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O.b question# 4


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Question # 4
“Happy workers are productive workers”. The idea that happy workers are productive workers developed in the 1930s and 1940s. Based on this managers worked to make their employees happier by focusing on working conditions and work environment. Then, in the 1980s, research suggested that the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance was not particularly high. The authors of this research even went so far to label this relationship as an illusion. More recently though, it has been estimated that the correlation between job satisfaction and job performance is moderately strong.
It is important to note here that the reverse of this relationship might be true, such that, productive workers are likely to be happy workers, or productivity leads to satisfaction. In other words, if you do well on your job, you feel good about it intrinsically.
1.Discuss the above comparison and present your comments.

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O.b question# 4

  1. 1. 1 Question # 4 “Happyworkersare productive workers”.The idea thathappy workers are productive workersdevelopedin the 1930sand 1940s. Based on this managersworked to make theiremployeeshappierby focusing on working conditionsand work environment. Then, in the 1980s, research suggested thatthe relationship betweenjob satisfaction and job performance wasnotparticularly high. The authorsof this research even wentso far to label this relationship as an illusion. More recently though, it hasbeen estimated thatthe correlation betweenjob satisfaction and job performance ismoderately strong. It is importantto note here that the reverse of this relationship mightbe true, such that, productive workersare likely to be happy workers, or productivity leadsto satisfaction. In otherwords, if you do well on your job, you feel good aboutit intrinsically. 1. Discuss the above comparison and presentyourcomments.
  2. 2. 2 Answer: Happy Workers are Productive Workers. Organizational commitmentis also a resultof job satisfaction. The more the people are committed to their organization better is their productivity. Organizations are working tomake their employees happier by focusing on working conditions and improving the environment. Personalities alsoplay importantrole in job satisfaction. Positive attitude people are more satisfied and people who are less positive about themselves are less likely to like their jobs. Job satisfaction is the collection of feelings and beliefs people have about their current jobs. In addition toattitudes abouta job as a whole, people can have attitudes about various aspects of their jobs, such as the kind of work, coworkers or pay. Job satisfaction is an importantwork attitude in an organizational behaviorbecause it affects a wide range of behaviors and contributes to workers well-being.itis one of the most well researched work attitudes. Job performance, on the other hand, consists of the observable behaviors thatPeople do in their jobs that are relevantto the goals of the organization In order to have a successful organization, being a higher authority you should always ensure the employees' satisfaction level.
  3. 3. 3 There are several variables that can be used to measure the job satisfaction and you should be aware of all the components that influence the way a person feels about his job. Many such facets that contribute to job satisfaction are the work itself, pay, promotions, job achievements, coworkers, supervision and benefits. When we are thinking aboutour jobs, which one is the best we ever had?What we had enjoyed the most? Mostly people agree on the fact that pay is the basiccause of satisfaction and happiness, however, it is not found to be true in most cases.
  4. 4. 4 Employees enjoy the working environmentatmost, because interesting jobs give them the opportunity to get variety of job tasks, training,happy work hours and control on their tasks, this is the thing that satisfy most of the workers. Capable people enjoy the challenging work as compared to the routine tasks. Then comes pay, people usually discuss jobs on the salary basis. There is an interesting relationshipbetween pay and satisfaction. People, who live in underdeveloped countries, usually correlate pay with satisfaction and in turn with happiness. It is also observed thatonce an individual attains a specific level of satisfaction this relation disappears. Jobs that are compensated handsomely have average job satisfaction levels no higher than those that are paid much less. Money motivates us, but it is not necessary that anything thatmotivates us must make us happy also. The relationship between job satisfaction and performance Is that satisfaction leads to performance. An alternative view is that performance leads to satisfaction. However, a variety of studies suggest that research has found only a limited relationshipbetween satisfaction and work output and offer scant comfort to those seeking to confirm that a satisfied worker is alsoa productive one. Labor turnover and absenteeism are commonly associated with dissatisfaction,but although there may be some correlation, there are many other possible factors. No universal generalizations aboutworker dissatisfaction exist, to offer easy managementsolutions to problems of turnover and absenteeism.
  5. 5. 5 The study suggests that it is primarilyin the realm of job design, where opportunity resides for a constructive improvementof the worker's satisfaction level. Individual performance is generally determinedby three factors. Motivation, the desire to do the job, ability,the capability to do the job, and the work environment, the tools, materials, and information needed to do the job. If an employee lacks ability, the manager can provide training or replace the worker. If there is an environmentalproblem,the manager can alsousually make adjustments to promote higher performance. But if motivation is the problem, the manager's task is more challenging. Individualbehavior is a complex phenomenon, and the manager may notbe able to figure out why the employee is not motivated and how to change the behavior. Thus, alsomotivation plays a vital role since it mightinfluence negatively performance and because of its intangible nature.
