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FOOD PROCESSING
INDUSTERIES
WASEEM AKHTAR
NFC-IET-MULTAN
INTORDUCTION
• Like a other industries food industries playing
a big role in society
• The demand of pre processing and processing
of food for the use food items in home has
been increased day by day
• This demand for uniformity of quality food
and high standards based at the remote areas
• Food processing regardless of the type of food
can be divided into three classes
1. Separation
2. Assembly
3. Preservation
These occur at food processing plant for sale
point of view
• Separation
Separation include rendering , skimming , boning,
coring, defeathering , husking , peeling, shelling.
Assembly
Assembly include coating, enrobing, baking,
homogenization , roasting,pelleting, stuffing
Preservation
To preserve the food stuff
• Food is categorized as live tissue and non live
tissue
• Live tissue food includes fresh fruits ,vegetable
, meat , grains
• Non living tissue include beverages , milk
,cheese, butter etc.
• During the process control the taste ,color,
nutritive value, cell structure as a fresh food
• Qualities of food is achieved by use of enzyme
,food should not be in the approach of insects,
bruising ,chemical degradation.
• The intensity of processing operation is
limited by tissue itself in term of temperature
range ,water activity, respiratory – gas
composition ,mechanical stress, and
concentration of chemicals . Certain fruits are
stored at 0C .
• Non living tissue food includes is determined
for preservation food so that final quality food
can be determined including vitamins , fats
,butter etc .these are free from the defects
and good nutrition value.
Toxicological implication of food
deterioration and spoilage
• Primary Objective of food processing is ensure a
safe food supply . Certain food harvested contain
naturally occurring poisonous substances
compound with pharmacological effects or
compounds that can be interfere with utilization
of neutrants present in food, when they are
consumed togather .
• Harvested food maybe contaminated with spor
,parsites ,full of pesticides and chemical that used
for plant protection that is lathal food
• Third source of health hazard during the
supply toxic chemicals are used for
preservation
Food processing facilities
• Appropriate site selection for food processing
plant
• Available of raw material
• Clean and fresh water supply
• Low cost waste disposal facilities
• Adequate and cheap source of energy supply
• Adequately supply of seasonal and non
seasonal labor
• Easy supply of rails ,trucks and transportation
• Maximum consumers facility
• Adequate storage areas
Food processing
• Food processing operations can be grouped into
three categories
• Preparation
• Assembly
• Preservation
Preparation process are used to
convert raw plant or animal tissue into animal
ingredients .this may include separation of
inedible and hazardous components , extraction
or concentration of nutrients , flavors , color and
other useful components and removal of water .
• Assembly process are used to combine and form
ingredients into consumer products .
• Preservation process is used to prevent the spoilage of
foods. Five sources of food spoilage must be addressed
in order to deliver fresh , safe food and ingredients
microbial contamination , including viruses ;enzyme
activity from enzymes in the food itself and from
external enzyme such as form microbial activity ;
chemical deterioration such as oxidation and non
enzymatic browning ; contamination from animals ,
insects and parasites ; and losses owing to mechanical
damage such as bruising .
• Preservation process can be used to extend the shelf
life of fresh foods, such as produce or to manufacture
products for long term storage where shelf lives are
measured in years.
Plants and animals are the primary sources of
food. The food processing industry devotes
considerable research to the selection and
improvement of plants and animals for raw materials .
Genetic engineering , as well as conventional breeding
methods , are being used to improve the yield , color ,
flavor , texture , nutrients contents , and resistance to
diseases , insect loss , and climates stress .
• However , products quality can vary oving to
weather , soil , growing practices , harvest
methods and post-harvest handling . Thus
food processing unites operations must be
design to aspect a raw material having a wide
range of qualities in addition , provision often
must be made for profit able use of
byproducts and waste streams .
REGULATIONS
• Food processing operations are regulated by
government and international law
• Food safety include toxic regulations include
standards for toxic and carcinogenic
substances in foods
• Chemicals hazards include heavy metals, and
herbicides and pesticides contents in food
• Physical hazardous materials suchas
metals,wood, pits ,glass , insect fragments
• Food regulations are covered in federal code
regulations
• Food processing operations can be optimised
according to principles and chemical
processes
• Chemical processing include distillation,
filtration ,crystallization ,size reduction
material handelling should be follow the food
laws
• Food processing operation optimization,
principles used for food chemical processes
and thermo physical properties and structure
of food is known
• For food processing optimization
measurement include vitamins,physical
changes such as viscosity ,level ascorbic acid
,thiamine can be used as indicator
Theoretical basis
• Food preservation yielded the heating time
and temperatures needed to produce foods by
mathematical modeling is determined
• Mild heat tretment used in pasturization of
milk
• Spore forming bacteria are most heat resitant
organism
• Spore formation must be done at rate of
population 10,000 spores at 121C for 16
minuts to complete inactivation
• Sporation process must be deactive for heat
treated foods to avoid spoilage of food
• Deactivation of spore is done by heat
treatment(100C for 10 mins) salts used pH
and nitrates
• Such substances must be known to stop the
growth of spore of bacteria such as nisin C1433
H230N42O37S7 that stop the growth rate of
bacteria in cheese food
• Water activity is linked with rates of chemical
reactions and microbial and enzyme activity in
food
• Water activity effect the humidity present around
the food
• Standard moisture test is conducted to safe the
food
• At freezing point water content forms plastic
material form bonds with protein that cause
change the damage of food
• When water content is low food behave like a
rubbery material .flow of water in tissue is
decrease during the heating and at last react
with tissue and proteins
• When food is freezed storage glassy crystalline
structure of food is important
Preservation of food
• Methods are adopted for food preservation so
that to avoid food spoilage
1. Heat treatment: storage near or below freezing point of
water
2 .Dehydration : control the water activity in food
3 Chemical preservation : chemical process such as washing
,peeling ,filtration, centrifuging ,grinding , ultra high
hydrostatic pressure , and mechanical operations
4 packaging
• For few days animals and vegetable products
at room temperature is complex process
• During storage enzyme system is continously
working their effect of reaction affects the
taste ,softness
• Fresh animals and vegetable products are
affected by odor ,animals ,dust , insects and
microbes
Shortage -term -storage
• The composition of the gaseous atmosphere
surrounding certain respiring fruits and vegetable can
influence their rate of quality loss atmosphere of O2 1-
2% ,CO2 and remainder ,nitrogen can prolong storage
life of selected fruits such as apples in refrigerated
storage for 9- 10 months possible
• For meat and poultry products gaseous mixture contain
50% oxygen , several %CO2 and remaining N2 can
extended the useful shelf life (the life of using things)
of these products from days to week . In this case
oxygen show growth of anaerobic spoilage of bacteria
under refirigeration
• In packaging respiration system also provided
to get fresh food
• Package materials can metabolized oxygen
and release carbon di oxide to atmosphere
• In chemical storage ethylene is used for
respiration
Refrigeration
• For useful shelf life refrigeration is used to
slow down the growth of microbes . The
effectiveness of refrigeration can be improved
by combing storage just above freezing with
ionizing radiation or chemical preservation
such as food acid , sodium benzoate and nisin
• To remove the microbes ultra high pressure
300 -400 Mpa .for liquid food filtration or
centrifuge is done to remove microbes .
