Final hillsboro airportlead-cpo9-111213


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Nine speakers on the expert panel and thirty-three attendees participated in the Washington County, Oregon Citizen Participation Organization #9's Hillsboro Airport Lead Forum on Tuesday, Nov. 12, 2013. The forum addressed public concerns regarding the use of lead-based fuel at the Port of Portland’s Hillsboro Airport, clarified public health risk factors, clarified current DEQ air quality monitoring in Hillsboro, and presented proposed future non-leaded Aviation Gas solutions and timelines. The forum included representatives from Port of Portland, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Oregon Health Authority, Washington County Health and Human Services, Oregon Aviation Watch, and the Oregon Pilots Association. A quiz asked general-knowledge questions of the audience at the beginning of the presentation - see the slides for the quiz results.

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  • At HIO aviation fuel -> sold retail - FBOsTwo types: Jet A and leaded AvgasJet A. Jet aircraft turbine-powered propeller aircraft KerosineAvgas. The high compression piston engines used on most existing GA aircraft were certified for, and depend on, high-octane leaded fuel for safe operation. ~ 170,000 aircraft in the U.S. that rely in rely on 100LL for safe operation.~250 M gallons of leaded avgas fuel consumed per yr VS. automobiles 360 M gallons/day. “FAA” -> 40 % piston engine aircraft -> certification (or eligible) automotive fuels (no ethanol).
  • FAA has THE authority to regulate aviation fuels; so what is FAA doing:1) Created Fuels Program Office -> Replacement fuel by 20182) Created Unleaded Avgas Transition (UAT) Plan which is FAA’s long term mitigation strategy to find a replacement for leaded fuels.Road map with milestonesEstablished candidate fuels testing programPhase 1 test program (1 year); up to 10 fuels will be selected for rig and property testingOn June 10, 2013, FAA issue a request for candidate fuel producers to submit unleaded fuel formulations to be evaluated. Phase 2 test program; 2 fuels will be tested in engines and aircraft3) Avgas R&D program4) Created certification process for anyone who wishes to certify planes and engines to run on unleaded fuel. The Port is supportive of Federal initiatives to replace leaded Avgas
  • While FAA’s goal for an unleaded avgas by 2018 will ultimately allow for the elimination of leaded fuel, there may be interim strategies that can be implemented locallyThe Hillsboro Airport Roundtable Exchange (HARE) had taken it upon themselves to look at this issue. HARE has formed a Lead Working groupFirst meeting was in SeptemberNext meeting in one week.Starting by get their hands around the vast amount of information associated with this topic.
  • Our airshed is in compliance with the NAAQS for leadTwo separate models done for HIO showed very similar results; several orders of magnitude below the NAAQSEPA monitoring 17 GA airports between 0.5 and 1.0 TPY. Full results in May 2014. The FAA has the authority to regulate aviation fuels and is working on a safe replacement fuel. The schedule for a replacement fuel is just over 4 years. The Port is supportive of that workHARE is exploring the issue for potential interim measures to implement locally.As this issue evolves and as interim and long term solutions become available; the Port is happy to work with those private retailers to implement those solutions here locally as soon as possible and as efficiently and safely as possible.
