Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this


  1. 1. Department of Business Administration. Assignment no.02 Computer Application for Business. Project Advisor Rashid Mahmood Submitted By Waseem Saeed Roll AD-512530 Semester 2nd ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN. Spring 2009 1
  2. 2. I dedicate it to my beloved parents and respected teachers. 2
  3. 3. All praise and thanks is due to Allah, the Lord of mankind and all that exists, for His blessings, benevolence, and guidance at every stage of our life. I am deeply grateful to my supervisor, Prof.Rashid Mahmood, for his guidance, support, and patience. He has been an invaluable source of knowledge and has certainly helped inspire many of the ideas expressed in this assignment. My words will fail to express my deepest heartfelt thanks to my family, especially my parents, for all what they did, and still doing, to help me be at this position and for their continuous support and encouragement. Any mistakes that remain are mine! I thank you all. 3
  4. 4. Our Nation’s critical infrastructures are composed of public and private institutions in the sectors of agriculture, food, water, public health, emergency services, government, defense industrial base, information and telecommunications, energy, transportation, banking and finance, chemicals and hazardous materials, and postal and shipping. Cyberspace is their nervous system—the control system of our country. Cyberspace is composed of hundreds of thousands of interconnected computers, servers, routers, switches, and fiber optic cables that allow our critical infrastructures to work. Thus, the healthy functioning of cyberspace is essential to our economy and our national security. Cyberspace represents the new medium of communication, electronic communication, which is fast outmoding, or even replacing, more traditional methods of communication. We often send emails in place of paper letters, we leave electronic messages on bulletin boards rather than pinning slips of card to wooden notice boards, and more and more frequently we are able to read texts on-line in e-journals, for instance—rather than on good old-fashioned wood pulp. The physical objects of traditional communication (letters, books and so on) are being superseded by new electronic objects. And, just as physical objects exist in physical space, so these cyber objects exist in cyberspace. 4
  5. 5. Cyberspace. This word has stormed into our language and invaded our collective consciousness like no other. As the technology improves and ownership of home computers increases, we competently navigate our way around cyberspace, downloading information, reading and writing to newsgroups, and receiving and sending emails. With the advent and growth of electronic communication, the word "cyberspace" has entered into everyday parlance. But what does this word signify? I begin by sketching equivalence between physical space and cyberspace, showing that they share the concepts of place, distance, size and route in common. With this mutual framework in place, I go on to examine various theories—substantial, relational, Einsteinium and Kantian—concerning the nature of physical space. Cyberspace represents the new medium of communication, electronic communication, which is fast outmoding, or even replacing, more traditional methods of communication. We often send emails in place of paper letters, we leave electronic messages on bulletin boards rather than pinning slips of card to wooden notice boards, and more and more frequently we are able to read texts on-line in e-journals, for instance—rather than on good old-fashioned wood pulp. The physical objects of traditional communication (letters, books and so on) are being superseded by new electronic objects. And, just as physical objects exist in physical space, so these cyber objects exist in cyberspace. We see that, while cyberspace shares some of the properties of physical space isolated by each of these theories, still it cannot be subsumed under any one theory. 5
  6. 6. We also see that cyberspace exhibits several novel properties, projecting it far beyond the scope of any existing theory and setting it apart as an exciting new spatial medium. A visualization tool for WWW, "Labyrinth", which uses WWW and a newly defined protocol, Cyberspace Protocol (CP) to visualize and maintain a uniform definition of objects, scene arrangement, and spatial- location which is consistent across all of Internet. Several technologies have been invented to handle the scaling problems associated with widely-shared spaces, including a distributed server methodology for resolving spatial requests. A new language, Virtual Reality Markup Language (VRML) is introduced as a beginning proposal for WWW visualization. 6
  7. 7. The emergence, in 1991, of the World Wide Web, added a new dimension of accessibility and functionality to Internet. For the first time, both users and programmers of Internet could access all of the various types of Internet services (FTP, Gopher, Telnet, etc.) through a consistent and abstract mechanism. In addition, WWW added two new services, HTTP, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which provides a rapid file- transfer mechanism; and the Uniform Resource Locator, or URL, which defines a universal locator mechanism for a data set resident anywhere within Internet’s domain. The first major consequence of the presence of WWW on Internet has manifested itself in an explosion in the usability of data sets within it. This is directly creatable to the navigability of these data sets: in other words, Internet is useful (and will be used) to the degree it is capable of conforming to requests made of it. WWW has made Internet navigable, where it was not before, except in the most occult and hermetic manner. Furthermore, it added a universal organization to the data within it; through WWW, all four million Internet hosts can be treated as a single, unified data source, and all of the data can be treated as a single, albeit complexly structured, document. It would appear that WWW, as a phenomenon, has induced two other processes to begin. The first is an upswing in the amount of traffic on Internet (1993 WWW traffic was 3000x greater than in 1992!); the second is a process of organization: the data available on Internet is being restructured, tailored to fit within WWW. (This is a clear example of “the medium is the message”, as the presence of a new medium, WWW, forces a reconfiguration of all pre- existing media into it.) This organization is occurring at right angles to the previous form of 7
  8. 8. organization; that is to say that, previously, Internet appeared as a linear source, a unidimensional stream, while now, an arbitrary linkage of documents, in at least two dimensions (generally defined as “pages”), is possible. As fitting the organization skills most common in Western Civilization, this structure is often hierarchical, with occasional exceptions. (Most rare are anti-hierarchical documents which are not intrinsically confusing.) Navigability in a purely symbolic domain has limits. The amount of “depth” present in a subject before it exceeds human capacity for comprehension (and hence, navigation) is finite and relatively limited. Humans, however, are superb visualizes, holding within their craniums the most powerful visualization tool known. Human beings navigate in three dimensions; we are born to it, and, except in the case of severe organic damage, have a comprehensive ability to spatio-locate and spatio-organize. It seems reasonable to propose that WWW should be extended; bringing its conceptual model from two dimensions, out, at a right angle, into three. To do this, two things are required; extensions to HTML to describe both geometry and space; and a unified representation of “space” across Internet. This work proposes solutions to both of these issues, and describes a WWW client built upon them, called “Labyrinth”, which visualizes WWW as a space. 8
  9. 9. Cyberspace: The experience of time, distance, people, travel, shopping and information you encounter while in the world of the Internet. The only physical activity needed in cyberspace is using a keyboard & mouse. Internet The Internet is a world wide net of computers, which can exchange data over lines. It is decent rally organized and every computer –PCs, Macs, and so on – can be linked to it. History of Internet: The Internet had its roots during the 1960's as a project of the United States government's Department of Defense, to create a non- centralized network designed to survive partial outages (i.e. nuclear war) and still function when parts of the network were down or destroyed. 9
  10. 10. This project was called Arpanet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), created by the Pentagon's Advanced Research Projects Agency established in 1969 to provide a secure and survivable communications network for organizations engaged in defense-related research. In order to make the network more global a new sophisticated and standard protocol was needed. They developed IP (Internet Protocol) technology, which defined how electronic messages were packaged, addressed, and sent over the network. The standard protocol was invented in 1977 and was called TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). TCP/IP allowed users to link various branches of other complex networks directly to the Arpanet, which soon came to be called the Internet. Arpanet grew during the 1970's, and was upgraded to a high- speed network by linking several powerful supercomputer stations called nodes. In 1985, the National Science Foundation (NSF) began a program to establish Internet access across the United States. They created a backbone called the NSFNET and opened their doors to all- educational facilities, academic researchers, government agencies, and international research organizations. By the 1990's the Internet experienced explosive growth. It is estimated that the number of computers connected to the Internet was doubling every year. Once the protocols were in place, the various developers formulated much of the software and services that make up the Internet. Services: "http://" stands for "hypertext transfer protocol", which is how the World Wide Web works. There are other protocols for electronic mail, simple computer file transfers and many more. 10