• Vacuum packaging is effective in shelf life
refrigeration for processed meat products .
The use of combination of several
preservation step to show the minimum
spoilage the product
Heat treatment
• Fish or sea food contain a lot of water and
pathogenic virus
• For safe sea food proper heat treatment is
necessary to kill the pathogenic micro
organism
• Canned mushrooms are 90% toxin their
toxicity is removed by on heating treatment
their heating time is 19 mins for 121C
preservative
• Bakery products loose their freshness within
24 hrs at room temperature, chemical changes
occurred about water migration and starch
crystallization this cause change the protien
and starch structure of the product
• For this treatment molds of product should be
proper stirrlized and during packing they
remain in oxygen free atmosphere
Long term storage
• In activation of microbes and enzymes in food and food
ingredients is necessary to ensure a long shelf life .
• This can be achieved by using one or more
preservation operations such as apply heating and
using storage temperature below -18C, drying to water
activity below 0.65 that is equilibrium relative humidity
surrounding the product below 65% and adding
chemical preservatives such as organic acid
(acetic or lactic) or table salt . Heat is used to inactive
the enzymes in food to freezing ,drying or chemical
preservations is known as blanching
• Food process firms producing heat preserved
, frozen , dehydrated or chemically preserved
food may classified by their finished product
• The ingredients used in product should be
according to international standards
regulation for the ready to eat meat or
poultaty products
Thermal preservation technology
• The heat preservation of food can be
completed various combination of heating
times and temperature depend upon numbers
and type of heat spore present . Physically
chracteritics of the food such as viscosity ,size
of particals, size of packages and starting
temperature influence the rate of heat
penetration into slowest heating point in the
package
• The inactivation of heat resistant spore
appears to follow first order kinetics . Thus if
the rate of inactivation of spore population is
known at different temperatures and rate of
heating of slowest heating point in the
package can be calculated for external heating
condition with mathematical modeling and
process operating condition such as steam
pressure ,heat sterilized and product
temperatures
• Thermally processed food is preserved in
sealed container depends upon slowest
heating volume of container
• Heat resistant spores may present even after
heat treatment
• Chemical changes in food flavors and vitamins
are added in the food
Equipment sterilization
• Equipment and processes for thermal
preservation depend upon physical form of food
and PH that lies below 4.5 for commercial
sterilization at 100 C
• Acid food requires simple equipment for heat
preservation at 100C and filled hot into suitable
containers . These containers are sealed inverted
to sterilized the closure () held at filling
temperature for a short time to ensure
• Low acid foods have PH grater than 4.5 requiring
sterilization at temperature above 100C and thus
treatment in pressure vessels
• Heat treatment temperature preservation
temperature is above 100C can be carried out in
batch or continous heat exchange equipment, it
is a simple pressure vessel in which packaged
food can be exposed to saturated steam , water,
pressurized air , and spray water or mixture of air
and steam
• Microwave energy is utilized in plastic and glass
industry while small containers are heated in
pressure vessels by direct flame ,fluidized bed ,or
electrical resistance heater
• Fluid or slurries foods can be heated in agitated
vessel to increase the internal heat transfer
increasing . Riged cans foods are heated in
vacuum conditions with very little liquids to
permot steam formation inside container cans
Batch heat process
• Batch processes has main advantages of low
capital investment
• These are designed according to size of food
packaged and length of heat treatment . System
is fully automatic process control
• Material handling are easily loaded and unloaded
.
• Disadvantage of this process is slow cycle time
because high energy and labor cost is needed for
the process
• Batch process is preferable for mixed food
products in number of packages sizes with a
limited number of cases for any product style
con make
Continuous heat process
• Continuous heat processing equipment can take the
form of heat exchanger for pumped foods or material
handling system that introduces indvidual packages
into steam pressure chamber with mechanical valve
system rotating pocket or hydrostatic legs of sufficient
high pressure internal steam pressure of system . A
hydrostatic cooker operating 121 C with gauge pressure
0.1 Mpa and 20m high hydrostatic inlet and outlet legs
. This hight is needed a safety factor for water level in
cooker
• In this system 1000 food container /min can be cooked
• Food is continuously heat sterilized and cooled
in heat exchangers must be handled under
aseptic conditions and filled aseptically in
presterilized packages .
• Microwave and induction heating allow
particulate foods to be heated more rapidly
and uniformly than conduction heating by
conventional heat exchanger . All equipment
used in food industry should be well sterilized
• Food packaging is done at room temperature
with help of car cans
• Aseptic filling in which metal cans are used
for packaging the food that are sterilized by
steam while paper, foil ,plastic laminates are
sterilized by hydrogen peroxide
• Novel aseptic filling system designed for acid
foods such as apple sauces and fruit juice uses
as food grade organic and inorganic acid
• For their filling they come in sterilized filling
area so that microbes cannot enter in filling
area where the food is filled in prestirilized
packing in nitrogen and oxygen atmosphere
they are sealed.
• Aseptic packing is used in milk and sauces
packing
FREEZING PRESERVATION
• The rate of loss of color, flavor, texture, and
nutrients due to growth of microbes and activity
of enzymes and other life form are all function of
temperature
• Thus lower temperature storage prolong the
useful life of food. Below 0C the free water starts
to form ice crystals. Ice crystal formation is
function of moisture content ,solute composition
and storage temperature fluctuation .
• Super cooling can occurs during the freezing
process . Food having high concentrations of
solutes can behave as glassy materials in
which water may exist in non crystalline state
at freezing temperature to show diffusion and
high soluble solid content
• The condition needed for establishing and
maintaining the glassy state in frozen food
• Ice formation benefits are strengthen of food
structure and removal of free moisture. Ice
formation method is useful for plants cells,fruits
and vegetable product to preserve food . Ice
crystal formation cease the microbial growth
partial dehydration of water in tissue . Ice crystal
disrupt cell structure and increase the
concentration of electrolytes denaturation of
protein occur. Quality of protein loss occur for
better it is boiled in hot water and deep freezing
is effective for protein storage
• Food is cooled at -18C ensure that maximum ice
crystal formation .the rapid cooling is cause of
small ice crystal which minimize the disruption of
protein cell
• Commercial frozen equipment can frozen at -18
to -24C shelf life for the product for these ate 1
year. Because at this temperature freezing
reduces the enzyme activity
• Inactive temperature for these food are 100C
• This phenomena is known as freeze drying.
• Fishes can be stored by this method
• For deep freezing technique high heat velocity air
is necessary about 5m/s at temperature -
40C . The air recycled through cooling coils and
fans convey the air and returned.
