Organizational Behavior


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Question # .2
Outline the importance of an individual’s contribution to the organization and the factors affecting his behavior.

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Organizational Behavior

  1. 1. Department of Business Administration. Assignment no.1 Organizational Behavior (565) Submitted To Most Respectable, Prof.Qasim Raza Submitted By Engr.Waseem Saeed Roll AD-512530 Semester 3’ rd ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN. Spring 2010
  2. 2. Question # .2 Outline the importance of an individual’s contribution to the organization and the factors affecting his behavior. Answer: Organizations are composed of individuals. Each individual is an island in himself, When an individualis appointed, his skill alone is not hired, but his social background, likes and dislikes, pride and prejudices etc is also hired. Individuals make up communities. This strength comes from the individualwithin a community acting together and sharing a common ideal. Each individualis differentfrom others in several ways. Whether it is intelligence,physique, personalityor any such trait, one can find strikingdifferences. This concept says that each person in this world is unique. Individualdifference means thatmanagementcan get the greatest motivation among employees by treating them differently Human behavior is the population of behaviors exhibitedby humans and influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/or genetics.
  3. 3. Individuals differ widely in their physical characteristics, temperamental qualities,mental abilities and the ways in which they behave. The behavior of each individual is influenced by several factors. No two individuals are alike in their physical characteristics like height, weight, appearance etc. This also equally true of the psychological characteristics of individuals such as their intelligence, interests and aptitudes, personal qualities like aggressiveness,honesty and so on. These individualdifferences, both in physical and psychological characteristics of the individuals for the very basis of organizational psychology. PSYCHOLOGICALFACTORS: Psychological factors are an individual’s mental characteristics and attributes thatcan affect an individual’s behavior.There are several psychological factors and more prominentamong them are given below
  4. 4. A. Difference in Intelligence. People differ greatly in their intelligence and this affect their capacity to work. Person’s intelligence is often a very good index of his abilityto cope with varied problems oflife. It hardly needs sayingthat various jobs and positions in industry require varying degrees of Intelligence, if they are to be carried out effectively B. Difference in Interest. We know that people differ greatly in their interests. Some prefer to work quietly in indoors, others like to move about, some others have greatinterest in music, acting, law, politics, some like repetitive type of work, others are bored by it. Organizationalpsychologists have found that an individualwhoworks in the area of his interest is much more satisfied than one who has to do some work that has no relation with his interest. C. Difference in Personality Characteristics. People alsodiffer vary widelyin their personality. The term personality as it is used in Psychology, usually applies to emotional qualities of a person as well as certain uncharacteristicways of his behaving.Most of these are learned by an individual through his own experiences in life or by imitatingsignificantpeople in his surroundings. .
  5. 5. FACTOR AFFECTING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR PersonalFactors Physical- Characteristics. 1. Age. 2. Sex. 3. Education 4. Abilities. 5. Marital status. 6. Number of Dependants Environmental Factors 1. Economic 2. Social Norms Cultural values 3. Political Organizational Factors. 1. Physical Facilities. 2. Organizations 3. Structure and Design. 4. Leadership. 5. Reward System. 6. Motivation PsychologicalFactors. 1. Personality. 2. Perception. 3. Attitudes. 4. Intelligence 5. Interest
  6. 6. D. Learning. Human beings greatestassetis their capacity to learn through their experience with the things Encountered in life. People vary greatly in their capacity to learn. Whata man or his behavior is is largelydetermined by the way he has learned in life. Learningacquires greatimportance in many situations in industry, butmore directly so, when we are concerned with the problems of training. E. Difference in Perception. People alsodiffer in the ways they perceive the world surrounding them. In its simple sense, perception is understood as the act of seeing what is there to be seen. Perception refers to the unique reading of a situation. F. Attitudes. Attitude is an importantfactor, which affects human behavior. It is a tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some objects. Individualsacquire attitudes from differentsources. The most importantsources of acquiring attitudes are directexperience with the object, association, familyetc.