  • Final hillsboro airportlead-cpo9-111213

    1. 1. CPO #9 Hillsboro Airport Lead Forum Hillsboro Airport Lead Emissions – Facts and Solutions November 12, 2013 Hillsboro Main Library
    2. 2. Lead Forum Panel 1. Henry Oberhelman, 5. Miki Barnes, Hillsboro Airport Roundtable Exchange Oregon Aviation Watch 2. David Farrer and David Dreher, Oregon Health Authority 3. Dr. Justin Denny, Washington County Health and Human Services 4. Sara Armitage and Anthony Barnack, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality 6. David Breen, Port of Portland 7. Mary Rosenblum, Oregon Pilots Association 8. Paul Koprowski, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    3. 3. How much lead is in a typical #2 pencil? A. B. C. D. Trace amount Mostly lead Small amount None Answer: D Source: Justin Denny, MD MPH Deputy Health Officer Washington County
    4. 4. How are children most commonly exposed to lead? A. By eating it B. By breathing it C. By drinking it Answer: A Source: Justin Denny, MD MPH Deputy Health Officer Washington County
    5. 5. What aircraft operating out of Hillsboro Airport (HIO) are currently using lead based fuel? A. Private corporate jets B. Fixed wing piston engine airplanes and helicopters C. Oregon Air National Guard aircraft Answer: B
    6. 6. What amount of lead, in pounds per year, is currently being emitted by aircraft operating from the Hillsboro Airport (HIO)? A. B. C. D. 100-200 Lbs. 201-500 Lbs. 501-1,000 Lbs. 1001-1,500 Lbs. Answer: D – approximately 1,400 lbs. in 2007 Source: 2009 Draft Environmental Assessment on Hillsboro Airport third runway proposal – emissions figures from 2007
    7. 7. How many Ore. Dept. of Environmental Quality air quality monitors currently exist AND measure lead in Washington Co./Hillsboro? A. B. C. D. Zero (0) One (1) Five (5) Ten (10) Answer: B
    8. 8. CPO 9 Aviation Lead Emissions Henry Oberhelman, CPO 8 Representative, Hillsboro Airport Roundtable Exchange (H.A.R.E.) A special thank you is due to CPO 9 and its Chair, Tom Black, for preparing this panel discussion. It is unusual to see in a community involvement venue the number and qualifications of such a panel. The lead used in the aviation fuel commonly called avgas, is recognized by the EPA and the FAA as an unacceptable source of environmental pollution and is targeted for replacement.
    9. 9. Since the completion of the 2005 Hillsboro Airport Master Plan the Port of Portland has been sponsoring a Hillsboro Airport Roundtable Exchange (HARE) to address conditions relevant to the airport. The high concentration of local flight training using avgas prompted HARE to work towards compiling a fact-based summary for the following areas: • • • • Leaded Fuel replacement schedule Cost impacts to Leaded Fuel users Health impacts on individuals Lead emission modeling
    10. 10. Opportunities • Refine the lead emission modeling to accurately reflect actual aircraft operations and the lead emission impact at the household level. • Take the decision to reduce aviation operations using leaded fuel balancing fuel replacement schedule and health impacts.
    11. 11. Public Health Division Healthy Homes Programs David Farrer David Dreher 11/12/2013
    12. 12. Children’s* Blood Lead (2009-2010) 50th Percentile General U.S. Population¶ (µg/dL) 1.15 75th Percentile 1.70 97.5th Percentile 5.00 *Ages 1-5 (i.e. <6 years) ¶National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals
    13. 13. Percent of Children’s Blood Lead Tests Greater Than or Equal to 5 µg/dL (Oregon Health Authority) All of Oregon 2010 2.93% Washington County 2.13% U.S. General Population 2.5% of kids under 6 have BLL greater than or equal to 5 µg/dL Children less than 6 years old at time of test.
    14. 14. Summary • • • • No “safe” level of lead exposure Reduce exposure wherever possible “Zero” lead is not possible Our data did not show an association between distance from airport and blood lead, but our data had too many limitations to rule out a correlation • Public health focuses resources on lead sources that contribute the most lead to the most kids (i.e. lead-based paint)
    15. 15. What you can do now • Get your child screened to find out your child’s blood lead level • Find out whether you have lead paint in your house • If you have lead paint: – Take appropriate precautions if you do renovations – Make sure lead paint is in good condition and not chipping or peeling • Go to to learn about more sources of lead and how to avoid them • Remove shoes before entering house • clean dust with a wet rag regularly, especially window sills, door jams, and any other friction points where paint may be scraped off as dust • Make sure kids wash hands often to avoid ingesting dust that may be contaminated with lead • Eat a healthy diet high in iron, calcium, and zinc
    16. 16. Lead Justin Denny, MD MPH Deputy Health officer Washington County
    17. 17. How much lead is in a typical #2 pencil? a. b. c. d. Trace amount Mostly lead Small amount None Answer: D
    18. 18. How are children most commonly exposed to lead? a. By eating it b. By breathing it c. By drinking it Answer: A
    19. 19. True or False? • The level of concern of lead in a child was > 60 μg/dL in the 1960s and is now > 5 μg/dL • A. True • B. False Answer: True
    20. 20. Lead exposure • Often occurs without any symptoms and can go unrecognized. • It is diagnosed by a blood test, screening in children <5 (ideally between ages one and two) who are considered at risk. • The most important risk factors is living in or spending a lot of time in a house built before 1978.
