Organisational behaviour (group 2)


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Organisational behaviour (group 2)

  1. 1. Subject: Human and Organisational Behaviour PsychoSociological Approach (HRM 601) Topic: Achieving Managerial Planned Behaviour Approach Effectiveness Through Presented by: Alphe Sany Alam Fakir Anshul Agarwal Shalu Mittal Wasim Akram Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 1
  2. 2. Acknowledgement I would like to thank my mentor, Dr. KOUSTAB GHOSH & Dr. ATRI ROY SENGUPTA with heartiest respect and gratitude, for guiding us through our term report. I am also obliged to my college librarians Mr Atanu Ganguly, Mr. Nazim who have assisted us in finding various references for data collection. We also thank to our friends at college for their assistance, on campus. Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 2
  3. 3. Serial No. Topic Page No. 1 Introduction 4 2 Managerial Effectiveness: 5-10 2.1 What is managerial effectiveness? 5-6 2.2 Managerial skills 6-10 2.3 How we will benefit? 10 2.4 Gauging managerial effectiveness 10 Effective Manager: 11-13 3.1 People skills 11 3.2 Technical skills 11-12 3.3 Conceptual skill 12-13 3.4 A competitive edge 13 4 Management Effectiveness In Organisations 13-14 5 Theory Of Planned Behaviour 14-15 5.1 Strength 15 5.2 Limitation 15 Behaviour 16-19 6.1Behaviour Beliefs 16 6.2 Attitude towards the behavior 17 6.3 Normative beliefs 17 6.4 Subjective norms 17-18 6.5 Control beliefs 18 6.6 Perceived behavioural control 18 6.7 Intention 19 6.8 Actual behavioural control 19 3 6 19 7 Difference Between Manager & Effective Manager 20 8 Conclusion 21 9 Bibliography 22 Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 3
  4. 4. Introduction Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources. The organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials, and money. According to the management guru Peter Drucker (1909-2005), the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation. Practice of modern management owes its origin to the 16th century enquiry into low-efficiency and failures of certain enterprises, conducted by the English statesman Sir Thomas More. As a discipline, management consists of the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing an organization's resources to achieve the policy's objectives. The directors and managers who have the power and responsibility to make decisions to manage an enterprise. The size of management can range from one person in a small organization to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large organizations the board of directors formulates the policy which is then implemented by the chief executive officer. Some business analysts and financiers accord the highest importance to the quality and experience of the managers in evaluating an organizations current and future worth. The degree to which objectives are achieved and the extent to which targeted problems are solved. In contrast to efficiency, effectiveness is determined without reference to costs and, whereas efficiency means "doing the thing right," effectiveness means "doing the right thing. Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 4
  5. 5. What is managerial effectiveness? Managerial effectiveness is a leader’s ability to achieve desired results. How well he applies his skills and abilities in guiding and directing others determines whether he can meet those results effectively. If he can, his achievements are poised to help the organization gain a competitive edge against rival organizations heading into the future. Managerial Effectiveness is fast becoming a competitive advantage for organisations, especially in the context of high demand for and, therefore, continuous migration of competent managers from one organisation to another. Organisations, therefore, have started investing in retaining competent managers and putting in place systems for developing new cadre of effective managers. Managerial Effectiveness is often defined in terms of output - what a manager achieves. This result oriented definition leads us to look for the factors that contribute towards the “results”. Studies find three factors to be responsible for the results that an organisation achieves through its managers. These are: (a) the efforts and ability of the managers, (b) the environment in which the managers and the organization operates, and (c) the efforts and ability of the subordinates. Thus, the managers’ ability is the key element in achieving the desired results. There are no absolute measures of managerial effectiveness. Organizations have aims and objectives, and managers are effective when they help their organization to achieve these aims and objectives. Thus, it is important that every manager (and employee) knows the purpose of their organization, the purpose of their job and the work-specific objectives they must meet. There are various ways of explaining the purpose of a job, and we consider two approaches here. The most common term is key performance indicators, or KPIs. Setting KPIs is often an organization-wide process. One version of this process is Management by Objectives. Variations of this are found in all types of organizations, although the process is often no longer referred to as Management by Objectives. Management by Objectives aims to identify key areas in a person’s work and to set targets against which his or her performance (or effectiveness) may be measured. Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 5