  11. 11.  E-mail (electronic mail)  News (forum of discussion)  FTP (File Transfer Protocol)  Telnet (use of far computers)  World Wide Web (WWW or W3) E-mail: With e-mail you can send your letters and documents to other E-Mail- Users. You can be an E-Mail-User if you have an e-mail-address. News: The news is like a board where you can put small letters and questions. Every user can see this 'news' and can answer it. There are a lot of such boards called newsgroups. They all have their own topic. So, there exists a group for market, for programmers, for music, and so on. The language of most of the newsgroups is English. File Transfer Protocol: This is very useful to exchange data, for example programs. Telnet: With telnet you can use programs which are on other computers. For many libraries such as the one of the ETH Zurich, you use telnet. World Wide Web: This is the service used most. You surf with programs called Explorer or Netscape. 11
  12. 12. You have to type the address of the page you want to go to. Such an address looks like The explorer will look for this page and show it. On a homepage the firm or the person write who they are and what they do, what they offer. Such a page contains links (hypertext) to other pages, which will show the linked page after clicking them. On many pages you can buy things, from food to textiles to computers. Mostly you pay them with credit cards. You can imagine that there are an enormous number of pages. You find information also about science, computers, education, business, etc. Unfortunately also criminals exist in the Internet. How can you find information on something? You would have to type an address if you want that. For this, the most important things are the Search-Engines, like Alta-Vista, Yahoo, and WebCrawler. These have indexed millions of pages, so you can easily search something you want. Server: A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind of service to client software running on other computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the software is running, e.g. "Our mail server is down today, that's why e-mail isn't getting out." A single server machine can (and often does) have several different server software packages running on it, thus providing many different servers to clients on the network. 12
  13. 13. Sometimes server software is designed so that additional capabilities can be added to the main program by adding small programs known as servlets. The server is the heart of client server network. It houses the network operating system, it provides file and application services to the clients, it manage network data storage, it provides in method for the sharing of information through electronic mail, and provides for network security Types of servers 1. File Server 2. Application Server 3. Remote Server 4. Slave Server 5. Caching Only Server 6. proxy server 7. terminal server File Server It is used as centralized depository for your cooperation data, it need to be reliable fast secure and expandable. Each small intranet has its own file server in which they can save their database, so it requires high memories, large hard drives the RAM must be 128mb, the selection of hardware need to be made for the mother board for at least 128mb of expansion capacity the PCI and EISA Slots must be available which will be used for the backward compatibility without suffering a great loss of speed in data transfer to the server. 13
  14. 14. Application Server An application server is the central figure in the mission critical database client/server systems. It must be very high performance and offer armored fault protection it served as a fire wall between the user and the domain server. No one user can have illegal access. So by using this protection to the retrieval of data from the main server is protected. Remote Server A Remote Server is an option given to people who would like to use a name server from their workstation or on a machine that has a limited amount of memory and CPU cycles. With this option you can run all of the networking programs that use the name server without the name server running on the local machine. All of the queries are serviced by a name server that is running on another machine on the network. A host which has an /etc/resolv.conf file listing only remote hosts, and which does not run a name server of its own, is sometimes called a Remote Server (because the actual server is remote?) but more often it is called simply a DNS Client. This kind of host is technically not a ``server'', since it has no cache and does not answer queries. Slave Server A Slave Server is a server that always forwards queries it cannot satisfy from its cache, to a fixed list of forwarding servers instead of interacting with the name servers for the root and other domains. The queries to the forwarding servers are recursive queries. There may be one or more forwarding servers, and they are tried in turn until the list is exhausted. A Slave and forwarder configuration is typically used when you do not wish all the servers at a given site to interact with the rest of 14
  15. 15. the Internet servers. A typical scenario would involve a number of workstations and a departmental timesharing machine with Internet access. The workstations might be administratively prohibited from having Internet access. To give the workstations the appearance of access to the Internet domain system, the workstations could be Slave servers to the timesharing machine which would forward the queries and interact with other name servers to resolve the query before returning the answer. An added benefit of using the forwarding feature is that the central machine develops a much more complete cache of information that all the workstations can take advantage of. The use of Slave mode and forwarding is discussed further under the description of the named boot file commands. There is no prohibition against declaring a server to be a slave even though it has primary and/or secondary zones as well; the effect will still be that anything in the local server's cache or zones will be answered, and anything else will be forwarded using the forwarders list. Caching Only Server All servers are caching servers. This means that the server caches the information that it receives for use until the data expires. A Caching Only Server is a server that is not authoritative for any zone. This server services queries and asks other servers, who have the authority, for the information needed. All servers keep data in their cache until the data expires, based on a TTL (``Time To Live'') field which is maintained for all resource records. Proxy Server A Proxy Server sits in between a Client and the "real" Server that a Client is trying to use. Clients are sometimes configured to use a Proxy Server, usually an HTTP server. 15
  16. 16. The clients makes all of it's requests from the Proxy Server, which then makes requests from the "real" server and passes the result back to the Client. Sometimes the Proxy server will store the results and give a stored result instead of making a new one (to reduce use of a Network). Proxy servers are commonly established on Local Area Networks Terminal Server A special purpose computer that has places to plug in many modem son one side and a connection to a LAN or host machine on the other side. Thus the terminal server does the work of answering the calls and passes the connections on to the appropriate node. Most terminal servers can provide PPP or SLIP services if connected to the Internet. 16
  17. 17. Cyberspace is the global domain of electro-magnetic; the electronic medium in which communication and control is executed through the modulation of electromagnetic energy across specified networks. It is readily identified with the interconnected information technology required to achieve the wide range of system capabilities associated with the transport of communication and control products and services. Current technology integrates a number of capabilities (sensors, signals, connections, transmissions, processors, and controllers) sufficient to generate a virtual interactive experience accessible regardless of a geographic location. In pragmatic terms, operations within this global domain allow an interdependent network of information technology infrastructures (ITI), telecommunications networks, and computer processing systems, integrated sensors, system control networks, embedded processors and controllers common to global control and communications across the electro-magnetic environment. As a social experience, individuals can interact, exchange ideas, share information, provide social support, conduct business, direct actions, create artistic media, play games, engage in political discussion, and so on. The term is rooted in the science of cybernetics from the Greek (steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder) and Norbert Wiener’s pioneering work in electronic communication and control science, a forerunner to current information theory and computer science. The term “cyberspace” was first used by the cyberpunk science fiction author William Gibson. Which he would later describe as an "evocative and essentially meaningless" buzzword that could serve as a cipher for all of his cybernetic musings (see origins of the term below). 17