    21. 21. Symptoms of lead poisoning • Children poisoned by lead and may not look or act sick. • An estimated average of 6 IQ points may be lost due to lead poisoning with BLLs in the range of 1–9.9 μg/dl. • Lead effects on a child can be permanent and irreversible. • Possible signs and symptoms of lead poisoning in children and adults: – Tiredness or loss of energy; hyperactivity; irritability or crankiness; reduced attention span; poor appetite; weight loss; trouble sleeping; constipation; aches or pains in stomach; kidney and liver damage; hearing damage.
    22. 22. Elevated blood lead levels • Can result in learning disabilities and behavioral problems. – Can also be prevented with early screenings and by reducing or eliminating lead exposure • In the last 5 years, 60,000 blood lead tests were performed on children under the age of 6 in Oregon (4%). – – – – – 64% BLLs less than 2 μg/dl 35% were 2-10 μg/dl 91 tests in the 15-19 μg/dl range (0.15%) 79 in the 20-44 μg/dl range (0.13%) 7 in the 45-69 μg/dl range, and 1 > 70. Public Health Action Level: Child (< 18 years: > 5 μg/dL, Adult (≥ 18 years) >25 μg/dL
    23. 23. Public Health Role • US CDC recommends public health action when child’s BLL > 10 mg/dL – Elevated BBL in children must be reported to local public health • Public health interventions include: – – – – investigating the likely source of the lead testing others who may be at risk providing resources about lead remediation tracking follow-up testing of blood lead levels • From 2010-2012, # cases of elevated BLL reported to Washington County Public Health in children (7 m – 9 y): 12 • Parents should remember that lead exposure most commonly occurs in the home. – cleaning up any paint chips or dust – keeping places where children play clean and dust-free – washing hands often and especially before eating.
    24. 24. Lead paint • The most common cause of lead exposure both nationally and in Oregon. • Over the last decade, lead paint was the identified source in approximately 60% of the childhood lead cases in the state.
    25. 25. Key Messages • There is no “safe” level of lead exposure. • Almost all of the childhood blood lead levels in Oregon over 5 µg/dL can be explained by something other than aviation gas. • Lead paint is the most common cause of lead exposure both nationally and in Oregon and prevention of lead poisoning will continue to focus on young children at risk of lead ingestion.