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  7. 7. 7 Measuring job satisfaction: There are several measures of job satisfaction, useful to researchers studying job satisfaction and to managers whowish to assess satisfaction levels. Most measures have workers respond to questions or statements about their jobs. The most widely used scales include the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, the faces scale and the job descriptive index. Realize that some workers will be more satisfied thatothers with the same job because of differentpersonalities and work values. Job satisfaction can be increased because it is determined notonly by personalities butalso by the situation. Try to place newcomers in groups whose members are satisfied with their jobs. Identify the facets of the job that are importantto workers and try to increase their satisfaction by providing these facets Assess subordinates levels of job satisfaction using scales to monitor their levels of job satisfaction. Take steps to improve the levels. Realize the workers job satisfaction levels depend on their perceptions of their jobs, not yours; changing some facets of the job may boost job satisfaction longer than others.
  8. 8. 8 The effect of job satisfaction on employeeperformance 1. Manager’s interestin job satisfaction tends to center on its effect on employee performance.  Much research has been done on the impact of job satisfaction on employee productivity, absenteeismand turnover. 2. Satisfaction and productivity.  Happy workers are not necessarily productive workers.The evidence suggests that productivity is likely to lead to satisfaction.  At the organization level,there is renewed support for the originalsatisfaction-performance relationship. It seems organizations with more satisfied workers as a whole are more productive organizations. 3. Satisfaction and absenteeism  We find a consistent negative relationshipbetween satisfaction and absenteeism. The more satisfied you are the less likely you are to miss work.  It makes sense that dissatisfied employees are mostlikely to miss work but other factors have an impact on the relationship and reduce the correlation coefficient. For example you might be a satisfied worker, yetstill take a “mental health day” to head for the beach now and again.
  9. 9. 9 4. Satisfaction and turnover.  Satisfaction is alsonegatively related toturnover, but the correlation is stronger than whatwe found for absenteeism.  Other factors such as labor marketconditions, expectations about the alternative job opportunities, and length of tenure with the organization and importantconstraints on the actual decision to leave ones currentjob.  Evidence indicates thatan importantmoderator of the satisfaction-turnover relationshipis the employee’s level of performance. Job satisfaction and customersatisfaction 1. Evidence indicates thatsatisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. 2. Customer retention and defection are highly dependenton how front- line employee’s deals with customers. Satisfied employees are more likely to be friendly,upbeatand responsive. Customers appreciate that. 3. Dissatisfied customers can also increase an employee’s dissatisfaction. The more employees work with rude and thoughtless customers, the more likely they are to be dissatisfied.
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  11. 11. 11 Job Performance-Research has consistently showed that job satisfaction doesnot cause job performance. However, later on Locke and his colleagues have even suggested an opposite link: High performance causes high satisfaction. Contemporary research argues thatthe link is moderated by other variables: Relationshipbetween satisfaction and performance varies depending on certain conditions, such as: different types of workers, research settings and organizations. The only variable thathas shown promise as a moderator between job satisfaction and performance is the Administration of Rewards. If high performing workers receive higherrewards, such as praise, promotion, or money, than poor performing workers, then the correlation between these two components should be positive. Factor of conscientiousnessis the most predictive of job performance Absences: Job absence is very much a part of job performance: employees are not performing effectively ifthey do not even come to work. Introverted, conscientious employees are much less likely to be absentfrom work, as opposed to extravertedemployees who are low on conscientiousness. Interestingly enough, neuroticism is not highly correlated with absence.
  12. 12. 12 Teamwork: Good teamwork is essential to job satisfaction. If workers are a part of properly functioning teams, then they feel that they are needed. Furthermore, along with the sense of belonging is a sense of accomplishment. Team members need to feel that they are actually contributing to the collective goal of the team. If a team member feels as though he or she is doing trivial work while others are doing more meaningful work, then team unity will deteriorate. This is a situation in which the team leader needs to step in and properly distribute tasks so that each team member is challenged by his or her assignments. Leaders with proper skills in motivation, who stimulate and challenge subordinates,are referred to as transformational leaders. PersonnelSelection: Personnel hiring provides additionalevidence that conscientiousness is the most valid predictor of job performance .Given that conscientious individuals have a tendency to perform better as employees; it is easy to believe that employers will seek out that factor or the traits that coincide with it.
  13. 13. 13 COMPARISIONOF JOB PERFORMANCE AND JOB SATISFACTION Job satisfaction is an important factor for evaluatingthe organization's success. A productive organization is the one with satisfied workers and happy environment. Job Performance is the process of creating a work environmentor setting in which people are enabled to perform to the best of their abilities. Performance management is a whole work system that begins when a job is defined as needed. It ends when an employee leaves your organization. Job satisfaction is a complex and multifaceted concept, which can mean differentthings to different people. Job performance,on the other hand, consists of the observable behaviors thatpeople do in their jobs that are relevantto the goals of the organization. Increased satisfaction is suggested to be related to increased productivity. Focus on behaviors rather than outcomes because a focus on outcomes could lead employees to find the easiestway to achieve the desired results.