• The cold has lowered partial vapour pressure
than hot food so by evaporation many of water
carried by air . Later on vapor of water condense
in cooling coil and exit from air. In this way air
performing good heat transfer media for food
• For rapid cooling high velocity of air and lower
temperatue are required . The main heat transfer
media during freezing is conduction
• Some time liquid coolant is used as heat transfer
media such as salt, alcohol, and esters that
reduce pumping cost and help to permot high
refrigeration , this method is for specific foods
not for all such as turkey
• Frozen product are packed in polyethylene
packing
• Crygonic freezing method uses liquid nitrogen
or dry ice snow . For rapid chilling some time
refrigerants are sprayed over hot product that
cause of rapid cooling . Meat ,poultry, sea
food store like these methods.
Dehydration process
• Dehydration of food one of the most oldest
technique to save the food . Microbes are not
grow below minimum water activity 0.65
• Water activity id defined as equilibrium
relative humidity surrounding the food in
sealed container at given temperature. Its
means that no microbes grow if water activity
in food is below 65% relative humidity at
storage temperature in 0 -40C.
• Each food or food ingredients show characteristic
a equilibrium relative humidity at given moisture
content and temperature moisture in food is
considered 1 and reduces to 0.6 by means of
drying . These product are are dried and soft .
• The remaining water acts as plasticizer and can
be preserved in vacuum ,refrigeration .
• Baked products are prolongly saved by reducing
water
• Presence of sugar reduces the water activity can
increase the microbial growth. Oil and seeds can
prolong saved by reducing water activity up to 14%.
Fresh food has water activity 97% which metabolic
change during drying non enzymes , reduces ascorbic
acid and amino acid reduces the sugar and maximum
change occur during the drying
• Drying of fruits is carried out by passing the SO2 over
fruits which change the enzyme activity of fruits and
dried food are packed in oxgene or vacuum
atmosphere
• Continuous hot dry air are used for vegetable ,
fruits , meat and poultry products
• Hot air releases the moisture from the food
• During the drying wet bulb temperature , dry
bulb temperature, relative humidity , air velocity
and direction of air movement is controlled
• However drying has three zones and deep drying
for food is avoided and controlled by wet and dry
bulb temperature
• Liquid and pastes are dried in spray , drum , or by
freeze dryer.
• Rehydration is done for dried food .also quality of
product also important in rehydration , food
should be fresh , eating quality either hot or cold
• Freeze dried food such as sea food ,vegetable are
useful for instant soup making and salad
• Rice carrot potato ,cereal product are dried by
fluidized bed
Chemical preservation
• Food additive or chemical addition is done for
preservation by heat , refrigeration and drying
methods
• The addition of food grade acid to low grade acid
food shift the PH to below 4.5 allows heat
preservation at temperature 100 C
• Antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisol can
be added
• SO2 is used in wine and dry fruits and vegetable
product to preserve color ,taste ,
• Food can be preserved by fermentation by
selecting suitable yeast that produces lactic acid
by yeast .
• The production of ethanol ,lactic , and organic
acid and antimicrobial agent in the food along
with removal of fermentable sugar can yield a
product of increased shelf life . Mild heating of
foods acidified by fermentation and packaged to
prevent further contamination for stable product
• The fermentation is controlled by adding sodium
chloride that increases the fermentation rate
• Lactic acid production is associated with dairy
products and producing antibiotic medicine are called
bacteriocins .
• Concentration of these antibiotics are increased by
adding natural antibiotic in refrigerated food in extract
form by fermentation process
• Natural antibiotics are penicillium roqueforti
• Roquefort and blue cheese are made by
propioibacterbacterium which produces proponic acid
and produces swiss type cheese
Food packaging
• Food package include rigid glass or metal
container
• Easily available moulds for paper and plastics
• Aluminum and pouched die
• Have potential to transport the food easily
• Avoid non standard materials .
• Proper marketing available for food packaging
Foods( non conventional)
• Non conventional food differs from the usually
materials of plant and animals origin that are
used for human food or animals feed in that
they can produced from chemicals such as
carbohydrate , hydrocarbons or industerial
organic chemicals by process such
microbiological , enzymatic or chemical
synthysis or from natural products containing
carbohydrate , proteins and fats and physical
and chemical , enzyme modification
Single cell protein
• Two broad classes of micro organism are
interested for single cell protein production
photosynthetic organisms including the algae
and certain bacteria, and non photosynthetic
organism actinomycetes ,yeast ,fungi,
1. Photosynthetic organism
• Mass cultivation of algae in ponds under
photosynthetic conditions using incident
sunlight as a energy source and CO2 as carbon
source . Artificial illumination system are also
used for cultivation of algae
• These are used for food disposal plants and
produced CO2 is used in carbonated bevrages
• The main parameter are temperature, PH,
nitrogen , phosphorous inorganic source
• Algae is good source of food for animal and
human feed . It is good source of amino acid
and protein source
• Dried alage are not acceptable by live stock
.however dried algae is used in steam roasted
barley
2. Non photosynthetic organism
• Non photo-synthatic micro organisim for
singular cell production of yeast ,molds , and
higher fungai.
• Carbon and energy source that have been
considered for growing these organism
include carbohydrates to produce alcoholic
and organic acid from sugar ,starch , cellose
Plant and animals derived
• Leaf protein concentrates are prepared by
crushing
FOOD TOXICANTS
• Toxicants are substance that , upon ingestion ,
produce changes in homeostasis that are
thrating to the normal function of organism.
• AflatoxinB1 cause of mycotoxin which is found
in mouldy grain,nuts ,oilseeds ,raw egg
• Oxalic acid found rhubarb reduce the calcium
in calcium of body
• Solanine found in potato, tomato and apple
cause of glycoalkoaloid.
Toxic proteins, peptides,amides and
amino acids
• Nitrogenous compounds are present in every
living cell and are most frequently implicated
natural toxicants in foods.
• There mode of action is often obscure but
they may be loosely grouped according to
either gross manifestations or specific
structural characteristics.
• Some vitamins distroying the enzyme of body
and cause of carcinogens of protien
Thiocyanates and related s-containing
compounds
• Goitrogens are compounds that produce
goiter by interfering with thyroxin synthesis in
the thyroid gland .
• Food-borne goitrogens are often characterized
by the presence sulphur and most are
thiocyanates or closely related compounds.
Oxalates ,phytates and other chelates
• Of nutrient chelates in human diet,oxalates
and phytates are the most common .
• Oxalic acid found in spanish, hubarb leaves,
beet leves and mushrooms.
• Defficency of phosphrous is done in body by
using of excessive use of pythic acid that is
found in oaths. Most of essential ammines
found in bannana, tomato,pineapple
Vasoactive and psychoactive amines
and alkaloids
• Most compounds producing hypertensive
eposides are classifide as amines and found in
greatest concentration in banana ,plantain
tomato, avocado,pineapple broad beans , and
various cheeses.
• Caffeine ,a xanthine derivative , is perhaps the
best known of the natural stimulants and is
found in cofee beans tea leave and cola nuts.
Antinutrients
• Any substance that destroys , inactivates or in
other ways renders unavalible an essential
dietary constituent can be termed an
antinutrient.
