release into the synaptic cleft. The unprotected neurotransmitters then metabolized by MAO and therefore never reach the synapse. By this mode of action this give mainly the antihypertensive action and also use in the treatment of dykynesia mania etc.
  • 45. Therapeutic application: Essential hypertension Mild anxiety Dyskinesia Psychosis symptoms Maintenance dose: 100 to 250 mg (once a day) Side effects: Nasal congestion Nausia Vomiting Gastric intolerance Gastric ulceration diarrhoeia
  • 46. Reserpine Storage condition: • It should be store in well closed and air-tight containers protected from light and in cool place.
  • 48. Caffeine Biological source: Caffeine is a purine alkaloid obtained from Tea leaves, Coffee seeds, cocoa, and other species. It is chemically 1,3,7, trimethyl xanthine which is isolated from tea and coffee seeds during decaffeination process. It is obtained from the prepared leaves and leaf buds of Thea sinensis. Family:Theaceae and Dried ripe seeds of Coffea Arabica, C. liberica, Family: Rubiceae. Tea leaves contains 1-4% of caffeine and coffee contains 1- 2% of caffeine.
  • 49. Isolation: Caffeine The powder tea leaves is extracted with boiling water and the aqueous extract is filtered while hot. The warm extract is treated with lead acetate to precipitate tannins and filtered. The filtrate is treated with excess of dilute sulphuric acid to precipitate lead in the form of lead sulphate. The filtrate is boiled with activated charcoal to remove colouring matter, if any and filtered to remove charcoal. The filtered decolourized solution is extracted with chloroform successively. Combined the chloroform extracts and evaporated on water bath to yield caffeine (white powder). It is recrystallized with alcohol
  • 50. Caffeine Properties: • Appearance : White powder or white glistering needles • Odor : Odourless • Taste : Bitter taste • Solubility : Soluble in hot water Identification by chemical test: • Murexide test: Sample is taken in a Petri dish to which hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate are added and heated to dryness. A purple color is obtained by exposing the residue to vapors of dilute ammonia. The purple color is lost on addition of fixed alkali.
  • 51. Caffeine • Analysis by TLC • Sample preparation : 1mg of Caffeine is dissolved in 1ml of methanol or chloroform • Standard sample : Caffeine • Stationary phase : Silica gel-G • Mobile phase : Ethyl acetate: methanol: acetic acid (80:10:10) • Detecting agent : Expose to vapors of iodine • RF Value : 0.41 • Color spot : Brown spot [4, 5] • Analysis by HPLC • Method : Isocratic • Stationary phase : C18 column • Mobile phase : Methanol: Water (25:75) • Detection : UV-Visible detection 254nm
  • 52. Caffeine Utilization: • Caffeine is a CNS stimulant and Diuretic. It is used in beverage. Storage condition: • It should be store in well closed and air-tight containers protected from light and in cool place.