  14. 14. 14 Promoting employee satisfaction has inherenthumanitarian value. Performance consists of the behaviors that Employees actually engage in which can be observed. Job satisfaction is usually linked with motivation, butthe nature of this relationshipis not clear. It used in promotion and compensation decisions, to help design and validate personnel selection procedures. Good teamwork is essential to job satisfaction. Effective and productive team work need. Job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. Performance appraisal is an analysis ofan employee's recent successes and failures, personal strengths and weaknesses, and suitabilityfor promotion or further training
  15. 15. 15 CONCLUSION OF DISCUSSION: I concluded that the two attributes, job satisfaction and job performance, are too closely linked to one another, and that they affect each other. Here are cases in point: If a person is highly satisfied with his/her job, this would lead the person to wantto do a good job and to perform well. On the other side is the person's ability level.If the person is struggling with performingthe job, it may give the appearance that the person is a poor performer even though he/she may be exhausting a great deal of effort in trying to perform the job. This person's frustration then in turn leads to poor job satisfaction. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance; methods include job rotation, job enlargementand job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the managementstyle and culture, employee involvement, empowermentand autonomous work groups. Job Satisfaction is a very importantattribute which is frequently measured by organizations.The most common way of measurementis the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, varietyof tasks, promotional opportunities the work itselfand co-workers. Job satisfaction as a combination of three elements: task satisfaction, employmentsatisfaction, and marketsatisfaction.
  16. 16. 16 Employmentsatisfaction consists of elements such as personnel policies, benefits, career opportunities, work environment, style of management, fitin the organization, etc. Many of these elements are within the company's control; others are not. For example, there may be very little that a company can do for an employee who does not get along with his/her peers. The employer can try to assure that all individuals are treated professionally,butthe company cannot make the coworkers become close friends. The diagram in Figure 1 illustrates the assumed correlation between job satisfaction and job performance. The theory is that the employee's performance is in directcorrelation to their satisfaction; improve their satisfaction and you will improve their performance.
  17. 17. 17 I have broken the relationshipof performance and satisfaction into four quadrants to further explore and explain the complexity of the relationship. This figure helps to understand the complexity while trying to keep the concept manageable.There are varying degrees of satisfaction and performance so it is difficultto state exactly where one would draw the line between high performance and low performance and between high satisfaction and low satisfaction. Each person is somewhere along those two lines. We can only try to understand what will happen as the employees move along those lines. 1. High Task Satisfaction and High Task Performance. 2. Low Task Satisfaction and Low Task Performance. 3. High Task Satisfaction and Low Task Performance. 4. Low Task Satisfaction and High Task Performance  High Task Satisfaction and High Task Performance. This individual loves his/her job. He/she has the aptitude, the skill, and resources necessary to perform the assigned task, and he/she performs the task quite well. A person in this quadrantmay become so caught up in his/her task that the person does not realize that he/she has worked past quitting time.  High Task Satisfaction and High Task Performance. This individual loves his/her job. He/she has the aptitude, the skill, and resources necessary to perform the assigned task, and he/she performs the task quite well. A person in this quadrantmay become so caught up in
  18. 18. 18 his/her task that the person does not realize thathe/she has worked past quitting time. Figure 2 creates four quadrants. Two of the quadrants are the ones referenced by traditional theory:  Low Task Satisfaction and Low Task Performance. The manager should consider whether or not something is missing. Does the employee lack the aptitude, the skills, or the resources necessary to perform the task well? Being in this quadrantdoes not mean that the employee is not trying!From the employee's perception, the employee may be expending a great deal of effort in trying to complete the task. The employee may feel that he/she is doing
  19. 19. 19 everything humanlypossible and he/she does not understand why managementis unhappy with his/her performance. This person may experience very low task satisfaction because he/she finds it difficult or unfavorable to perform the task. This person may be a clock- watcher, never arrivingearlyor staying late without being mandated and compensated.  Low Task Satisfaction and High Task Performance. Is a person in this quadrantreally thatrare?This person is indicating thatthey would rather be doing another job, but at the same time their personal values are such that they are giving this task their best effort. I suggest that this is a person that you wantto keep. It may well be worth your effort to look at developing a graceful transition plan that would allow this individualto move to another position while minimizingthe impact to your present operations.  High Task Satisfaction and Low Task Performance. From a positive viewpoint, a person in this quadrantloves his/her work buthe/she is not performing as expected. The employee may find it hard to quit working on a task knowing thathe/she can always make itbetter or, the person may enjoy what he/she is doing but lacks the aptitude, skill, or other resources necessary to do the task quickly.