• Some anti vitmins are enzymes,
thiaminase,niacin, biotin
Vitamin toxicity
• Because fat soluble vitamins (e.g A and D)
tend to accumulate in the body with a
relatively inactive mechanism for excretion
they cause greater toxicological difficulties
then do water soluble vitamins.
• Water soluble vitamins , overdose of
nicotine,and folic acid cause of adverse effect
on health
Essential minerals and heavy trace
elements
• Toxic ingestion of essential minerals from
naturally occurring foods is almost beyond
comprehension .
Cyanogenic glycosides
• Complex glycosides, which upon hydrolysis
yield hydrocyanic acid are found commonly
among plant materials.
• They are found in bitter almond pits stone
fruits and lima beans .
Nitrates , nitrites and nitrosamines
• The carcinogenicity of nitrosamines has
created widespread concern over the safety of
food products that are significant sources of
nitrates and nitrites .
Sodium chloride
• The fact that excessive intake of NACL
contributes to increased fluid retention has
led to the conclusion that they are may be
relationship between NACL intake and
hypertension.
Mycotoxins
• The condition produce by the consumption of
moulds foods containing toxic material is
referred to as mycotoxicosis . Moulds and
fungi fall into this category.
Seafood toxins
• Several species of the moray eel have caused
toxic reaction . The toxic principle appears to
be proteinaceous , and is found
predominantly in the blood but it may occur
also in flesh as well.
Food additives
• A food additives as a substance or mixture of
substance other then a basic foodstuff that is
present in food as a result of any aspect of
production processing, storage and packaging.
• In most nations direct food additives
legislation limite the use of a substance to
maximum doses in specified foods and or
subject to pre marketing approvals.
Catagories
• Deponding on the nation food ingredients and
additives are describe in following 52 food
additives catagories.
Milk and milks products
• Composition and properties
milk consist of 85 –
89 wt % water and 11-15 wt% total solids.
• The non fat solids, fat solids and moisture
relationship are well established and can be
used as basis for detecting adulteration with
water .
• Solid not fat found in milk 0.4% including
proteins in milk but fats are 1%
Nutritional contents
• Milk fat is a mixture of triglycerides and
diglycerides.
• The triglycerides are short chains C24-C46
,medium chain C34-C54,and long chain C40-C60.
• Milk fat contains more fatty acids than vegetable
fats.
• Milk is an emulsion of fat in water (serum)
stabilised by phospholipibs which are absorbed
on the fat globules.
Processing
• The processing operation for fluid milk or
manufactured milk products includes
centrifugal sediment removal and cream
seperation , pasteurisation and sterilisation
and homogenisation and packaging , handling
and storing .
1.Cooling
• After removal from a cow by a mechanical
milking machines usually at 35c the milk should
be cool as rapidly as possible to 4.4c or below to
maintain quality .
• At this low temp this enzyme activity and growth
of micro-organism are minimized .
• A meter may be in the line to measure the
quantity of milk for each cow.
• On commercial scale milk from the cow is cooled
and stored
• Precaution is used during the milk cooling no
air is mixed with milk.
• Milk flow through pipes are made of steel(s.s)
• Cleaning is most important factor during milk
processing
Centifugation
• Centifugal devices includes clarifiers for removal
of sediment and extraneous particulates , and
separators for removal of fats from
milk.seperation of fats is done by centrifuge
• Bactofugation as a specialised process of
clarification in which two high velocities
centrifugal devises operate at 20000 rpm in
series.
• The first device removes 90 % of bacteria .
• Second removes 90% of the remaining bacteria
providing a 99% bacteria free product.
Homogenisation
• Homogenisation is done by mechanical means
to make a homogenised milk. Fats from milk is
separated in cream form
• Milk that has been treated to insure the
breakup of fat gloubes to such a extent that 48
hours at 7C is stored sothat no visible cream
seperation occure in milk is called
homodenised milk
• Homogeniser or viscoliser are used for milk
homogenisation. The milk is forced with high
pressure throuh small opening by doing so
globules are breaked by compressive and
shearing force
Pasteurisation
• It is the process of heating milk to kill
yeasts,moulds and pathogenic bacteria and
most other bacteria and to inactive certain
emzimes without greatly altering the flavour .
• Pasteurisation may be carried out by batch or
continuous flow process .
• In batch process milk is heated at 63C - 71C
• This is known as high temperature short time
pasturization
• For high temperature short time process 65 –
74C for 15second
• In ultra high temperature milk is heated 87 -
240 for 1-2 second for both batch and
continous process
Batch holding
• The milk is in the batch holding tanks is heated
by a hot water spray on the tank liner a large
diameter coil which circulates in the milk
through which the hot water is pumped a
flooded tank around which hot water or steam
is circulated or by coils surrounding the liner
through heating medium is pumped at high
velocity .
High temperature short time
pasteurisers
• The principal continuous flow process is the
high temperature short time method .
• The product is heated to at least 72 c and held
at that temperature for not less than 15 sec .
Cleaning systems
• Both manual and automatic method of
cleaning food processing equipment are used .
• Even in a plant with advanced cleaning
equipment some manual cleaning is involved .
Cleaning in-place (CIP) systems
• CIP system evolved from recirculating of cleaning
solutions in pipelines and equipment of a highly
automatic system with valves controls and timers
.
• In the early circulation system consider manual
operation was required in assembly and
disassembly of units.
• Homogeniser and heat exchanger were cleaned
manually or by a system of circulating solution.
Manufactured product
• Most of the milk production is used for
manufactured products
• Evaporated and condensed milk and dry milk
is produced from milk
1.EVAPORATED MILK
2. CONDENSED MILK
3. SWEETENED CONDENSED MILK
4. CREAM
5. CHEESE
6.YOUGART
EVAPORATED AND CONDENSEDMILK
• Evaporated and condensed milk are produced by
removing moisture from milk under vacuum
followed by packaging and sterilizing
In cans
The milk is condensed to half its volume in single
effect or multiple effect evaporators
The products has a fats to solid not fat ratio is 1:2.3
and standardized before and after evaporation . It
must have atleast 7.9% fats.and 25.9 of total milk
solid
SWEETENED CONDENSED MILK
• Sweetened milk is different from condensed
milk and not strirrlized . Sugar is added as a
preservative which replaces sterilization as a
means of maintaining quality . The equipment
is similar to that used for evaporated milk
except that sugar is added in hot well before
condensing the liquid . According to standards
,sweet condensed milk must contain 8.5% fats
minerals and 28% total milk solid inclide fat to
snf 1:2.3. the product contain 43-45%
CREAM
• Cream is high fat product which is secured by
gravity or mechanical separation through
differential density of fats and serum . Fat content
may range from 10-40% depend on use as per
food laws.
• Whipping cream has fat content of 34-40% for
coffee
• Light cream has fat content 20-25%. Half and half
mixture of milk and cream contain10.5%milk fat,
10% eddible fats used as butter
Cheese
• Chease production is based on coagulation of
casien from milk .with a minor milk protien .