  6. 6. Management by Objectives is a simple idea which often proves to be very difficult to apply. Peter Drucker, a well-known writer on management, suggests that effective managers follow the same eight practices. They:  ask ‘what needs to be done’  ask ‘what is right for the enterprise’  develop action plans  take responsibility for decisions  take responsibility for communicating  focus on opportunities  run productive meetings  think and say ‘we’ rather than ‘I’. (Source: Drucker, 2004) The first two practices give managers the knowledge they need. The next four help them convert this knowledge into effective action. The last two ensure that the whole team or organisation feels responsible and accountable. Most of the practices are applicable at all levels of management. Managerial Skills • Communication There’s a lot of communication when we’re a manager. We have to communicate with each of your employees. We have to communicate “sideways” with your co-workers and customers. And we have to communicate upwards with our own manager or executive. We need some substance in the communication, of course — we need to have something worthy of being communicated. But substance isn’t enough — if we know what we’re doing and can’t properly communicate it to anyone else, then we’ll never be a good manager. Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 6
  7. 7. • Listening Skills This is a part of communication, but I want to single it out because it’s so important. Some managers get so impressed with themselves that they spend much more of their time telling people things than they spend listening. But no matter how high we go in the management hierarchy, we need to be able to listen. It’s the only way we’re really going to find out what’s going on in our organization, and it’s the only way that we’ll ever learn to be a better manager. • A Commitment to the Truth We’ll find that the higher we are in the management hierarchy, the less likely we are to be in touch with reality. Managers get a lot of brownnosing, and people tend to sugar-coat the news and tell managers what they want to hear. The only way we’ll get the truth is if we insist on it. Listen to what people tell us, and ask questions to probe for the truth. Develop information sources outside of the chain of command and regularly listen to those sources as well. Make sure we know the truth — even if it’s not good news. • Empathy This is the softer side of listening and truth. We should be able to understand how people feel, why we feel that way, and what we can do to make them feel differently. Empathy is especially important when we’re dealing with our customers. And whether we think so or not, we’ll always have customers. Customers are the people who derive benefit from the work we do. If no one derives benefit from our work, then what’s the point of keeping our organization around? • Persuasion Putting all four of the preceding skills together, because we’ll need them when we try to persuade someone to do something we want do. we could describe this as “selling” but it’s more general. Whether we’re trying to convince our employees to give us a better effort, our boss to give us a bigger budget, or our customers to agree to something we want to do for them, our persuasion skills will be strained to our limits. • Leadership Leadership is a specialized form of persuasion focused on getting other Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 7
  8. 8. people to follow us in the direction we want to go. It’s assumed that the leader will march into battle at the head of the army, so be prepared to make the same sacrifices we’re asking our employees to make. • Focus The key to successful leadership is focus. We can’t lead in a hundred different directions at once, so setting an effective leadership direction depends on our decision not to lead in the other directions. Focusing light rays means concentrating the light energy on one spot. Focusing effort means picking the most important thing to do and then concentrating our team’s effort on doing it. • Division of Work This is the ability to break down large tasks into sub-tasks that can be assigned to individual employees. It’s a tricky skill — maybe more an art than a science, almost like cutting a diamond. Ideally we want to figure out how to accomplish a large objective by dividing the work up into manageable chunks. The people working on each chunk should be as autonomous as possible so that the tasks don’t get bogged down in endless discussion and debate. We have to pay careful attention to the interdependencies among the chunks. And we have to carefully assess each employee’s strengths, weaknesses and interests so that we can assign the best set of sub-tasks to each employee. • Obstacle Removal Inevitably, problems will occur. Our ability to solve them is critical to the ongoing success of our organization. Part of our job is to remove the obstacles that are preventing your employees from doing their best. • Heat absorption Not all problems can be solved. When upper management complains about certain things that can’t be avoided (e.g., an unavoidable delay in a project deliverable), it’s our job to take the heat. But what’s more important, it’s our job to absorb the heat to keep it from reaching our employees. It’s the manager’s responsibility to meet objectives. If the objectives aren’t being met, then it’s the manager’s responsibility to: Make sure that upper management knows about the problem as early as possible. Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 8
  9. 9. Take all possible steps to solve the problem with the resources we’ve been given. Suggest alternatives to management that will either solve the problem or minimize it. These other alternatives may propose the use of additional resources beyond the current budget, or they may propose a change in the objective that’s more achievable. Keep the problem from affecting the performance or morale of our employees. • Uncertainty Removal When higher management can’t give us consistent direction in a certain area, it’s up to us to shield our employees from the confusion, remove the apparent uncertainty, and lead our employees in a consistent direction until there’s a good reason to change that direction. • Project Management This is a more advanced skill that formalizes some of attributes. Although both “Management” and “Project Management” contain the word “management,” they aren’t the same thing. Management implies a focus on people, while Project Management implies a focus on the project objective. We can be a Manager and a Project Manager, or we can be a Manager without being a Project Manager. We can also be a Project Manager without being a Manager. • Administrative and Financial Skills Most managers have a budget, and we’ll have to be able to set the budget and then manage to it. We’ll also have to deal with hiring, firing, rewarding good employee performance, dealing with unacceptable performance from some employees, and generally making sure that our employees have the environment and tools we need to do our work. It’s ironic that this is skill number 13 (an unlucky number in some cultures), because a lot of managers hate this part of the job the most. But if we’re good at budgeting, we’ll find it much easier to do the things we want to do. And hiring and dealing with employees on a day-to-day basis is one of the key skills to give us the best, happiest and most productive employees. Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 9
  10. 10. This explains some of the things we’ll need to learn before we become a successful manager. We can probably become a manager without having all of these skills, but we’ll need all of them to be really successful and to get promoted to higher levels of management. For every one of these skills, there are various levels of performance. No one expects a new manager to be superior at every one of these skills, but we should be aware of all of them, and we should do everything we can to learn more about each skill. Some of that learning will come through education. But much of the learning will come through experience — trial and error. How We Will Benefit  Ensure long-term business results by focusing on employee development  Meet the diverse needs of all our team members with proven communication techniques  Align motivation with work and personal goals  Anticipate and resolve conflict situations  Instill a culture based on trust, partnerships and respect  Increase dialogue and constructive feedback for optimum managerial effectiveness  Partner with our team to ensure long-term productivity  Use delegation to increase performance and individual growth Gauging Managerial Effectiveness Managerial effectiveness is gauged by the results a leader achieves. Results are generally believed to be influenced by the organization’s established culture. A good leader must adapt to the organization’s culture and make sure her skills are aligned with organizational goals in order to achieve positive results. Three Major Skills of an Effective Manager A manager has a combination of technical, people and conceptual skills that can make him an effective leader, according to theoretical models of leadership Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 10
  11. 11. PEOPLE SKILLS Human skill involves the ability to interact effectively with people. Managers interact and cooperate with employees Effective managers should strive to build personal relationships with their teams. Employees are more likely to exceed expectations when they trust their manager. When managers establish a relationship with employees, it builds trust and employees feel valued. Valued employees are more willing to get the job done right. The best managers know when their employees need more development, and how to ensure those developments are successful. Developing others involves cultivating each individual's talents, and motivating those individuals to channel those talents toward productivity. As a manager you need to be an effective communicator which includes written and verbal. Almost daily you will need to communicate with your employees and sometimes upper management. Managers need to write letters every as well and your writing skills need to be up to par. Managers need to have the ability to relate to a variety of different people. The goals and objectives of the organization is very important and sometimes managers are required to relay those goals in a passionate manner to the team. Managers need to be able to motivate and inspire people. Another quality of managers is their ability to develop the people that he manages. They have to be able to develop people to the point where they are able to be promoted or at the very least take on larger tasks and responsibilities and ultimately moving the company towards its goals and objectives. . TECHNICAL SKILLS Being technical does not mean that you have to be involved in every aspect of the database, code or infrastructure. However, you do need to be knowledgeable of the latest trends within your area of expertise to some degree. Technical skill involves process or technique knowledge and proficiency. Managers use the processes, techniques and tools of a specific area. Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 11
  12. 12. Technical skills include simple things such as the ability to properly operate a computer, efficiently use the various software programs that are required in your particular environment, and handle other electronic gadgets that may pertain to your job function. These skills are especially important for lower level managers, as they are often responsible for training their subordinates. Technical skills are essential to effective leadership. Besides, if you don’t know how to effectively complete a task, how can you rightfully judge others when it comes time for review? You’ll have no way of knowing whether or not your team members are completing their jobs properly, opening up the possibility for a future disaster. CONCEPTUAL SKILLS This skill calls for the ability to think analytically. Analytical skills enable managers to break down problems into smaller parts, to see the relations among the parts, and to recognize the implications of any one problem for others. As managers assume ever-higher responsibilities in organizations, they must deal with more ambiguous problems that have long-term consequences. Again, managers may acquire these skills initially through formal education and then further develop them by training and job experience. The higher the management level, the more important conceptual skills become. Conceptual skills include the ability to see the organization in the context of its industry; the ability to understand how each part of the organization functions as a whole; the ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations; the ability to understand the interrelationships at work in the organization. Managers understand abstract relationships, develop ideas, and solve problems creatively. Thus, technical skill deals with things, human skill concerns people, and conceptual skill has to do with ideas. A manager's level in the organization determines the relative importance of possessing technical, human, and conceptual skills. Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 12