  18. 18. Originally coined by science fiction writer William Gibson to describe data matrices existing in a dark distant future, the term cyberspace has entered into the common lexicon. It has come to mean the information spaces created by the technology of digital networked computer systems, most of which ultimately connect with the mother of all networks, the Internet. Information, of course, is something that people are as well as make. Like any other human identity or activity, cyberspace is intensely social. But in this social realm, the definitions of cyberspace become less bounded and more diverse. The Information Superhighway or the Infobahn. The Wild West. The Web, as in the World Wide Web or as in the web that binds people together in relationships. There are as many experiences of cyberspace as there are perceptions of real space. Yet, as Donna Haraway suggests, one cannot comprehend the condition of modernity or post modernity without somehow comprehending some core image of cyberspace. For the purposes of continuity in navigation, it is necessary to create a unified conceptualization of space spanning the entire Internet, a spatial equivalent of WWW. This has been called “Cyberspace”, in the sense that it has at least three dimensions, but exists only as a “consensual hallucination” on the part of the hosts and users which participate within it. There is only one cyberspace, just as there is only one WWW; to imply multiplicity is to defeat the objective of unity. 18
  19. 19. At its fundamental level, cyberspace is a map that is maintained between a regular spatial topology and an irregular network topology. The continuity of cyberspace implies nothing about the internet work upon which it exists. Cyberspace is complete abstraction, divorced at every point from concrete representation. All of the examples used in the following explanation of the algorithmic nature of cyberspace are derived from our implementation of a system that conforms to this basic principle, a system developed for TCP/IP and Internet. 19
  20. 20. Internet defines an address “space” for its hosts, specifying these addresses as 32-bit numbers, expressed in dotted octet notation, where the general form is {s.t.u.v}. Into this unidimensional address space, cyberspace places a map of N dimensions (N = 3 in the canonical, “Gibsonian” cyberspace under discussion here), so that any “place” can be uniquely identified by the tuple {x.y.z}. In order to ensure sufficient volume and density within cyberspace, it is necessary to use a numbering system which has a truly vast dynamic range. We have developed a system of “address elements” where each element contains a specific portion of the entire expressible dynamic range in the form: {p.x.y.z} Where p is the place value, and x, y and z are the metrics for each dimension. The address element is currently implemented as a 32- bit construct, so the range of p is +31 to -32, and x, y, and z, are signed octets. Address elements may be concatenated to any level of resolution desired; as most operations in cyberspace occur within a constrained context, 32, or at most, 64 bits is sufficient to express the vast majority of interactions. This gives the numbering system the twin benefits of wide dynamic range and compactness; compactness is an essential quality in a networked environment. This is only one possible numbering scheme; others may be developed which conform to the principles as given, perhaps more effectively. 20
  21. 21. Cyberspace has now been given a universal, unique, dense numbering system; it is now possible to quantify it. The first quantification is that of existence (metrics); the second quantification is that of content. Content is not provided by cyberspace itself, but rather by the participants within it. The only service cyberspace needs to provide is a binding between a spatial descriptor and a host address. This can be described by the function: f(s) => a Where s is a spatial identifier, and a is an internet work address. This is the essential mathematical construction of cyberspace. 21
  22. 22. If cyberspace is reducible to a simple function, it can be expressed through a transaction-based protocol, where every request yields a reply, even if that reply is NULL. In the implementation under examination, cyberspace protocol (CP) is implemented through a straightforward client-server mechanism, in which there are very few basic operations; registration, investigation, and deletion. In the registration process, a cyberspace client announces to a server that it has populated a volume of space; in this sense, cyberspace does not exist until it is populated: this is a corollary to Benedict’s Principle of Indifference, which states: “absence from cyberspace will have a cost.” The investigation process will be discussed in detail later in this work. The basic transaction is simple: given a circumscribed volume of space, return a set of all hosts which contribute to it. The reply to such a transaction could be NULL or practically infinite (consider the case where the request specifies a volume which describes the entirety of cyberspace); this implies that level-of-detail must be implemented within the transaction (and hence, within registration), in order to optimize the process of investigation. Often, it is enough to know cyberspace is populated, nothing more, and many other times, it is enough to know only the gross features of the landscape, not the particularities of it. In this sense, level of detail is a quality intrinsic to cyberspace. 22
  23. 23. Registration contains within it the investigation process; before a volume can be registered successfully, “permission” must be received from cyberspace itself, and this must include an active collaboration and authentication process with whatever other hosts help to define the volume. This is an enforcement of the rule which forbids interpenetration of objects within the physical world; it need not be enforced, but unless it is observed in most situations, cyberspace will tend toward being intrinsically disorienting. Finally, the deletion process is the logical inverse of the registration process, where a volume defined by a client is removed from cyberspace. These three basic transactions form the core of cyberspace protocol, as implemented between the client and the server. 23
  24. 24. Cyberspace is a unified whole; therefore, from a transaction- oriented point of view, every server must behave exactly like any other server (specifically with respect to investigation requests). The same requests should evoke the same responses. This would appear to imply that every server must comprehend the “totality” of cyberspace, a requirement which is functionally beyond any computer yet conceived of, or it places a severe restriction on the total content of cyberspace. Both of these constraints are unacceptable, and a methodology to surmount these constraints must be incorporated into the cyberspace server implementation. The cyberspace server is implemented as a three-dimensional database with at least three implemented operations; insertion, deletion, and search. These correspond to the registration, deletion, and investigation transactions. Each element within the database is composed of at least three items of data; the volumetric identifier of the space; the IP address of the host which “manifests” within that space; and the IP address of the cyberspace server through which it is registered. The investigation transaction is the core of the server implementation. Cyberspace servers use a repeated, refined query mechanism, which iteratively narrows the possible range of servers which are capable of affirmatively answering an investigation request until the set exactly conforms to the volumetric parameters of the request. This set of servers contains the entire possible list of hosts which collaborate in creating some volume of cyberspace, and will return a non-null reply to an investigation request for a given volume of space. The complete details of the investigation algorithm are beyond the scope 24
  25. 25. of the current work and will be explained in greater detail in a subsequent publication. An assumption implicit in the investigation algorithm is that investigative searches have “depth”, that investigation is not performed to its exhaustive limit, but to some limit determined by both client and server, based upon the “importance” of the request. Registrations, on the other hand, must be performed exhaustively, but can (and should) occur asynchronously. The primary side-effect of this methodology is that cyberspace is not instantaneous, but is bounded by bandwidth, processor capacity, and level of detail, in the form: where c is a constant, the “speed limit” of cyberspace (as c is the speed of light in physical space), l is the level of detail, b is bandwidth of the internet work, p is processor capacity, D is the number of dimensions of the cyberspace, and r is the position within the space. The function rho defines the "density" of a volume of cyberspace under examination. This expression is intended to describe the primary relationships between the elements which create cyberspace, and is not mathematically rigorous, but can be deduced from Benedikt'’s Law. Finally, because cyberspace servers do not attempt to contain the entirety of cyberspace, but rather, search through it, based upon client transaction requests, it can be seen that the content of a cyberspace server is entirely determined by the requests made to it by its clients. 25
  26. 26. Having defined, specified, and implemented an architecture which provides a binding between spatio-location and data set location; this architecture needs to be integrated with the existing WWW libraries so that their functionality can be similarly extended. As “location” is being augmented by the addition of CP to WWW, it is the Universal Resource Locator which must be extended to incorporate these new capabilities. The URL, in its present definition, has three parts: an access identifier (type of service), a host name (specified either as an IP address or DNS-resolvable name), and a “filename”, which is really more of a message passed along to the host at the point of service. Cyberspace Protocol fits well into this model, with two exceptions; multiple hosts which collaborate on a space and the identification of a “filename” associated with a registered volume of space. We propose a new URL of the following form: cs://{pa.x.y.z}{pb.x.y.z}.../filename Where {pn...} is a set of CP address elements. Resolution of this URL into a data set is a two-stage process: first the client CP mechanism must be used to translate the given spatio- location into a host address, and then the request must be sent to the host address. Two issues arise here; multiple host addresses, as mentioned previously and a default access mechanism for CP. If a set of host addresses are returned by CP, a request must be sent to each specified host; otherwise, the description of the space will be incomplete. Ideally, 26
