The Spread of Infection<br /><ul><li>An elderly pt, admitted with a GI disorder, is on bedrest and requires assistance with ADLs.
Frequent uncontrolled diarrhea stools; the nurse provided excellent care to maintain cleanliness & comfort.
After one episode of cleaning the pt & changing the bed linen, the nurse went over to a second pt to adjust foleycath tubing.
The nurse’s hands were not washed before assisting the second patient.</li></li></ul><li>Breaking the Chain<br />A patient assigned for morning care has an open wound on her left lower leg. <br />The wound is draining & when last cultured, the organism MRSA was identified. <br />What steps would you take to break the chain of infection while changing the patients bed.<br />
Hyperfunction: Abnormal response where antibodies react against normal tissues and cells; an autoimmune disease</li></li></ul><li>Alterations in Immune Functioning<br /><ul><li>Immune function: Surveillance
Hypofunction: Inability of the immune system to perceive and respond to mutated cells, suspected mechanism in cancer
Hyperfunction: No known effect</li></li></ul><li>Immune Response: Inflammation <br />Reaction of the tissues of the body to injury in order to destroy or dilute an injurious agent<br />prevent the spread of injury <br />promote repair of damaged tissue<br />
Inflammatory Response: Cause<br />Physical irritants (e.g., trauma or a foreign body) <br />Chemical irritants (e.g., strong acids or alkalis) <br />Microorganisms (e.g., bacteria and viruses) <br />
Test Yourself<br />A baby is born temporarily immune to the<br />diseases to which the mother is immune. <br />The nurse understands that this is an example of which type of immunity?<br />
Test Yourself<br />A mother brings her children into the clinic & they are diagnosed with chicken pox<br />The mother had chicken pox as a child and is not concerned with contracting the disease when caring for her children<br />What type of immunity does this mother have?<br />
Allergies<br />Allergic disorders are the result of a hypersensitivity (excessive reaction to a stimulus) of the immune system to allergens (a type of antigen commonly found in the environment).<br />
Allergies<br />A pt has allergic rhinitis. <br />If the pt does not remain compliant with the treatment regime, the patient is at risk for developing an infection <br />Such as Sinusitis<br />
Anaphylaxis<br />A systemic reaction to allergens and the most serious type of allergic reaction.<br />Foods, drugs, hormones, insect bites, blood, and vaccines are all associated with anaphylactic reactions.<br />
Anaphylactic Reaction<br />A patient is being given PCN via IVPB.<br />Develops an anaphylactic reaction<br />What would you do first?<br />What symptom may the pt be experiencing?<br />What is the medication of choice for anaphylaxis?<br />
Transfusion Reactions<br /><ul><li>Any client receiving blood products that are homologous or from a donor may develop a transfusion reaction.
Five types: febrile nonhemolytic; allergic urticarial; delayed hemolytic; acute hemolytic; and anaphylactic.</li></li></ul><li>
Transplant Rejection<br />Even with the use of immunosuppressive medications, 10% to 15% of transplanted organs fail.<br />
Latex Allergy<br /><ul><li>Since 1987, when universal precautions (now called Standard Precautions) were mandated, exposure to latex by health care workers has dramatically increased.
By June, 1996, 28 latex-related deaths had been reported to the FDA.</li></li></ul><li>Latex in our lives<br />A combination of exposures to proteins found in latex products and certain foods may be the cause of a rise in latex allergies <br />
Latex in our lives<br />Assess for allergies to avocados, bananas, kiwi or chestnuts for cross sensitivity to latex<br />
Components of Immune Response<br />Located throughout the body <br />Organs include thymus, bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, appendix, Peyer's patches of small intestine. <br />
Components of Immune Response<br />Main cell types are WBCs (especially lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages)<br />all originate from the same stem cell in bone marrow, then differentiate into separate types <br />
Components of Immune Response<br />Granulocytes <br />Eosinophils: increase with allergies and parasites <br />Basophils: contain histamine and increase with allergy and anaphylaxis<br />Neutrophils: involved in phagocytosis <br />
Components of Immune Response<br />Monocytes (macrophages) (e.g., histiocytes, Kupffer cells): involved in phagocytosis<br />Lymphocytes (T cells and B cells): involved in cellular and humoral immunity <br />
Immune System Response<br />Infection<br />WBCs released from bone marrow into blood<br />Bone marrow increases production of additional leukocytes<br />
Locates damaged tissue & infection by responding to chemicals released by other leukocytes & damaged tissue</li></li></ul><li>WBC <br />Leukocytosis<br />Leukopenia<br /><ul><li>WBC greater than 10,000/mm3
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)<br />A chronic, progressive, incurable autoimmune disease affecting multiple body organs.<br />T cells attack the skin, kidneys, and other organs <br />Characterized by periods of remission and exacerbation.<br />
Rheumatoid Arthritis<br />A chronic, systemic autoimmune disease characterized by joint stiffness<br />T cells attack the linings of joints <br />