  13. 13. Top level managers need conceptual skills that let them view the organization as a whole. Conceptual skills are used in planning and dealing with ideas and abstractions. Supervisors need technical skills to manage their area of specialty. All levels of management need human skills so they can interact and communicate with other people successfully. As the pace of change accelerates and diverse technologies converge, new global industries are being created (for example, telecommunications). Technological change alters the fundamental structure of firms and calls for new organizational approaches and management skills. There are different types of skills in the corporate world. Soft Skills, communication skills, business writing, corporate presentation, public speaking, sales, maketing, leadership and managerial skills are few of the skills. A Competitive Edge In the long run, managerial effectiveness has the potential of creating efficiencies that create a sustainable competitive advantage against rival organizations and increase opportunities for future enterprise. It also fosters individual growth in the manager and her followers and, over time, generates shareholder value for the organization. Management Effectiveness in Organizations Effective managers in organizations follow this same basic principle. It is not just about getting results. The “how” is also critical. Management effectiveness entails efficiency, which means reaching a destination with minimal cost. The only difference between business managers and simple self-management is the number and types of resources involved and the complexity of tasks that need to be managed. The more complex the task , the more complex needs to be the planning , coordination and monitoring to achieve success efficiently. Managing widely diverse types of people, large amounts of money and working to tight timeframes Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 13
  14. 14. creates a great challenge for even the best managers. Leadership is different. It is about promoting new directions, not executing existing directions efficiently Performance management Without measurement, there is no way to determine or improve efficiency. The effective manager knows how to involve employees in monitoring their own performance by selling them on the benefits to them of being fully aware of how they are doing at all times. This is also true in sports. Top athletes cannot excel without measuring their performance against challenging targets. It’s just a matter of how the need for performance measurement is presented. It is easier to accept if it is presented as being in the individual’s own interest rather than being imposed in an authoritarian manner which conveys a lack of trust. . PLANNED BEHAVIOUR In psychology, the theory of planned behavior is a theory about the link between attitudes and behavior. The theory of planned behavior was proposed by Icek Ajzen in 1985 through his article "From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior.". It has been applied to studies of the relations among beliefs, attitudes, behavioral intentions and behaviors in various fields such as advertising, public relations, advertising campaigns and healthcare. Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 14
  15. 15. STRENGTH At first, the theory of planned behavior can cover people's non-volitional behavior. An individual's behavioral intention cannot be the exclusive determinant of behavior where an individual's control over the behavior is incomplete. By adding "perceived behavioral control," the theory of planned behavior can explain the relationship between behavioral intention and actual behavior. The TPB has improved the predictability of intention in various health-related fields such as leisure, exercise, diet, etc. In addition, the theory of planned behavior can explain the individual's social behavior by considering "social norm" as an important variable. LIMITATION The theory of planned behavior is based on cognitive processing and level of behavior change. Compared to affective processing models, the theory of planned behavior overlooks emotional variables such as threat, fear, mood and negative or positive feeling and assessed them in a limited fashion. In particular in the health-related behavior situation, given that most individuals' health behaviors are influenced by their personal emotion and affect-laden nature, this is a decisive drawback for predicting health-related behaviors. Most of the research is correlational, and evidence based on experimental studies is less convincing. Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 15
  16. 16. Icek Ajzen has described the theory by the below diagram: Behavioral Beliefs Behavioral beliefs link the behavior of interest to expected outcomes. A behavioral belief is the subjective probability that the behavior will produce a given outcome. Although a person may hold many behavioral beliefs with respect to any behavior, only a relatively small number are readily accessible at a given moment. It is assumed that these accessible beliefs -- in combination with the subjective values of the expected outcomes -- determine the prevailing attitude toward the behavior. Specifically, the evaluation of each outcome contributes to the attitude in direct proportion to the person's subjective probability that the behavior produces the outcome in question. Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 16