  27. 27. all visualized WWW clients will implement a threaded execution mechanism (with re-entrant WWW libraries) so that these requests can occur simultaneously and asynchronously. A default access mechanism for CP within WWW must be selected. The authors have chosen HTTP, for two reasons; it is efficient, and it is available at all WWW servers. Nonetheless, this is not a closed issue; it may make sense to allow for some variety of access mechanisms, or perhaps a fallback mechanism; if one service is not present at a host, another attempt, on another service, could be made. 27
  28. 28. It is now possible, from the previous discussion, to describe the architecture and operation of a fully visualized WWW client. It is composed of several pieces; WWW libraries with an integrated CP client interface; an interpreter for an VRML-derived language which describes object geometry, placement, and linkage; and a user interface which presents a navigable “window on the web”. The operation of the client is very straightforward, as is the case of the other WWW clients. After launching, the client queries the “space” at “home”, and loads the world as the axis monde of the client's view of the web. As a user moves through cyberspace, the client makes requests, through CP, to determine the content of all spaces passed through or looked upon. A great deal of design effort needs to be put into the development of look-ahead caching algorithms for cyberspace viewers; without them, the user will experience a discontinuous, “jerky” trip through cyberspace. The optimal design of these algorithms will be the subject of a subsequent work. At this time, visualized objects in WWW have only two possible behaviors; no behavior at all, or linkage, through an attached URL, to another data set. This linkage could be to another “world” (actually another place in cyberspace), which is called a “portal”, or it could link to another data type, in which case the client must launch the appropriate viewer. Labyrinth is designed to augment the functionality of existing WWW viewers, such as NCSA Mosaic, rather than to supplant them, and therefore does not need a well-integrated facility for viewing other types of HTML documents. 28
  29. 29. Cyberspace Protocol is a specific implementation of a general theory, which has implications well beyond WWW. CP is the solution, in three dimensions, of an N-dimensional practice for data set location abstraction. Data abstraction places a referent between the “name” of a data set locator and the physical location, allowing physical data set location to become mutable. If an implementation were to be developed for the case where N = 1, it would be an effective replacement Internet’s Domain Name Service (DNS), which maintains a static mapping of “names” to IP addresses. Any network which used a dynamic abstraction mechanism could mirror or reassign hosts on a continuous basis (assuming that all write-through mirroring could be maintained by the hosts themselves), so that the selection of a host for a transaction could be made based upon criteria that would tend to optimize the performance of the network from the perspective of the transaction. It would also be easy to create a data set which could “follow” its user(s), adjusting its location dynamically in response to changes in the physical location or connectivity of the user. In an age of wireless, worldwide networking, this could be a very powerful methodology. These are the things that are important to discuss: 1. The business of cyberization. Everything cyberized will be put into cyberspace. I like the word cyberized versus digitized, but I mean roughly the same thing. The question is, “Is that a goal, a quest or is it a fake?” As Negroponte says, “We are moving from a world of atoms to a world of electrons” where the same bit is represented with electrons 29
  30. 30. versus atoms, like a newspaper that one now gets on-line. Personally, I stopped taking physical newspapers about three years ago, although I spend more time reading newspapers that I did for many years because I can read more of them and get through them by looking at screens than by looking at them in the atomic form. 2. The demand side of cyberspace. This would not be happening if people were not there using it and demanding it in some sense. So, we are creating something that people find interesting. 3. Technology infrastructure of cyberspace. The platforms that hold cyberspace. Things that interface with various other systems, the network that connects those things together, and then the cyberization technologies that allows communication with other information processing systems. 4. Gateways. One is the gateway between TV networks that are likely to occur downstream and we can see occurring now. Another gateway that will happen is between the Internet and the panel telephone system or the public telephone network systems with hand-held devices and phones. We are starting to see those gateways coming into existence. 5. Two dimensional map of cyberspace. This map is based on a model of hierarchies of services and infrastructure. 6. Simple applications. Applications for dealing with administration and with the finances. Particularly, cyberspace will have the greatest impact on the financial industry because, after all, the financial industry – as far as I understand – is only about bits. We happen to have money in physical bits that we carry around, but fundamentally it is just bits. The movement of all of that can be represented electronically. 30
  31. 31. Everything cyberizable will be in Cyberspace! Goal? Quest? or Fate? In Body On Body Continent Region/ Car Intranet Home Campus, including SANs World Fractal Cyberspace: a network of … networks of … platforms 5 This figure is, at least, my representation of cyberspace which is really a hierarchy of interconnected networks starting in the world (I have not connected the extra-terrestrial world in here because we have not yet connected with outer space), the continent, regions, intranets, campuses, homes, cars, on-body networks and then, in-body networks that are inevitable and, in fact, are starting to exist in some form or another. Really, cyberization is the interface to all bits and information processors. It is really the coupling of the information and information processors such as the people, as a source of information. Things that are only pure bits are physical papers that hold bits, video, etc. These are pure content form of bits that will assume electronic, magnetic, and photonic forms. The bit tokens – for instance in the financial industry, money –are just bits. Stock, insurance – which is again a form of gambling representing risk – the state of various places, 31
  32. 32. the state of physical networks such as highways and traffic, and the flow of traffic that you can absorb by looking at the network? Already, we see impacts of all forms from the Internet. In October, a Los Angeles Times article on the net said, “The Internet boom is hurting the overnight delivery market.” Now, every day I get a packet of paper on my doorstep about some kind of financial transaction that is taking place. Paper that I need to read. It turns out that some of that paper is now coming electronically. I would prefer all of it coming electronically but it is coming in this form of paper. This is starting to take place as that happens. 8 I think that one of the questions that comes up is: Is cyberspace just a data network? Is it one with the world wide telephony network that it is connected to? Or, does it include the TV network? Now, TV does not go down to inside our bodies, although I guess that there are some probes that will let you go in various parts of your body. But, the question is will we have one, two, or three networks as we go forward? 32
  33. 33. Let us look at the demand side. As I said, after almost 30 years people have discovered the Internet, and the reason is that finally the exponential based on annual doubling has gotten to be of a point of interest. That is, we speak of tens of millions rather than a few hundred thousand or less than a million people as the network started in the beginning. Going forward, the projections are 50% increases every year that would mean a doubling every couple of years. Projections differ on how many homes or when homes will be covered. One projection of experts that was compiled by a University in the United Kingdom says that in one decade from now there will be 70% of USA homes, 50% in the UK and slightly less than 50% in Europe, purchasing on the net. There was a survey that had all of the purchasing trends. It says that only 5% of the aggregate purchases are occurring today on the net. One in 6 pieces of software is purchased over the net. Retail banking is 1 in 8 transactions. Travel arrangements are also 1 in 8. It did not even list things like the fact that now we can buy insurance on-line. It fails to realize that drug stores have started up on-line. Everybody predicted that no one would want a drug store on line but yet, the sales of drug items are growing. Also, the projection of music delivered on-line was only a few percent, but we see with the MP3 a tremendous amount of music that is being delivered on-line. Internetters growth 12000 10000 8000 World Population extrapolated at 1.6% per year 6000 4000 Internet Growth 2000 extrapolated at 98% per year 0 ‘95 ‘96 ‘97 ‘98 ‘99 ‘00 ‘01 ‘02 ‘03 ‘04 15 33