    26. 26. Key things parents can do now to lower risk of lead poisoning in their children 1) Have your child screened by his or her health care provider 2) Ensure good nutrition, diet rich in iron 3) Teach good hand-washing 4) Minimize the amount of dirt and dust tracked into your home 5) Repair any peeling paint, especially in older homes
    27. 27. Hillsboro Lead Modeling and Monitoring CPO 9 Meeting November 12, 2013 Sarah Armitage Anthony Barnack 30
    28. 28. Portland Air Toxics Solutions (PATS) 31
    29. 29. Portland Air Toxics Solutions Model 32
    30. 30. Summary of PATS Model Results 33
    31. 31. Location of DEQ air toxics monitor in Hillsboro 34
    32. 32. Monitoring for Gasses, Metals, Particulate 35
    33. 33. Five months of Hillsboro monitor lead data 36
    34. 34. Comparing monitored lead data in North Portland and Hillsboro 37
    35. 35. EPA Airport Lead Monitoring 38
    36. 36. Contact Information Sarah Armitage - DEQ Air Toxics 503-229-5186 Anthony Barnack – DEQ Monitoring 503-693-5708 Paul Koprowski – EPA Air Program Coordinator 503-326-6363 39
    37. 37. The mission of Oregon Aviation Watch is to enhance and protect the quality of life for Oregon residents by eliminating the adverse impacts of aviation activity. PO Box 838 Banks, OR 97106 503-324-0291
    38. 38. Children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of lead. “…once an elevated blood lead concentration has been detected, it is too late to prevent lead’s deleterious effects on the developing brain. This fact, plus the very low blood lead levels established to negatively impact development indicate that the only way to prevent childhood lead poisoning is to prevent lead from ever getting into children’s bodies.” Source: Lidsky, T I. and Schneider, JS. Lead Neurotoxicity in Children: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Correlates. Guarantors of Brain (2003), 126, 5-19. Estimates indicate “that the U.S. incurs $43.4 billion annually in the costs of all pediatric environmental disease, with childhood lead poisoning alone accounting for the vast majority of it. This is a very high cost to our society, which include medical costs, disability, education and parental lost work time.” Source: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM) Lead Toxicity . (August 2010). Available online at Oregon Aviation Watch 41
    39. 39. “Lead that is emitted into the air can be inhaled or, after it settles out of the air, can be ingested. Ingestion of lead that has settled onto surfaces is the main way children are exposed to lead originally released into the air.” Source: Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded Aviation Gasoline: Regulatory Announcement. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.). (April 2010) . Available online at The symptoms of ADHD include extreme hyperactivity, impulsivity, inattentiveness and distractibility. ADHD often cooccurs with conduct and oppositional defiant disorders. Background low-level lead exposure, well below the 5 mcg/dL level of concern established by the CDC in 2012, is associated with ADHD. “Blood lead levels from 1 to 10 ug/dL are associated with lower child intelligence quotient (IQ), weaker executive cognitive abilities, behavior symptoms of ADHD and diagnosis of ADHD in community surveys.” Source: Niggs, JT, Knottnerus, GM, Martel MM, Nikolas, M, Cavenaugh, K, Karmaus, W, Rappley, MD. Low Blood Lead Levels Associated with Clinically Diagnosed Attention Deficit/Hyperactvity Disorder and Mediated by Weak Cognitive Control. Biological Psychiatry. V. 63 Issue 3. pgs. 325321. (2/1/08). “Lead is particularly dangerous to children because their growing bodies absorb more lead than adults do and their brains and nervous systems are more sensitive to the damaging effects of lead… In children, the main target for lead toxicity is the nervous system. Even very low levels of lead in the blood of children can result in:  Permanent damage to the brain and nervous system, leading to behavior and learning problems, lower IQ, and hearing problems  Slowed growth, anemia,  In rare cases, ingestion of lead can cause seizures, coma and even death Source: Learn About Lead. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Available online at Oregon Aviation Watch 42