The casien is precipitated of milk by
acidification which can be accomplished by
natural source of milk.
Yougurt
• Yogurt is produced from fermented milk. Milk
is fermented by lactobacillus bulgaricus and
steptococus thermophilus organism
producing lactic acid
Poultry meat processing
• The poultry production is also increased due
to intensive agriculture system and increase
the grain production
• Poultry is the most efficient converter of grain
and by products into meat with added of safe
high productive
• Poultry is good source of protine and little fats
and high yield of moisture
Manufacturing process
• Poultry processing plant consist of two main
processing zones . First processing zone
consist of receiving , killing and defeathering
units and second processing zone contain
evisceration final processing and packing
units. Separation of two zone is intended to
facilitate sanitation by separating the
inherently dirtier phases of processes from
those involved in preparation of the final
product.
Poultry receiving Killing Scalding
Washing Singeing Defeathering
Pinning Eviscerating Washing
Packing Cutting Chilling
RECEIVING
• Generally poultry meat processing plants are
installed near poultry farms , poultry arrives at
plant and convey to the shacking area . In
shaking area poultry are shacked by their feet
than it is transported to killing section.
Killing
• It is usually done manually . Many plants
employ electric stunning prior to killing . This
reduce struggling and also relaxes the feather
papillac , thereby facilitating feather removal.
Bleeding
• After killing , blood comes approximately for
1.5 minutes . Incomplete bleeding cause
discolouration of carcasses and consequent
lowgrading .
Scalding
• It is done at 123-128F for 1.5-2 minutes
commonly, it is sufficient to allow feather
removal, yet the outer layer of skin on the
carcass remain intact. Over scalding may lead
to irregular removal of outer skin , causing an
unattractive splotchy appearance.
Defeathering
• Defeathering of carcasses is completed in
rotating drum. In the rotating drum carcasses
are brought in contact with rubber finger, the
feathers loosened by scalding are stripped
away with little damage to skin.
Singeing
• After defeathering process all poultry contain
some hair like feather which is removed by
passing the carcass quickly through a flame .
Washing
• Spray washing is used to removed feather
,blood and other foreign materials from the
outer skin of carcass.
Pinning
• Some times carcass contain developing
feather that have just pierced the skin are
removed manually by grasping protuding pin
feather between the thumb and the edge of
knife and giving a strong tugging motion . The
carcass is transported to eviscerating room .
Eviscerating
• In the eviscerating process , first of all a
vertical cut is made from the tip of the
sternum to the vent , and with the vent still
attached viscera and drawn out , but remain
attached viscera is used for the postmortem
inspection .
Removal of varies parts
• After inspection the liver and gizzard are
removed and remaining viscera discarded
.then lungs and kidney removed mechanically
or by use of a strong vacuum aspirator . Head
of bird is removed by using v shape knife . The
skin is slit along the dorsal surface of neck to
the shoulder .then skin is cut on the dorsal
side to the shoulder and neck is cut or broken
off at the shoulders manually.
Washing
• Carcasses are washed with cooled water to
remove attached tissues , foreign materials,
blood etc .
Chilling
• Chilling of carcasses is done to remove body
heat and to protect from microbial action .
Normally chilling is done below 40 F for 30
minutes.
Packing
• Sometime carcasses are cut into parts
according to market demand , otherwise then
are packed in frozen form .

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FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRIES

  • 3. INTORDUCTION • Like a other industries food industries playing a big role in society • The demand of pre processing and processing of food for the use food items in home has been increased day by day • This demand for uniformity of quality food and high standards based at the remote areas
  • 4. • Food processing regardless of the type of food can be divided into three classes 1. Separation 2. Assembly 3. Preservation These occur at food processing plant for sale point of view
  • 5. • Separation Separation include rendering , skimming , boning, coring, defeathering , husking , peeling, shelling. Assembly Assembly include coating, enrobing, baking, homogenization , roasting,pelleting, stuffing Preservation To preserve the food stuff
  • 6. • Food is categorized as live tissue and non live tissue • Live tissue food includes fresh fruits ,vegetable , meat , grains • Non living tissue include beverages , milk ,cheese, butter etc. • During the process control the taste ,color, nutritive value, cell structure as a fresh food
  • 7. • Qualities of food is achieved by use of enzyme ,food should not be in the approach of insects, bruising ,chemical degradation. • The intensity of processing operation is limited by tissue itself in term of temperature range ,water activity, respiratory – gas composition ,mechanical stress, and concentration of chemicals . Certain fruits are stored at 0C .
  • 8. • Non living tissue food includes is determined for preservation food so that final quality food can be determined including vitamins , fats ,butter etc .these are free from the defects and good nutrition value.
  • 9. Toxicological implication of food deterioration and spoilage • Primary Objective of food processing is ensure a safe food supply . Certain food harvested contain naturally occurring poisonous substances compound with pharmacological effects or compounds that can be interfere with utilization of neutrants present in food, when they are consumed togather . • Harvested food maybe contaminated with spor ,parsites ,full of pesticides and chemical that used for plant protection that is lathal food
  • 10. • Third source of health hazard during the supply toxic chemicals are used for preservation
  • 11. Food processing facilities • Appropriate site selection for food processing plant • Available of raw material • Clean and fresh water supply • Low cost waste disposal facilities • Adequate and cheap source of energy supply • Adequately supply of seasonal and non seasonal labor
  • 12. • Easy supply of rails ,trucks and transportation • Maximum consumers facility • Adequate storage areas
  • 13. Food processing • Food processing operations can be grouped into three categories • Preparation • Assembly • Preservation Preparation process are used to convert raw plant or animal tissue into animal ingredients .this may include separation of inedible and hazardous components , extraction or concentration of nutrients , flavors , color and other useful components and removal of water .
  • 14. • Assembly process are used to combine and form ingredients into consumer products . • Preservation process is used to prevent the spoilage of foods. Five sources of food spoilage must be addressed in order to deliver fresh , safe food and ingredients microbial contamination , including viruses ;enzyme activity from enzymes in the food itself and from external enzyme such as form microbial activity ; chemical deterioration such as oxidation and non enzymatic browning ; contamination from animals , insects and parasites ; and losses owing to mechanical damage such as bruising .
  • 15. • Preservation process can be used to extend the shelf life of fresh foods, such as produce or to manufacture products for long term storage where shelf lives are measured in years. Plants and animals are the primary sources of food. The food processing industry devotes considerable research to the selection and improvement of plants and animals for raw materials . Genetic engineering , as well as conventional breeding methods , are being used to improve the yield , color , flavor , texture , nutrients contents , and resistance to diseases , insect loss , and climates stress .
  • 16. • However , products quality can vary oving to weather , soil , growing practices , harvest methods and post-harvest handling . Thus food processing unites operations must be design to aspect a raw material having a wide range of qualities in addition , provision often must be made for profit able use of byproducts and waste streams .