  34. 34. The above is a growth curve that I did in 1995. One can see there that the amount of population, at some point, is smaller than the number of Internet connections. This is what happens when you have one only data point and one exponent you can draw a straight line through anything. For instance, that says that there are more people connected to the Internet in 2003 than there are people in the world. That is explained by the fact that every dog and cat and light bulb has started to be connected. So, you need to have even more connections than that. Growth in hype vs reality WWW books, Infoway newspapers regulation Infoway Infoway speculation addiction “how great it’ll conferences be” (politicians lawsuits 16 Data from Gordon’s WAG The WWW happened here as a kind of a big bang, and then we found that books and newspapers picked that up and started the hyping followed by conferences, and then we had info-way addiction. A problem that is just being discussed now. Then info-way regulation is a big deal. And followed, quite behind that are lawsuits. 34
  35. 35. The following are my two favorite inventions for that year, decade, or the millennium. That is the computer itself and the transistor followed by the integrated circuit without which computers would not be very interesting and would not be where they are today. The computer in 1946 (realized in 1948). Computers supplement and substitute for all other info processors, including humans: • Memories come in a hierarchy of sizes, speeds, and prices. The challenge is to exploit them. • Computers are built from other computers in an iterative, layered, and recursive fashion. The Transistor (1946) and subsequent Integrated Circuit (1957): • Processors, memories, switching, and transduction are the primitives in well-defined hardware-software levels. • A little help from magnetic, photonic, and other transducer technologies. Growth of microprocessor performance 10000 Performance in Mflop/s Cray T90 Cray Y-MP Cray C90 Supers 1000 Cray 2 Alpha Cray X-MP RS6000/590 Alpha Micros 100 RS6000/540 Cray 1S i860 10 R2000 1 80387 0.1 6881 8087 80287 0.01 98 80 82 86 88 90 92 94 19 6 9 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 21 35
  36. 36. The above graph shows that the growth of performance has been exponential. We also see that the lower curve has come over the last 20 years up to today’s or modern supercomputers. Bell’s Law of Computer Class Formation Technology enables two evolutionary paths: 1. constant performance, decreasing cost 2. constant price, increasing performance Log price Mainframes (central) Mini WSs PCs (personals) Handheld ?? Time 1.26 = 2x/3 yrs -- 10x/decade; 1/1.26 = .8 1.6 = 4x/3 yrs --100x/decade; 1/1.6 = .62 --100x/decade; 22 Bell’s Nine Computer Price Tiers 1$: embeddables e.g. greeting card 10$: wrist watch & wallet computers 100$: pocket/ palm/telephone 1,000$: portable computers 10,000$: • personal computers (desktop) 100,000$: departmental computers (closet) 1,000,000$: site computers (glass house) 10,000,000$: regional computers (glass castle) 100,000,000$: national centers Super server: costs more than $100,000,000 “Mainframe”: costs more than $1 million an array of processors, disks, tapes, comm ports 23 So we have gone from mainframes, to minis, to personal computers, to hand-held devices to? We can safely predict that it will all be in our watches in another decade. So, that in fact if you look at this as a tearing effect, we have one dollar greeting card computers that speak to you or wish you whatever, wrist-watches and wallet and pocket computers and so on up to national centers. In fact, in national centers today, we have three in the USA and each of those are roughly 500 million dollars each. So, we have broken the billion dollar barrier for what amounts to a single computer platform or platform that is used for computing at our three energy centers. 36
  37. 37. Another way of looking at that is the history of a portable computer of 20 years ago – it was the portable computer that you carried in a suitcase, than we got the laptop that we have today, and now we are already seeing the finger top computers. Then we have this contact lens computer, and in 20 years we will inhale our computers. Considering the speed of networks – and this is a projection for the USA – we will be connected by something in the order of 1 Megabit per second connections. Something in the order of ten percent of our connections will be taking place at these higher speeds. I personally believe that this may occur later. By the way, the web really came about when I was in the National Science Foundation back in 1986-88, and I basically made a plan. This is the only plan I have ever made with things that actually followed. I claim that this is really what allowed the whole thing to start. We went into this first stage where we had 1.5 Mega bit per second networks and then in the second phase in the mid 90s we came out with the DS3 or the OSI-1 fiber trunks. Having that impulse of bandwidth would reduce the response time and would enable computers to talk to computers on an interactive basis and then allow the whole idea of the web and the browser to form. Now, we are entering in this other era where we have 2.5 Giga bit per second links that are forming. Internet Traffic and Voice Traffic Plus Maximum Trunk Speed and Max/Min Switch Speed Required in the Internet Internet growths vs time courtesy of Dr. Larry Roberts 100 Pbps Voice Crossover d 10 Pbps re ee 1 Pbps in g n 100 Tbps E 10 Tbps $100 M i ty ac 1 Tbps $10 M ap Voice Traffic C 100 Gbps $1 M 10 Gbps Max. Switch Speed $100 K OC-768 OC-192 1 Gbps e d ineer OC-48 y Eng OC-12 Dela 100 Mbps OC-3 10 Mbps T3 1 Mbps T1 1997 Breakpoint 100 Kbps $100 K 56 KB Max. Port Speed Internet Traffic 10 Kbps 1 Kbps 100 bps 10 bps 33 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 37
  38. 38. This graph is a projection by Larry Roberts. The top line is voice traffic. Note there is a crossover of the Internet traffic versus the voice traffic that is occurring. The red line is really the evolution of link speed and then the lower line is the internet traffic which is now projected to grow at a rate of a factor of a 1000 every 5 years. So, that is double the speed I talked about earlier. This is a mere doubling every year that gives a factor of 10 every five years. So, this is getting a factor of a 1000 in 10 years which is actually growing at about 3 times that rate. This is something that is likely to occur with the higher speed connections that are put in place. Virtuous cycle of bandwidth Increased Increase Capacity Demand (circuits & b/ w) S tandards Create new Lower service response time Mail/ FTP / Te lne t WWW Audio Vide o Voice! Voice! 36 In a decade we can/will have more powerful personal computers that are capable of: • Processing 10-100x • 4x resolution (2K x 2K) • Very large, room sized displays • Very small watch-sized displays • Low cost, storage of one terabyte for personal use adequate networking • Ubiquitous access = today’s fast LANs We will also have one chip networked platforms including light bulbs, cameras everywhere, etc., as well as some well-defined platforms that compete with the PC for mind (time) share such as a watch, pocket, body implant, home. We will also have more 38
  39. 39. cyberization, and the challenge will be interfacing platforms and people. Storing all we’ve read (written), heard (said), & seen (participated in or presented) Human data-types /hr /day (/4yr) /lifetime read text, few pictures 200 K 2 -10 M/G 60-300 G speech text @120wpm 43 K 0.5 M/G 15 G speech @1KBps 3.6 M 40 M/G 1.2 T video-like 50Kb/s POTS 22 M .25 G/T 25 T video 200Kb/s VHS-lite 90 M 1 G/T 100 T video 4.3Mb/s HDTV/DVD 1.8 G 20 G/T 1P 39 So, in fact, if you live in cyberspace, the important thing is really having ubiquitous fast connection. Maybe wireless is the key to all of that. There is a lot of atoms-based art for sale on the web. However, I recently used their “display” bits and they did not seem to mind nor did they want to charge me for the bits. I said, “I will pay you for the bits.” And they said, “No, no, we are selling atoms that are stuck to canvas.” There are also some old masters images on the web and one can have all you want for just $29.95 a year. The other use is to display all the digital photos that we are all beginning to take. The Next Convergence POTS connects to the Web a.k.a. Phone-Web Gateways Web Server PSTN The Web Voice to WEB DataBase Bridge 51 39
  40. 40. Two dimensional map of cyberspace Internet (circa 1999) Courtesy of Zindigo Ventures Content Content Syndicators Syndication Communication Infobases/Portals Supply Chain Procurement Professional Government $2B+ ** Operations Marketing Financial ERP Internet Services $170B* Personal/Employee Data Access Web Hosting Applications & Middleware Computers & Operating Layer Software Infrastructure Network Hardware/Protocols 55 $171B* Transport * University of Texas Center for Research in Electronic Commerce ** This market is not yest sized, estimated at $2B+,growing to $100B in 2002 This is a mapping of cyberspace, and that is, if we are look at the cyberspace today and how I would tend to map that. There are lower infrastructure layers. There is roughly a 170 billion dollars investment per year in that, starting with the transport, going to various network hardware and protocols such as Cisco, computers, applications, and then web hosting and ISPs. 40