    40. 40.   Medical research has identified a causal relationship between lead and hypertension, coronary heart disease, decreased red blood cell survival, delayed puberty onset in both males and females, and impaired male reproductive function. A likely causal connection was found between lead and cancer, impaired female reproductive function, birth outcomes (low birth weight, spontaneous abortion), decreased resistance to bacterial infections, declines in cognitive function, and increases in depression and anxiety. Source: Integrated Science Assessment for Lead. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (June 2013). EPA/600/R-10/075F. Pg. lxxxiii to lxxxvii.. Available online at Oregon Aviation Watch 43
    41. 41. After completing a study of airports in 6 North Carolina Counties, Duke University researchers concluded that, "living within 1000 m [2/3 mile] of an airport where aviation gasoline is used may have a significant effect on blood lead levels in children. Our results further suggest that the impacts of aviation gasoline are highest among those children living closest to the airport." Source: Miranda, M.L., Anthopolos, R., Hastings D. A geospatial analysis of the effects of aviation gasoline on childhood blood lead levels . Children’s Environmental Health Initiative, Nicholas School of the Environment. Duke University. (July 2011). Oregon Aviation Watch 44
    42. 42.   Due to serious health risks associated with lead, it was phased out of automotive fuel between 1973 and 1996 and banned as a paint additive by 1978. Despite the dangers associated with this toxic substance, the general aviation industry persists in using leaded fuel. More than half of lead emissions into the air nationwide in 2008 were from piston engine aircraft. Source: Integrated Science Assessment for Lead. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (June 2013). EPA/600/R-10/075F. Pg. lxxviii. Available online at  “There are approximately 167,000 aircraft in the United States and a total of 230,000 wordwide that rely on 100 low lead avgas for safe operation.” Source Fact Sheet – Leaded Aviation Fuel and the Environment. Federal Aviation Administration. (6/19/13). Available at Why does the U.S. have nearly 3 times as many lead emitting piston engine aircraft – 167,000 vs. 63,000 for the rest of the world combined? Clearly, other countries throughout the world have managed without this glut of publicly finanaced general aviation aircraft and airports.  “Lead concentrations in air increase with proximity to airports where piston-engine aircraft operate.” Source: Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded Aviation Gasoline: Regulatory Announcement. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.). (April 2010) . Available online at  At this point there is no date set by which the FAA and EPA can or will ban 100LL [leaded aviation fuel]. Source: Leaded Fuel Use in General Aviation Aircraft. Port of Portland. Available online at Oregon Aviation Watch 45
    43. 43. The vast majority of the approximately 220,000 annual take-offs and landings at HIO are piston engine training and recreational flights, many of which circle repetitively over nearby residential communities, schools, day care centers, and parks at altitudes below 2,000 feet. Additional practice flights train over prime farmland, waterways, and surrounding communities. Port of Portland estimates indicate that HIO alone is responsible for emitting 0.7 tpy, 1400 pounds. HIO landing and take-off cycle lead emissions are expected to increase to 0.8 (tpy), 1600 lbs. by 2016 and 0.9 (tpy), 1800 lbs. by 2021. Source: Hillsboro Airport Parallel Runway 12L/30R Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment. Prepared for Port of Portland. (3/15/13). HIO is surrounded on three sides by residential communities and on the fourth side by farmland. The blood lead levels of the children impacted by this airport have not been obtained or analyzed. Hillsboro’s 35 public schools serve over 20,600 students. Source: Hillsboro School District website at http// Oregon Aviation Watch 46
    44. 44.  Hillsboro Airport (HIO) emits more lead than any other airport in the state. It is in the top one percent and ranks 21st out of nearly 20,000 U.S. airports nationwide in lead emissions. Source: EPA Memorandum from Hoyer M . and Pedde , to the Lead NAAQS Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2006-0735. 11/18/10.  Piston-engine general aviation aircraft use lead based fuel whereas commercial jets do not. The majority of the training and recreational operations flying in and out of HIO require leaded fuel. Source: Lead Impacts from the Use of Leaded Aviation Gasoline in the United States . Environmental Protection Agency: Technical Support Document (EPA420-R-08-020),. (October 2008).  2007 HIO Annual Operations (take-offs and landings) – 224,461 • • • • Corporate Jets - 7,008 Air Taxi/Commuter 6,860 Military - 300 Flight Training & Hobbyist - 210,293 Source: FAA APO Terminal Area Forecast Detail Report, (Dec. 2010) Oregon Aviation Watch 47
