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Passive Heating and Cooling System

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PASSIVE SOLAR SYSTEM Ar M.Waseem khan
Passive House
 refers to the rigorous, voluntary, Passivhaus
standard for energy efficiency in a building, reducing
its ecological footprint.
Ecological Footprint
The ecological footprint is a measure of human
demand on the Earth's ecosystems
Passive Heating and Cooling System
ž Passive Cooling
- Passive cooling refers to technologies or design
features used to cool buildings without power
consumption, such
as those technologies discussed in the Passive house
project.
The term "passive" implies that energy-consuming
mechanical components like pumps and fans are not
used.
Ø Passive cooling building design attempts to
integrate principles of physics into the building exterior
envelope to:
Ø Slow heat transfer into a building. This involves an
understanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer: heat
Ø Remove unwanted heat from a building. In mild
climates with cool dry nights this can be done with
In passive solar building design, windows, walls, and
floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solar
energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject
solar heat in the summer.
The key to design a passive solar building is to best
take advantage of the local climate performing an
accurate site analysis. Elements to be considered
include window placement and size,
and glazing type, thermal insulation, thermal mass,
and shading.
Passive solar design techniques can be applied most
ventilating. In hot humid climates with uncomfortable warm
/ humid nights, ventilation is counterproductive, and some
type of solar air conditioning may be cost effective.
Provides indoor comfort
Low maintenance
Zero/ Low energy consumption
Low running cost
Promotes healthy environment
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Passive Heating and Cooling System

  • 1. PASSIVE SOLAR SYSTEM Ar M.Waseem khan
  • 2. Passive House  refers to the rigorous, voluntary, Passivhaus standard for energy efficiency in a building, reducing its ecological footprint. Ecological Footprint The ecological footprint is a measure of human demand on the Earth's ecosystems
  • 4. ž Passive Cooling - Passive cooling refers to technologies or design features used to cool buildings without power consumption, such as those technologies discussed in the Passive house project. The term "passive" implies that energy-consuming mechanical components like pumps and fans are not used. Ø Passive cooling building design attempts to integrate principles of physics into the building exterior envelope to: Ø Slow heat transfer into a building. This involves an understanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer: heat
  • 5. Ø Remove unwanted heat from a building. In mild climates with cool dry nights this can be done with In passive solar building design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. The key to design a passive solar building is to best take advantage of the local climate performing an accurate site analysis. Elements to be considered include window placement and size, and glazing type, thermal insulation, thermal mass, and shading. Passive solar design techniques can be applied most
  • 6. ventilating. In hot humid climates with uncomfortable warm / humid nights, ventilation is counterproductive, and some type of solar air conditioning may be cost effective. Provides indoor comfort Low maintenance Zero/ Low energy consumption Low running cost Promotes healthy environment
  • 7. SHADING: Shading a building from solar radiation can be achieved in many ways.  Buildings can be orientated to take advantage of winter sun (longer in the East / West dimension), while shading walls and windows from direct hot summer sun. This can be achieved by designing locationspecific wide eaves or overhangs above the Equator-side vertical windows (South side in the Northern hemisphere, North side in the Southern hemisphere).
  • 9. VENTILATION › The mechanical system or equipment used to circulate air or to replace stale air with fresh air. Ventilation in buildings has three main purposes: To maintain a minimum air quality To remove heat (or other pollutant) To provide perceptible air movement to enhance thermal comfort
  • 10. Natural Ventilation oStack Ventilation oCross Ventilation oNight Ventilation
  • 11. Stack ventilation is where air is driven through the building by vertical pressure differences developed by thermal buoyancy. The warm air inside the building is less dense than cooler air outside, and thus will try to escape from openings high up in the building envelope; cooler denser air will enter openings lower down. The process will continue if the air entering the building is continuously heated, typically by casual or solar gains.
  • 13. The most effective application of this natural law (stack effect) is a "thermal chimney," a solar- exposed enclosure tall enough to generate maximum air flow and massive enough to retain heat and power the system into the evening hours.
  • 14. on a large scale in order to cause a minimum flow resistanc e.
  • 15. Night ventilation is the use of the cold night air to cool down the structure of a building so that it can absorb heat gains in the daytime. This reduces the daytime temperature rise.
  • 16. PASSIVE HEATING SYSTEM refers to technologies or design features used to heat buildings without power consumption. building design attempts to integrate the principles of physics into building exterior envelope to:
  • 17. 5 ELEMENTS OF PASSIVE HEATING SYSTEM •Aperture- the large glass area, usually a window, through which sunlight enters the building. Typically, the aperture faces within 30 degrees of true south and should avoid being shaded by other buildings or trees between 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. each day during the heating session •Absorber- a hard, darkened surface of the storage element, is the second element of the design. The surface sits in the direct path of the sunlight, which hits the surface and is absorbed as heat
  • 18. 5 ELEMENTS OF PASSIVE HEATING SYSTEM• Distribution- the method by which solar heat circulates from the collection and storage points to the different areas of the house • Control- During the summer months, roof overhangs are used to shad the aperture. Other elements can be used to control the under- and/or overheating include electronic sensing devices, operable vents and dampers, low-emissivity blinds, and awnings. •Thermal mass-the materials that retain or store the heat produced by the sunlight. Unlike the absorber,which is in the direct path of the sunlight, the thermal mass is the material below or behind the
  • 19. Direct Solar Gain Direct gain is the heat from the sun being collected and contained in an occupied space. Direct solar gain is important for any site that needs heating, because it is the simplest and least costly way of passively heating a building with the sun. Avoiding direct solar gain is
  • 20. Massing and orientation are important design factors to consider for passive heating. Consider these factors early in the design so that the surface areas exposed to sun at different times of day, building dimensions, and building orientation can all be optimized for passive comfort.
  • 21. Windows and other apertures bring in heat from sunshine, but can also lose heat by radiant cooling and by conducting heat better than most wall or roof constructions. Apertur es and shading must be intelligently placed to take advantage of the sun's heat in cold locations and seasons,
  • 22. Shades can keep the heat and glare of direct sun from coming through windows. They can also keep direct sunlight off of walls or roofs, to reduce cooling loads.