  41. 41. While cyberspace should not be confused with the internet, the term is often used to refer to objects and identities that exist largely within the communication network it, so that a website, for example, might be metaphorically said to "exist in cyberspace." According to this interpretation, events taking place on the internet are not happening in the locations where participants or servers are physically located, but "in cyberspace". Firstly, cyberspace describes the flow of digital data through the network of interconnected computers: it is at once not "real", since one could not spatially locate it as a tangible object, and clearly "real" in its effects. Secondly, cyberspace is the site of computer-mediated communication (CMC), in which online relationships and alternative forms of online identity were enacted, raising important questions about the social psychology of internet use, the relationship between "online" and "offline" forms of life and interaction, and the relationship between the "real" and the virtual. Cyberspace draws attention to remediation of culture through new media technologies: it is not just a communication tool but a social destination, and is culturally significant in its own right. Finally, cyberspace can be seen as providing new opportunities to reshape society and culture through "hidden" identities, or it can be seen as borderless communication and culture. 41
  42. 42. Computer crime or cyber crime refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network, where the computers may or may not have played an instrumental part in the commission of the crime. Issues surrounding this type of crime have become high-profile, particularly those surrounding hacking, copyright infringement, child pornography, and child grooming. There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted, lawfully or otherwise. On the global level, both governments and non-state actors continue to grow in importance, with the ability to engage in such activities as espionage, financial theft, and other cross-border crimes sometimes referred to as cyber warfare. The international legal system is attempting to hold actors accountable for their actions, with the International Criminal Court among the few addressing this threat. Computer crime encompasses a broad range of potentially illegal activities. Generally, however, it may be divided into one of two types of categories: (1) Crimes that target computer networks or devices directly; (2) Crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices, the primary target of which is independent of the computer network or device. Examples of crimes that primarily target computer networks or devices would include:  Malware (malicious code)  Denial-of-service attacks 42
  43. 43.  Computer viruses Examples of crimes that merely use computer networks or devices would include:  Cyber stalking  Fraud and identity theft  Phasing scams  Information warfare A computer can be a source of evidence. Even though the computer is not directly used for criminal purposes, it is an excellent device for record keeping, particularly given the power to encrypt the data. If this evidence can be obtained and decrypted, it can be of great value to criminal investigators. Spam Spam, or the unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial purposes, is unlawful to varying degrees. As applied to email, specific anti-spam laws are relatively new, however limits on unsolicited electronic communications have existed in some forms for some time. Fraud Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss. In this context, the fraud will result in obtaining a benefit by: • Altering computer input in an unauthorized way. This requires little technical expertise and is not an uncommon form of theft by employees altering the data before entry or entering false data, or 43
  44. 44. by entering unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized processes; • Altering, destroying, suppressing, or stealing output, usually to conceal unauthorized transactions: this is difficult to detect; • Altering or deleting stored data; • Altering or misusing existing system tools or software packages, or altering or writing code for fraudulent purposes. This requires real programming skills and is not common. Other forms of fraud may be facilitated using computer systems, including bank fraud, identity theft, extortion, and theft of classified information. A variety of Internet scams target consumers direct. Obscene or offensive content The content of websites and other electronic communications may be distasteful, obscene or offensive for a variety of reasons. In some instances these communications may be illegal. Many jurisdictions place limits on certain speech and ban racist, blasphemous, politically subversive, libelous or slanderous, seditious, or inflammatory material that tends to incite hate crimes. The extent to which these communications are unlawful varies greatly between countries, and even within nations. It is a sensitive area in which the courts can become involved in arbitrating between groups with entrenched beliefs. One area of Internet pornography that has been the target of the strongest efforts at curtailment is child pornography. 44
  45. 45. Harassment Whereas content may be offensive in a non-specific way, harassment directs obscenities and derogatory comments at specific individuals focusing for example on gender, race, religion, nationality, sexual orientation. This often occurs in chat rooms, through newsgroups, and by sending hate e-mail to interested parties (see cyber bullying, cyber stalking, harassment by computer, hate crime, Online predator, and stalking). Any comment that may be found derogatory or offensive is considered harassment. Drug trafficking Drug traffickers are increasingly taking advantage of the Internet to sell their illegal substances through encrypted e-mail and other Internet Technology. Some drug traffickers arrange deals at internet cafes, use courier Web sites to track illegal packages of pills, and swap recipes for amphetamines in restricted-access chat rooms. The rise in Internet drug trades could also be attributed to the lack of face-to-face communication. These virtual exchanges allow more intimidated individuals to more comfortably purchase illegal drugs. The sketchy effects that are often associated with drug trades are severely minimized and the filtering process that comes with physical interaction fades away. Furthermore, traditional drug recipes were carefully kept secrets. But with modern computer technology, this information is now being made available to anyone with computer access. 45
  46. 46. Cyber terrorism Government officials and Information Technology security specialists have documented a significant increase in Internet problems and server scans since early 2001. But there is a growing concern among federal officials that such intrusions are part of an organized effort by cyber terrorists, foreign intelligence services, or other groups to map potential security holes in critical systems. A cyber terrorist is someone who intimidates or coerces a government or organization to advance his or her political or social objectives by launching computer-based attack against computers, network, and the information stored on them. Cyber terrorism in general, can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources (Parker 1983). As such, a simple propaganda in the Internet, that there will be bomb attacks during the holidays can be considered cyber terrorism. At worst, cyber terrorists may use the Internet or computer resources to carry out an actual attack. As well there are also hacking activities directed towards individuals, families, organized by groups within networks, tending to cause fear among people, demonstrate power, collecting information relevant for ruining peoples' lives, robberies, blackmailing etc. Computer security Computer security is a branch of computer technology known as information security as applied to computers and networks. The objective of computer security includes protection of information and property from theft, corruption, or natural disaster, while allowing the information and property to remain accessible and productive to its intended users. The term computer system security means the collective 46
  47. 47. processes and mechanisms by which sensitive and valuable information and services are protected from publication, tampering or collapse by unauthorized activities or untrustworthy individuals and unplanned events respectively. The strategies and methodologies of computer security often differ from most other computer technologies because of its somewhat eluding objective of preventing unwanted computer behavior instead of enabling wanted computer behavior. Security by design The technologies of computer security are based on logic. As security is not necessarily the primary goal of most computer applications, designing a program with security in mind often imposes restrictions on that program's behavior. There are 4 approaches to security in computing, sometimes a combination of approaches is valid: 1. Trust all the software to abide by a security policy but the software is not trustworthy (this is computer insecurity). 2. Trust all the software to abide by a security policy and the software is validated as trustworthy (by tedious branch and path analysis for example). 3. Trust no software but enforce a security policy with mechanisms that are not trustworthy (again this is computer insecurity). 4. Trust no software but enforce a security policy with trustworthy mechanisms. Many systems have unintentionally resulted in the first possibility. Since approach two is expensive and non-deterministic, its use is very limited. Approaches one and three lead to failure. Because 47