    45. 45. Port of Portland Airport Lead Estimates 2005 (tpy) 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Total = 1.06 tpy Hillsboro Airport Troutdale Airport 0.681 0.189 PortlandMulino Airport 0.101 Portland International 0.089 Data included in this graph was obtained from a DEQ public records request. Oregon Aviation Watch 48
    46. 46. 0.7 Total = 1.826 tpy 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Hil ls Au Mc T Sc Po P S Sp C L P V S ap rtla ortla ta rk or t h eh e nha ortla ern o ky po Mi ro ut bo ro ra ro Sta nn vil d ale poos nd -M nd In s Tw s ma n ale m r dt A nd D nia A r t Ai A ir le in eI r po Air ow te te A ul ir fi irp A po el rt nt rt ( Air p Mu ni port n dus ino A rna ti Oaks irp ar irpar k ar k on cip 0 .6 ort Air ow n d Air (0.00 (0. tr ia kA ir p Air Air a p a 1 p H o 81 (0. lA 5 i ) irp rt (0 l ( 0.0 p ark rp ort port or t (0 elipo o rt (0 ) 21 l Airp 89 ) .10 a rk 7) A ir 89 (0. or t .0 0 ( 0. .01 rt ( ) 03 po 1 0 .0 A ir 8 (0 . 7) 1) rt ( 032) po ) 19 13 ) 0.0 rt ( 3) ) 62 0 .1 ) 88 ) Data included in this graph was obtained from a DEQ public records request Oregon Aviation Watch 49
    47. 47. The Oregon Department of Environmental (ODEQ) quality map, above, was developed for the Portland Air Toxins Solutions Project. The areas in the pink to red shades denoted above benchmark lead levels in the vicinity of the Hillsboro Airport. DEQ’s decision to withdraw this map was based on a 2010 non-peer-reviewed Port of Portland commissioned CDM study. No authors affixed their individual names to the CDM report nor was their any indication of EPA involvement or community participation. Though DEQ accepted the Port study it admitted that, “DEQ has not conducted an analysis to compare the study to its Portland Air Toxics Solutions model.” This map was created, for illustrative purposes only, by Oregon Aviation Watch to show the Hillsboro Airport landing and takeoff cycle lead impacts based on the adjacent map. Source: Portland Air Toxins Solutions Project Modeled Lead Data and the Hillsboro Airport . Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Last updated 1/20/12 . Oregon Aviation Watch 50
    48. 48. Hillsboro Airport Leaded Avgas Overview November 12, 2013 David Breen Air Quality Program Manager
    49. 49. Topics • Information about high octane leaded fuel use • Understanding Impacts to the air shed – HIO Emissions Inventories / Dispersion Modeling • Finding a safe, high octane substitute for leaded avgas – Federal – Local
    50. 50. Types of Fuel used at HIO Two types of Fuel Jet fuel (Jet A) used in either compression ignition engines or turbine engines.  Examples: Jet aircraft, turbine engine helicopters Avgas (aviation gasoline) is an aviation fuel used to power spark-ignited piston-engine aircraft.  Examples: Smaller propeller driven aircraft and propeller driven helicopters.
    51. 51. Air Quality Context Criteria Pollutants Federal Air Quality Standards Air Toxics Federal Engine Emission Standards, etc. Oregon Ambient Benchmark Concentrations (52) 54
    52. 52. Federal Actions to replace leaded Avgas 1) Established Performance metric: “ A replacement fuel for leaded aviation gasoline is available by 2018 that is usable by most aircraft 2) Unleaded Avgas Transition (UAT) Plan is FAA’s mitigation strategy to find a replacement for leaded fuels. 3) Established unleaded aviation gasoline R&D program 4) Aircraft / Engine unleaded fuel certificates
    53. 53. Short-term local actions Hillsboro Airport Roundtable Exchange - Lead Working Group - Consider; logistics, fuel supply, etc. - Recommendations
    54. 54. Summary Air quality • Portland-Vancouver airshed is in compliance with Federal standards Actions to replace leaded Avgas • Federal – just over 4 years • Local – HARE working to identify interim actions at HIO
    55. 55. Getting The Lead Out Mary Rosenblum, President, Oregon Pilots Association
    56. 56. GA Options New 100 UL Fuels Mogas Power