  7. 7. PERSONNALFACTORS. Every individual brings tothe work place, a variety of personal characteristics and attributes like age, education, abilities and similarrelated factors. A. Differencesin Physical Characteristics. Physical characteristics like height, weight,strength, keenness of vision, keenness of hearing, reaction time, etc are often measured in some context or other. The study of the differences in such physical characteristics acquires greatimportance, because successful performance often depends upon some of these characteristics. Some heavy job require Considerablephysical energy,others require a very keen sense of vision or learning. B. Age. Age is an importantvariable because of its impact on performance turnover, productivity and Satisfaction. Performance depends on age. As age advances, performance is likely todecline. Similarlyageing has impacton turnover. There is positive association between age and satisfaction level of employees. C. Sex. The issues of male and female employees have received considerableattention from academics, Sociologists and researchers. There may be differences in problem solving ability,analytical skill, motivation, and leadershipor learning ability. Sex has its impact on absenteeism also. It has been proved that sometimes absenteeism is high among female workers due to family responsibilities.
  8. 8. D. Education. Education has its effect upon individualdifference, and behavior, largelythrough the level of education received. Increased levels of education positively affect the working capacity and ability of a person. The type of education can also affect the behavior of a person. E. Abilities. Ability refers to an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Ability ofan individual is made up of two sets of skills. Intellectual and physical. Intellectual abilities are needed to perform mental activities. IQ tests, for example, are designed to ascertain ones intellectual abilities.Physical abilities manifestin ones stamina, strength and the like. As each Employee’s physical abilities are different; their performance level will alsobe different. F.MaritalStatus. Maritalstatus has influence on people’s behavior.It affects absenteeism, turnover and Satisfaction levels. As marriage imposes additionalresponsibility;hence the needs for steady job and steady income. The success or failure of ones marriage life alsoaffects the behavior of the individual. G. NumberofDependants. There is correlation between number of dependants an employee has and his behavior in an Organization. Numberof children an employee has is positively related toabsence, especially among females.
  9. 9. ENVIRONMENTALFACTORS. A. EconomicFactors. The economic environmentis an importantdeterminantof individual difference. All work is performed within economic framework that both directly and indirectlyaffects the individuals working in it. Employmentopportunities will have a strong influence on behavior. Fewer job opportunities increase the emphasis on job security and can even change the basicnature of the employee. Wages satisfy various individual needs. Money is a complex variable and its effect on individual behavior varies tremendously. B. CulturalEnvironment. The cultural environmentis made up of institutions and other forces that affect the society’s Basicvalues, perceptions, work ethics, preferences and behavior. People grow up in a particular society that shape their basicbeliefs, values and behaviors. Culture varies from country to country and these variations produce different behaviors;work ethics, achievementneed, effort reward expectations and values are important cultural factors which affect individuals. In the context of job, work ethic implies hard work and commitmentto work. Strong work ethic ensures motivated employees. C. Political Factors. The political climate in which an individuallives can affect the individualbehavior through several factors. The political ideology of a country and society affects individual behavior.
  10. 10. ORGANIZATIONALFACTORS. Individualbehavior is alsoinfluenced by physical facilities, organization structure and design, leadershipand rewardsystem in an organization. A. Facilities. The physical facilities such as lighting, heating, ventilation,air conditioning, space provided, Equipment’s etc will have their influence on employee behavior and performance. B. Organization Structure and Design. An organization is a planned co ordination of a number of people and their activities for the Achievementof some specific goals. Organization structure shows the way in which differentgroups and departments in the organization are setup. The behavior and performance of an individual is influenced by where that person fits into the overall structure and design of the organization. C. Leadership. The organization establishes a system of leadership and supervision to provide direction, Assistance, advice and coaching to individual members.The leader behavioris, therefore, a potential source of influence on an individual. D. Reward Systems. Organizations establish rewardsystems to compensate their employees. The behavior and Performance of an individualis influenced by the reward system his organization has established.
  11. 11. E. Motivation. Another factor which affects individualdifference is motivation. One of the most importanttask of a management job is to identify and activate employee motives consciously and constructively towards the achievementof the objectives