  • 17. REGULATIONS • Food processing operations are regulated by government and international law • Food safety include toxic regulations include standards for toxic and carcinogenic substances in foods • Chemicals hazards include heavy metals, and herbicides and pesticides contents in food • Physical hazardous materials suchas metals,wood, pits ,glass , insect fragments
  • 18. • Food regulations are covered in federal code regulations • Food processing operations can be optimised according to principles and chemical processes • Chemical processing include distillation, filtration ,crystallization ,size reduction material handelling should be follow the food laws
  • 19. • Food processing operation optimization, principles used for food chemical processes and thermo physical properties and structure of food is known • For food processing optimization measurement include vitamins,physical changes such as viscosity ,level ascorbic acid ,thiamine can be used as indicator
  • 20. Theoretical basis • Food preservation yielded the heating time and temperatures needed to produce foods by mathematical modeling is determined • Mild heat tretment used in pasturization of milk • Spore forming bacteria are most heat resitant organism
  • 21. • Spore formation must be done at rate of population 10,000 spores at 121C for 16 minuts to complete inactivation • Sporation process must be deactive for heat treated foods to avoid spoilage of food • Deactivation of spore is done by heat treatment(100C for 10 mins) salts used pH and nitrates
  • 22. • Such substances must be known to stop the growth of spore of bacteria such as nisin C1433 H230N42O37S7 that stop the growth rate of bacteria in cheese food • Water activity is linked with rates of chemical reactions and microbial and enzyme activity in food • Water activity effect the humidity present around the food • Standard moisture test is conducted to safe the food
  • 23. • At freezing point water content forms plastic material form bonds with protein that cause change the damage of food • When water content is low food behave like a rubbery material .flow of water in tissue is decrease during the heating and at last react with tissue and proteins • When food is freezed storage glassy crystalline structure of food is important
  • 24. Preservation of food • Methods are adopted for food preservation so that to avoid food spoilage 1. Heat treatment: storage near or below freezing point of water 2 .Dehydration : control the water activity in food 3 Chemical preservation : chemical process such as washing ,peeling ,filtration, centrifuging ,grinding , ultra high hydrostatic pressure , and mechanical operations 4 packaging
  • 25. • For few days animals and vegetable products at room temperature is complex process • During storage enzyme system is continously working their effect of reaction affects the taste ,softness • Fresh animals and vegetable products are affected by odor ,animals ,dust , insects and microbes
  • 26. Shortage -term -storage • The composition of the gaseous atmosphere surrounding certain respiring fruits and vegetable can influence their rate of quality loss atmosphere of O2 1- 2% ,CO2 and remainder ,nitrogen can prolong storage life of selected fruits such as apples in refrigerated storage for 9- 10 months possible • For meat and poultry products gaseous mixture contain 50% oxygen , several %CO2 and remaining N2 can extended the useful shelf life (the life of using things) of these products from days to week . In this case oxygen show growth of anaerobic spoilage of bacteria under refirigeration
  • 27. • In packaging respiration system also provided to get fresh food • Package materials can metabolized oxygen and release carbon di oxide to atmosphere • In chemical storage ethylene is used for respiration
  • 28. Refrigeration • For useful shelf life refrigeration is used to slow down the growth of microbes . The effectiveness of refrigeration can be improved by combing storage just above freezing with ionizing radiation or chemical preservation such as food acid , sodium benzoate and nisin • To remove the microbes ultra high pressure 300 -400 Mpa .for liquid food filtration or centrifuge is done to remove microbes .
  • 29. • Vacuum packaging is effective in shelf life refrigeration for processed meat products . The use of combination of several preservation step to show the minimum spoilage the product
  • 30. Heat treatment • Fish or sea food contain a lot of water and pathogenic virus • For safe sea food proper heat treatment is necessary to kill the pathogenic micro organism • Canned mushrooms are 90% toxin their toxicity is removed by on heating treatment their heating time is 19 mins for 121C
  • 31. preservative • Bakery products loose their freshness within 24 hrs at room temperature, chemical changes occurred about water migration and starch crystallization this cause change the protien and starch structure of the product • For this treatment molds of product should be proper stirrlized and during packing they remain in oxygen free atmosphere
  • 32. Long term storage • In activation of microbes and enzymes in food and food ingredients is necessary to ensure a long shelf life . • This can be achieved by using one or more preservation operations such as apply heating and using storage temperature below -18C, drying to water activity below 0.65 that is equilibrium relative humidity surrounding the product below 65% and adding chemical preservatives such as organic acid (acetic or lactic) or table salt . Heat is used to inactive the enzymes in food to freezing ,drying or chemical preservations is known as blanching
  • 33. • Food process firms producing heat preserved , frozen , dehydrated or chemically preserved food may classified by their finished product • The ingredients used in product should be according to international standards regulation for the ready to eat meat or poultaty products
  • 34. Thermal preservation technology • The heat preservation of food can be completed various combination of heating times and temperature depend upon numbers and type of heat spore present . Physically chracteritics of the food such as viscosity ,size of particals, size of packages and starting temperature influence the rate of heat penetration into slowest heating point in the package
  • 35. • The inactivation of heat resistant spore appears to follow first order kinetics . Thus if the rate of inactivation of spore population is known at different temperatures and rate of heating of slowest heating point in the package can be calculated for external heating condition with mathematical modeling and process operating condition such as steam pressure ,heat sterilized and product temperatures
  • 36. • Thermally processed food is preserved in sealed container depends upon slowest heating volume of container • Heat resistant spores may present even after heat treatment • Chemical changes in food flavors and vitamins are added in the food
  • 37. Equipment sterilization • Equipment and processes for thermal preservation depend upon physical form of food and PH that lies below 4.5 for commercial sterilization at 100 C • Acid food requires simple equipment for heat preservation at 100C and filled hot into suitable containers . These containers are sealed inverted to sterilized the closure () held at filling temperature for a short time to ensure
  • 38. • Low acid foods have PH grater than 4.5 requiring sterilization at temperature above 100C and thus treatment in pressure vessels • Heat treatment temperature preservation temperature is above 100C can be carried out in batch or continous heat exchange equipment, it is a simple pressure vessel in which packaged food can be exposed to saturated steam , water, pressurized air , and spray water or mixture of air and steam
  • 39. • Microwave energy is utilized in plastic and glass industry while small containers are heated in pressure vessels by direct flame ,fluidized bed ,or electrical resistance heater • Fluid or slurries foods can be heated in agitated vessel to increase the internal heat transfer increasing . Riged cans foods are heated in vacuum conditions with very little liquids to permot steam formation inside container cans
  • 40. Batch heat process • Batch processes has main advantages of low capital investment • These are designed according to size of food packaged and length of heat treatment . System is fully automatic process control • Material handling are easily loaded and unloaded . • Disadvantage of this process is slow cycle time because high energy and labor cost is needed for the process
  • 41. • Batch process is preferable for mixed food products in number of packages sizes with a limited number of cases for any product style con make
  • 42. Continuous heat process • Continuous heat processing equipment can take the form of heat exchanger for pumped foods or material handling system that introduces indvidual packages into steam pressure chamber with mechanical valve system rotating pocket or hydrostatic legs of sufficient high pressure internal steam pressure of system . A hydrostatic cooker operating 121 C with gauge pressure 0.1 Mpa and 20m high hydrostatic inlet and outlet legs . This hight is needed a safety factor for water level in cooker • In this system 1000 food container /min can be cooked
  • 43. • Food is continuously heat sterilized and cooled in heat exchangers must be handled under aseptic conditions and filled aseptically in presterilized packages . • Microwave and induction heating allow particulate foods to be heated more rapidly and uniformly than conduction heating by conventional heat exchanger . All equipment used in food industry should be well sterilized
  • 44. • Food packaging is done at room temperature with help of car cans • Aseptic filling in which metal cans are used for packaging the food that are sterilized by steam while paper, foil ,plastic laminates are sterilized by hydrogen peroxide • Novel aseptic filling system designed for acid foods such as apple sauces and fruit juice uses as food grade organic and inorganic acid
  • 45. • For their filling they come in sterilized filling area so that microbes cannot enter in filling area where the food is filled in prestirilized packing in nitrogen and oxygen atmosphere they are sealed. • Aseptic packing is used in milk and sauces packing
  • 46. FREEZING PRESERVATION • The rate of loss of color, flavor, texture, and nutrients due to growth of microbes and activity of enzymes and other life form are all function of temperature • Thus lower temperature storage prolong the useful life of food. Below 0C the free water starts to form ice crystals. Ice crystal formation is function of moisture content ,solute composition and storage temperature fluctuation .