  48. 48. approach number four is often based on hardware mechanisms and avoids abstractions and a multiplicity of degrees of freedom, it is more practical. Combinations of approaches two and four are often used in a layered architecture with thin layers of two and thick layers of four. Security architecture Security Architecture can be defined as the design artifacts that describe how the security controls (security countermeasures) are positioned, and how they relate to the overall information technology architecture. These controls serve the purpose to maintain the system's quality attributes, among them confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability and assurance." Security architecture is the plan that shows where security measures need to be placed. If the plan describes a specific solution then, prior to building such a plan, one would make a risk analysis. If the plan describes a generic high level design (reference architecture) then the plan should be based on a threat analysis. Secure operating systems One use of the term computer security refers to technology to implement a secure operating system. Much of this technology is based on science developed in the 1980s and used to produce what may be some of the most impenetrable operating systems ever. Though still valid, the technology is in limited use today, primarily because it imposes some changes to system management and also because it is not widely understood. Such ultra-strong secure operating systems are based on operating system kernel technology that can guarantee that certain security policies are absolutely enforced in an operating environment. An example of such a Computer security policy is the Bell-La Padula model. 48
  49. 49. The strategy is based on a coupling of special microprocessor hardware features, often involving the memory management unit, to a special correctly implemented operating system kernel. This forms the foundation for a secure operating system which, if certain critical parts are designed and implemented correctly, can ensure the absolute impossibility of penetration by hostile elements. This capability is enabled because the configuration not only imposes a security policy, but in theory completely protects itself from corruption. Ordinary operating systems, on the other hand, lack the features that assure this maximal level of security. The design methodology to produce such secure systems is precise, deterministic and logical. Secure coding If the operating environment is not based on a secure operating system capable of maintaining a domain for its own execution, and capable of protecting application code from malicious subversion, and capable of protecting the system from subverted code, then high degrees of security are understandably not possible. While such secure operating systems are possible and have been implemented, most commercial systems fall in a 'low security' category because they rely on features not supported by secure operating systems (like portability, et al.). In low security operating environments, applications must be relied on to participate in their own protection. There are 'best effort' secure coding practices that can be followed to make an application more resistant to malicious subversion. Capabilities vs. ACL’s Within computer systems, two security models capable of enforcing privilege separation are access control lists (ACL’s) and capabilities. 49
  50. 50. The semantics of ACL’s have been proven to be insecure in many situations (e.g., confused deputy problem). It has also been shown that ACL's promise of giving access to an object to only one person can never be guaranteed in practice. Both of these problems are resolved by capabilities. This does not mean practical flaws exist in all ACL-based systems, but only that the designers of certain utilities must take responsibility to ensure that they do not introduce flaws. Capabilities have been mostly restricted to research operating systems and commercial OSs still uses ACL’s. Capabilities can, however, also be implemented at the language level, leading to a style of programming that is essentially a refinement of standard object-oriented design. An open source project in the area is the E language. 50
  51. 51. Cyberspace is a global community of people using computers in networks. In order to function well, the virtual communities supported by the Internet depend upon rules of conduct, the same as any society. Librarians and information technologists must be knowledgeable about ethical issues for the welfare of their organizations and to protect and advise users. What is ethics? Ethics is the art of determining what is right or good. It can also be defined as a general pattern or way of life, a set of rules of conduct or moral code. Ethical guidelines are based on values. The Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) is one national organization which has developed a statement of its values. Every member of ACM is expected to uphold the Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct which includes these general moral imperatives: 1) Contribute to society and human well-being 2) Avoid harm to others 3) Be honest and trustworthy 4) Be fair and take action not to discriminate 5) Honor property rights including copyrights and patents 6) Give proper credit for intellectual property 7) Respect the privacy of others 8) Honor confidentiality. The very nature of electronic communication raises new moral issues. Individuals and organizations should be proactive in examining these concerns and developing policies which protect liabilities. Issues which need to be addressed include: privacy of mail, personal identities, access and control of the network, pornographic or unwanted messages, copyright, and commercial uses of the network. An Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) is recommended as the way an organization should inform users of expectations and responsibilities. Sample AUPs are available on the 51
  52. 52. Internet at gopher sites and can be retrieved by using Veronica to search keywords "acceptable use policies" or "ethics." The Computer Ethics, "Ten Commandments of Computing": 1 Not use a computer to harm other people. 2 Not interfere with other people's computer work. 3 Not snoop around in other people's computer files. 4 Not use a computer to steal. 5 Not use a computer to bear false witness. 6 Not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid. 7 Not use other people's computer resources without authorization or proper compensation. 8 Not appropriate other people's intellectual output. 9 Think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing. 10Always use a computer in ways that show consideration and respect for your fellow humans What should an organization do when an ethical crisis occurs? One strategy has been proposed by Ouellette and Associates Consulting. 1. Specify the FACTS of the situation. 2. Define the moral DILEMMA. 3. Identify the CONSTITUENCIES and their interests. 4. Clarify and prioritize the VALUES and PRINCIPLES at stake. 5. Formulate your OPTIONS. 6. Identify the potential CONSEQUENCES. 52
  53. 53. Other ethical concerns include issues such as 1) Influence: Who determines organizational policy? Who is liable in the event of lawsuit? What is the role of the computer center or the library in relation to the parent organization in setting policy? 2) Integrity: Who is responsible for data integrity? How much effort is made to ensure that integrity? 3) Privacy: How is personal information collected, used and protected? How is corporate information transmitted and protected? Who should have access to what? 4) Impact: What are the consequences on staff in the up- or down- skilling of jobs? What are the effects on staff and organizational climate when computers are used for surveillance, monitoring and measuring? As the schools incorporate Internet resources and services into the curriculum and the number of children using the Internet increases, other ethical issues must be addressed. Should children be allowed to roam cyberspace without restriction or supervision? How should schools handle student Internet accounts? What guidelines are reasonable for children? Organizations need to be proactive in identifying and discussing the ethical ramifications of Internet access. By having acceptable use policies and expecting responsible behavior, organizations can contribute to keeping cyberspace safe. 53
  54. 54. New Media Advertising Models  Site as the ad  Ads within sites  Banners  Buttons  Text Links  Product Placement  Social networking  VR Placements  Sponsorships  Advertorials  Interstitials  Pop-ups / Pop-under  Search engine optimization Site as the ad - Brochure ware  Among very first corporate sites on web  Recreate existing printed ads and collateral  Little interactivity Site as the ad online games and Micro sites  Online games  Interactive online games specially designed to deliver brand messages to players  Micro sites  Interactive miniature websites created specifically to be part of a marketers integrated message campaign 54
  55. 55. Ads within sites: Banners  Primary form of online advertising  3 Primary types of banners • Static • Animated • Interactive Static Banners  Easy to produce  Universally accepted  Stale and boring  Click-through rate is not terribly high Animated Banners  Rudimentary flip-book style movement (2 to 20 frames -- GIF technology)  Higher click-through than static  Deliver more information  Eye-catching  Universal acceptance Rich Media Banners  2 types •HTML •Proprietary code • Make a choice or insert data • HTML - universally accepted • Proprietary code - often require plug-ins to be downloaded; not always accepted • Highest click-through rates 55
  56. 56. Ads within sites: Buttons  Mini-banners  Usually little more than a logo or brand name Ads within sites: Text Links  Hyperlinks to other sites  Included within copy or editorial  Also seen on sites’ side-bars  Easy to do, much less expensive Product Placements in Websites  Social Networking and File Sharing sites  MySpace and FaceBook  YouTube and Flicker  Virtual Reality sites  Second Life Island  Virtual Laguna Beach Sponsorships  Sponsor popular editorial features on sites  Maintain integration, it MUST make sense to the subject matter being sponsored Advertorials  A sponsorship or placement that looks more like an article than an advertisement  Often have a higher response rate  Again, MUST deliver relevant content 56