  17. 17. Attitude Towards the Behavior Attitude toward a behavior is the degree to which performance of the behavior is positively or negatively valued. According to the expectancy- value model, attitude toward a behavior is determined by the total set of accessible behavioral beliefs linking the behavior to various outcomes and other attributes. Specifically, the strength of each belief (b) is weighted by the evaluation (e) of the outcome or attribute, and the products are aggregated, as shown in the following equation. Normative Beliefs Normative beliefs refer to the perceived behavioral the expectations of such important referent individuals or groups as person's spouse, family, friends, and -- depending on the population and behavior studied - teacher, doctor, supervisor, and coworkers. It is assumed that these normative beliefs -- in combination with the person's motivation to comply with the different referents -- determine the prevailing subjective norm. Specifically, the motivation to comply with each referent contributes to the subjective norm in direct proportion to the person's subjective probability that the referent thinks the person should perform the behavior in question. Subjective Norm Subjective norm is the perceived social pressure to engage or not to engage in a behavior. Drawing an analogy to the expectancy-value model of attitude, it is assumed that subjective norm is determined by the total set of accessible normative beliefs concerning the expectations of important referents. Specifically, the strength of each normative belief Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 17
  18. 18. (n) is weighted by motivation to comply (m) with the referent in question, and the products are aggregated. Control Beliefs Control beliefs have to do with the perceived presence of factors that may facilitate or impede performance of a behavior. It is assumed that these control beliefs -- in combination with the perceived power of each control factor -- determine the prevailing perceived behavioral control. Specifically, the perceived power of each control factor to impede or facilitate performance of the behavior contributes to perceived behavioral control in direct proportion to the person's subjective probability that the control factor is present. Perceived Behavioral Control Perceived behavioral control refers to people's perceptions of their ability to perform a given behavior. Drawing an analogy to the expectancyvalue model of attitude, it is assumed that perceived behavioral control is determined by the total set of accessible control beliefs, i.e., beliefs about the presence of factors that may facilitate or impede performance of the behavior. Specifically, the strength of each control belief (c) is weighted by the perceived power (p) of the control factor, and the products are aggregated, as shown in the following equation. To the extent that it is an accurate reflection of actual behavioral control, perceived behavioral control can, together with intention, be used to predict behavior. Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 18
  19. 19. Intention Intention is an indication of a person's readiness to perform a given behavior, and it is considered to be the immediate antecedent of behavior. The intention is based on attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, with each predictor weighted for its importance in relation to the behavior and population of interest. Behavior Behavior is the manifest, observable response in a given situation with respect to a given target. Single behavioral observations can be aggregated across contexts and times to produce a more broadly representative measure of behavior. In the TpB, behavior is a function of compatible intentions and perceptions of behavioral control. Conceptually, perceived behavioral control is expected to moderate the effect of intention on behavior, such that a favorable intention produces the behavior only when perceived behavioral control is strong. In practice, intentions and perceptions of behavioral control are often found to have main effects on behavior, but no significant interaction. Actual Behavioral Control Actual behavioral control refers to the extent to which a person has the skills, resources, and other prerequisites needed to perform a given behavior. Successful performance of the behavior depends not only on a favorable intention but also on a sufficient level of behavioral control. To the extent that perceived behavioral control is accurate, it can serve as a proxy of actual control and can be used for the prediction of behavior. Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 19
  20. 20. Manager • • • • • • • Thinks of self as manager or boss Follows chain of command Works within a set organizational structure Makes most decisions alone Hoards information Tries to master one major discipline Demands long hours Effective Manager • • • • • • • Thinks of self as sponsor, team leader, or internal consultant Deals with anyone necessary to get job done Changes organizational structure in response to market change Invites others to join in decision making Shares information Tries to master broad array of disciplines Demands results Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 20
  21. 21. Conclusion It can be achieved by following the planned behavior model. The most important task of a manager apart from managing resources and achieving targets is to manage people or human resource or employees. If a manager is adept in predicting and explaining human behavior then he/she can motivate or manipulate employees accordingly to meet organizational goals. In the life of a manager one faces many hurdles and numerous pressures. One such hurdle is how to handle the unexpected or a crisis situation. Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 21
  22. 22. BIBLIOGRAPHY Achieving Managerial Effectiveness Through Planned Behavior Approach Page 22