  • 47. • Super cooling can occurs during the freezing process . Food having high concentrations of solutes can behave as glassy materials in which water may exist in non crystalline state at freezing temperature to show diffusion and high soluble solid content • The condition needed for establishing and maintaining the glassy state in frozen food
  • 48. • Ice formation benefits are strengthen of food structure and removal of free moisture. Ice formation method is useful for plants cells,fruits and vegetable product to preserve food . Ice crystal formation cease the microbial growth partial dehydration of water in tissue . Ice crystal disrupt cell structure and increase the concentration of electrolytes denaturation of protein occur. Quality of protein loss occur for better it is boiled in hot water and deep freezing is effective for protein storage
  • 49. • Food is cooled at -18C ensure that maximum ice crystal formation .the rapid cooling is cause of small ice crystal which minimize the disruption of protein cell • Commercial frozen equipment can frozen at -18 to -24C shelf life for the product for these ate 1 year. Because at this temperature freezing reduces the enzyme activity • Inactive temperature for these food are 100C • This phenomena is known as freeze drying. • Fishes can be stored by this method
  • 50. • For deep freezing technique high heat velocity air is necessary about 5m/s at temperature - 40C . The air recycled through cooling coils and fans convey the air and returned. • The cold has lowered partial vapour pressure than hot food so by evaporation many of water carried by air . Later on vapor of water condense in cooling coil and exit from air. In this way air performing good heat transfer media for food
  • 51. • For rapid cooling high velocity of air and lower temperatue are required . The main heat transfer media during freezing is conduction • Some time liquid coolant is used as heat transfer media such as salt, alcohol, and esters that reduce pumping cost and help to permot high refrigeration , this method is for specific foods not for all such as turkey • Frozen product are packed in polyethylene packing
  • 52. • Crygonic freezing method uses liquid nitrogen or dry ice snow . For rapid chilling some time refrigerants are sprayed over hot product that cause of rapid cooling . Meat ,poultry, sea food store like these methods.
  • 53. Dehydration process • Dehydration of food one of the most oldest technique to save the food . Microbes are not grow below minimum water activity 0.65 • Water activity id defined as equilibrium relative humidity surrounding the food in sealed container at given temperature. Its means that no microbes grow if water activity in food is below 65% relative humidity at storage temperature in 0 -40C.
  • 54. • Each food or food ingredients show characteristic a equilibrium relative humidity at given moisture content and temperature moisture in food is considered 1 and reduces to 0.6 by means of drying . These product are are dried and soft . • The remaining water acts as plasticizer and can be preserved in vacuum ,refrigeration . • Baked products are prolongly saved by reducing water
  • 55. • Presence of sugar reduces the water activity can increase the microbial growth. Oil and seeds can prolong saved by reducing water activity up to 14%. Fresh food has water activity 97% which metabolic change during drying non enzymes , reduces ascorbic acid and amino acid reduces the sugar and maximum change occur during the drying • Drying of fruits is carried out by passing the SO2 over fruits which change the enzyme activity of fruits and dried food are packed in oxgene or vacuum atmosphere
  • 56. • Continuous hot dry air are used for vegetable , fruits , meat and poultry products • Hot air releases the moisture from the food • During the drying wet bulb temperature , dry bulb temperature, relative humidity , air velocity and direction of air movement is controlled • However drying has three zones and deep drying for food is avoided and controlled by wet and dry bulb temperature
  • 57. • Liquid and pastes are dried in spray , drum , or by freeze dryer. • Rehydration is done for dried food .also quality of product also important in rehydration , food should be fresh , eating quality either hot or cold • Freeze dried food such as sea food ,vegetable are useful for instant soup making and salad • Rice carrot potato ,cereal product are dried by fluidized bed
  • 58. Chemical preservation • Food additive or chemical addition is done for preservation by heat , refrigeration and drying methods • The addition of food grade acid to low grade acid food shift the PH to below 4.5 allows heat preservation at temperature 100 C • Antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisol can be added • SO2 is used in wine and dry fruits and vegetable product to preserve color ,taste ,
  • 59. • Food can be preserved by fermentation by selecting suitable yeast that produces lactic acid by yeast . • The production of ethanol ,lactic , and organic acid and antimicrobial agent in the food along with removal of fermentable sugar can yield a product of increased shelf life . Mild heating of foods acidified by fermentation and packaged to prevent further contamination for stable product
  • 60. • The fermentation is controlled by adding sodium chloride that increases the fermentation rate • Lactic acid production is associated with dairy products and producing antibiotic medicine are called bacteriocins . • Concentration of these antibiotics are increased by adding natural antibiotic in refrigerated food in extract form by fermentation process • Natural antibiotics are penicillium roqueforti • Roquefort and blue cheese are made by propioibacterbacterium which produces proponic acid and produces swiss type cheese
  • 61. Food packaging • Food package include rigid glass or metal container • Easily available moulds for paper and plastics • Aluminum and pouched die • Have potential to transport the food easily • Avoid non standard materials . • Proper marketing available for food packaging
  • 62. Foods( non conventional) • Non conventional food differs from the usually materials of plant and animals origin that are used for human food or animals feed in that they can produced from chemicals such as carbohydrate , hydrocarbons or industerial organic chemicals by process such microbiological , enzymatic or chemical synthysis or from natural products containing carbohydrate , proteins and fats and physical and chemical , enzyme modification
  • 63. Single cell protein • Two broad classes of micro organism are interested for single cell protein production photosynthetic organisms including the algae and certain bacteria, and non photosynthetic organism actinomycetes ,yeast ,fungi,
  • 64. 1. Photosynthetic organism • Mass cultivation of algae in ponds under photosynthetic conditions using incident sunlight as a energy source and CO2 as carbon source . Artificial illumination system are also used for cultivation of algae • These are used for food disposal plants and produced CO2 is used in carbonated bevrages • The main parameter are temperature, PH, nitrogen , phosphorous inorganic source
  • 65. • Algae is good source of food for animal and human feed . It is good source of amino acid and protein source • Dried alage are not acceptable by live stock .however dried algae is used in steam roasted barley
  • 66. 2. Non photosynthetic organism • Non photo-synthatic micro organisim for singular cell production of yeast ,molds , and higher fungai. • Carbon and energy source that have been considered for growing these organism include carbohydrates to produce alcoholic and organic acid from sugar ,starch , cellose
  • 67. Plant and animals derived • Leaf protein concentrates are prepared by crushing
  • 68. FOOD TOXICANTS • Toxicants are substance that , upon ingestion , produce changes in homeostasis that are thrating to the normal function of organism. • AflatoxinB1 cause of mycotoxin which is found in mouldy grain,nuts ,oilseeds ,raw egg • Oxalic acid found rhubarb reduce the calcium in calcium of body • Solanine found in potato, tomato and apple cause of glycoalkoaloid.