  57. 57.  Big in the healthcare and OTC drug world Interstitials  ISP start-up screens are static interstitials  Usually little competition for attention Pop-up & Pop-under ads  Pop-ups: ‘Appear’ above requested page window  Pop-under: Lurk beneath the requesting page and are often not seen until you close browser Search Engine Optimization  Primary tools of SEO are keywords  Words or phrases that describe subject matter of a site or web page  Search engines base success on;  Key word matching  Payment for keyword placement Meta-tags  Special HTML insertions which provide information about a Web page  Often a list of keywords  Example of meta-tags for Click-through versus Impressions  Banners and buttons are getting fewer click-through  So should advertisers lose them? NO  Do not underestimate the value of banners as Brand Builders 57
  58. 58.  Cumulative impressions  Billboards of the Information Superhighway Buying an online ad  Determine your goal(s)  Select your site  Determine payment method  Negotiate price  Run the ad Goals Similar to those of the site itself  Traffic building (Channel Churner)  E-commerce (eBazaar)  Lead generation (Matchmaker)  Brand building (Digital Destination) What to look for  Audience coverage  Target Selectivity  Reporting  Flexibility  Size and placement  Inventory available  Performance guarantees  Technology Payment schedules  CPM  CPC - Cost per click / click-through  PPS - Pay per sale  PPV - Pay per viewer 58
  59. 59.  PPP - Pay per purchase  Flat fee  Hybrid  Affiliate agreements/networks Affiliate arrangements  Commission  Pay per Click  Qualified lead  Flat rate per sale  % of Sale  Affiliate networks  Clicks Link - source of multiple affiliate networks Benefits for sites  Substitute / augment in-house sales force  No need to invest in ad management s/w  Sell remnant / leftover inventory Benefits for Advertisers  Consistency in ad delivery  One rep / multiple sites  Competitive pricing  Multiple targeting options 59
  60. 60. Abstract: The Internet is probably the most effective marketing tool that has ever existed. Internet marketing has made business capable to serve potential customers as well as provide after sale services. Customer relationship marketing has got new meaning through e - marketing. There are three basic components in Internet marketing. 1. Websites & Portal 2. Search Engine 3. Email & Newsletter what is Email Marketing? It is cost effective, immediate, self – evaluator, responsible, environmental friendly and easy available direct marketing tool. Email marketing is marketing through E – mail. 1. Email marketing is cheap and secure. 2. Sender immediately able to know whether recipient has received or not 3. Sender easily can evaluate his business. I got ten positive replies out of fifteen requests I did. 4. Surveys have found that email-marketing campaigns can be as much as 10 times more likely to generate a response as their direct mail. You are half way sure to receive response with this tool. 5. Email facility is easily available. 60
  61. 61. There are three basic forms of email marketing. A. Direct email what do you send your customers or prospective customers in your traditional marketing? Promotional message? Offer announcement? What do you need for that? You need a list of customer or prospect postal addresses to send your promotions. In same way you need list of email addresses of your customers so that they can read your promotional message and offers on their computers or laptops. It doesn’t matter where they are! You can also rent lists of email addresses from service companies. They'll let you send your message to their own address lists. These services can usually let you target your message according to, for example, the interests or geographical location of the owners of the email address. So start creating email address database or hire such firms. B. Be in Touch Mail what would you do to be in touch with your prospective or well- established customers? You send retention kind of mails or your official newsletter. A newsletter carries promotional messages or advertisements. But it aims at developing a long-term impact on the readers (Your customers). It contains information, which informs, entertains or otherwise benefits the readers. You don’t do extra now. You have official newsletter ready with you. You just create attractive automation through web-based technologies. And send it through your mailbox. This is what we call e- Newsletter. To learn more on how to go for e-Newsletter log on www.e- 61
  62. 62. C. Advertise through other e-newsletter Instead of producing your own e-newsletter, you can find newsletters published by others and pay them to put your advertisement in the emails they send their subscribers. Indeed, there are many email newsletters that are created for just this purpose - to sell advertising space to others. Here you are advertising and promoting your company and not sharing your valuable knowledge. However that also can be done. Challenges for Email Marketer 1. Spam. (Uninvited Guest) I daily clean up advertising material thrown in my house veranda. Same way I get some emails that I have never invited. Such unauthorized mails and unsolicited commercial (bulk) email are called “SPAM". Spam however results only in angry recipients. Even ISPs (Internet Service Providers) may block your domain also. Spamming is called "Untargeted Email Marketing”. So please don’t Spam. Take permission of receivers while you send your mail. This is called "Responsible email marketing". How to get permission? An example of permission is when your customer buys something from your online store and also ticks a box marked "please send me news about product updates via email". You now have "permission" to send that person product updates by email, provided you also give them the opportunity to rescind that permission at any time. 62
  63. 63. 2. Privacy issues " Company needs to get permission from the individuals concerned before sending bulk emails to customers." - Data Protection Act. Spam is the issue of privacy. So, maintain God’s privacy. 3. Attachments Try to avoid large attachments while mailing. If you want to promote information try to convert into Newsletter. E-newsletter is a tool where you link important web pages under good heading. While reading, if your customers find important to read, they will open those pages. Another funny reason not to send attachments during your direct e- marketing campaigns is that often recipients are unable to open them for one reason or another. So don’t send anything, which becomes dirt for someone else when reached. 1. Don’t send mail to them who don’t know anything about you. 2. Include your name and correspondence address to prove your validity in mail. 3. If any one complains or find objection on your sending mail, please follow up and try to avoid such mailing. 4. Stop collecting email addresses from Internet so that you can promote yourself to that address. Get your email address in permitted manner. Mail to interested only and for that collect addresses of interested only. 5. Hire such advertisers only who are really not Spammer and send valid emails on behalf of you. 6. Don’t send mails one after other even if you do not get response from recipient. 7. Don’t mail any illegal or fake information. 8. Go for "Opt-in" email marketing. However it is not the free but it 63
  64. 64. works. Bullet mail, Hotmail and Targ – It are well known opt in email marketer. What do need to ponder? 1. Who is your customer? Who is your targeted audience? To whom do you want to send? Definitely you will send to your customers. How? You need either your won email list or you need to get on rental. Collect addresses. If you take on rent, select trusted medium. 2. Why do you want to send email? What do your customer read in your e newsletter? What actions do they need to take? Registering, Downloading or Buying? 3. If your campaign gets big success, what will be your outcome from this exercise? Be very specific here. Quantify it. 4. How your newsletter will benefit your customer? Are you offering gift, knowledge or discounts inside? 5. What Is Your Budget? 6. Hire copywriter and designer who can do creative job for your campaign. 7. You need to send your email recipients to a website that describes your offer or prompts them to take action. This site is also called a landing page. Get it developed or get on rent. And give that address in your newsletter. 8. Will You Use HTML or TEXT in your mail? HTML may give your mail more attraction. Thus how e-mail and newsletters provide you with the means of taking your business message to your target audience, rather than having to wait for your target audience to come to you. 64
  65. 65. BUYING AND SELLING ADVERTISING ON WEB Buying advertising space on sites that receive a large number of hits and that target a market similar to yours can increase the number of hits on your site and lead to higher revenues. Selling advertising space on your own site can also provide you with additional income. For buying and selling advertising purpose, it can be important to distinguish a site’s unique visitors from the total number of hits it receives. With some advertising payment schemes, you will be charged only if the customer performs an action predetermined by you and the Web site managers. Pay-per-performance fees include pay-per-click, pay per load and pay-per sale. When using the pay per click method, you pay the host according to the number of click-troughs to your site. Pay per lead means that you pay the host for every lead generated from the advertisement, and pay per sale means that you pay the host for every sale resulting from a click through. E-BUSINESS PUBLIC RELATIONS Public relations (PR) keep your customers and your company’s employees current on the latest information about products, services and internal and external issues such as company promotion and consumer reactions. It includes communicating with your consumers and employees through press releases, speeches, special events, presentations and e-mails. 65