  • 69. Toxic proteins, peptides,amides and amino acids • Nitrogenous compounds are present in every living cell and are most frequently implicated natural toxicants in foods. • There mode of action is often obscure but they may be loosely grouped according to either gross manifestations or specific structural characteristics. • Some vitamins distroying the enzyme of body and cause of carcinogens of protien
  • 70. Thiocyanates and related s-containing compounds • Goitrogens are compounds that produce goiter by interfering with thyroxin synthesis in the thyroid gland . • Food-borne goitrogens are often characterized by the presence sulphur and most are thiocyanates or closely related compounds.
  • 71. Oxalates ,phytates and other chelates • Of nutrient chelates in human diet,oxalates and phytates are the most common . • Oxalic acid found in spanish, hubarb leaves, beet leves and mushrooms. • Defficency of phosphrous is done in body by using of excessive use of pythic acid that is found in oaths. Most of essential ammines found in bannana, tomato,pineapple
  • 72. Vasoactive and psychoactive amines and alkaloids • Most compounds producing hypertensive eposides are classifide as amines and found in greatest concentration in banana ,plantain tomato, avocado,pineapple broad beans , and various cheeses. • Caffeine ,a xanthine derivative , is perhaps the best known of the natural stimulants and is found in cofee beans tea leave and cola nuts.
  • 73. Antinutrients • Any substance that destroys , inactivates or in other ways renders unavalible an essential dietary constituent can be termed an antinutrient. • Some anti vitmins are enzymes, thiaminase,niacin, biotin
  • 74. Vitamin toxicity • Because fat soluble vitamins (e.g A and D) tend to accumulate in the body with a relatively inactive mechanism for excretion they cause greater toxicological difficulties then do water soluble vitamins. • Water soluble vitamins , overdose of nicotine,and folic acid cause of adverse effect on health
  • 75. Essential minerals and heavy trace elements • Toxic ingestion of essential minerals from naturally occurring foods is almost beyond comprehension .
  • 76. Cyanogenic glycosides • Complex glycosides, which upon hydrolysis yield hydrocyanic acid are found commonly among plant materials. • They are found in bitter almond pits stone fruits and lima beans .
  • 77. Nitrates , nitrites and nitrosamines • The carcinogenicity of nitrosamines has created widespread concern over the safety of food products that are significant sources of nitrates and nitrites .
  • 78. Sodium chloride • The fact that excessive intake of NACL contributes to increased fluid retention has led to the conclusion that they are may be relationship between NACL intake and hypertension.
  • 79. Mycotoxins • The condition produce by the consumption of moulds foods containing toxic material is referred to as mycotoxicosis . Moulds and fungi fall into this category.
  • 80. Seafood toxins • Several species of the moray eel have caused toxic reaction . The toxic principle appears to be proteinaceous , and is found predominantly in the blood but it may occur also in flesh as well.
  • 81. Food additives • A food additives as a substance or mixture of substance other then a basic foodstuff that is present in food as a result of any aspect of production processing, storage and packaging. • In most nations direct food additives legislation limite the use of a substance to maximum doses in specified foods and or subject to pre marketing approvals.
  • 82. Catagories • Deponding on the nation food ingredients and additives are describe in following 52 food additives catagories.
  • 83. Milk and milks products • Composition and properties milk consist of 85 – 89 wt % water and 11-15 wt% total solids. • The non fat solids, fat solids and moisture relationship are well established and can be used as basis for detecting adulteration with water . • Solid not fat found in milk 0.4% including proteins in milk but fats are 1%
  • 84. Nutritional contents • Milk fat is a mixture of triglycerides and diglycerides. • The triglycerides are short chains C24-C46 ,medium chain C34-C54,and long chain C40-C60. • Milk fat contains more fatty acids than vegetable fats. • Milk is an emulsion of fat in water (serum) stabilised by phospholipibs which are absorbed on the fat globules.
  • 85. Processing • The processing operation for fluid milk or manufactured milk products includes centrifugal sediment removal and cream seperation , pasteurisation and sterilisation and homogenisation and packaging , handling and storing .
  • 86. 1.Cooling • After removal from a cow by a mechanical milking machines usually at 35c the milk should be cool as rapidly as possible to 4.4c or below to maintain quality . • At this low temp this enzyme activity and growth of micro-organism are minimized . • A meter may be in the line to measure the quantity of milk for each cow. • On commercial scale milk from the cow is cooled and stored
  • 87. • Precaution is used during the milk cooling no air is mixed with milk. • Milk flow through pipes are made of steel(s.s) • Cleaning is most important factor during milk processing
  • 88. Centifugation • Centifugal devices includes clarifiers for removal of sediment and extraneous particulates , and separators for removal of fats from milk.seperation of fats is done by centrifuge • Bactofugation as a specialised process of clarification in which two high velocities centrifugal devises operate at 20000 rpm in series. • The first device removes 90 % of bacteria . • Second removes 90% of the remaining bacteria providing a 99% bacteria free product.
  • 89. Homogenisation • Homogenisation is done by mechanical means to make a homogenised milk. Fats from milk is separated in cream form • Milk that has been treated to insure the breakup of fat gloubes to such a extent that 48 hours at 7C is stored sothat no visible cream seperation occure in milk is called homodenised milk
  • 90. • Homogeniser or viscoliser are used for milk homogenisation. The milk is forced with high pressure throuh small opening by doing so globules are breaked by compressive and shearing force
  • 91. Pasteurisation • It is the process of heating milk to kill yeasts,moulds and pathogenic bacteria and most other bacteria and to inactive certain emzimes without greatly altering the flavour . • Pasteurisation may be carried out by batch or continuous flow process . • In batch process milk is heated at 63C - 71C • This is known as high temperature short time pasturization
  • 92. • For high temperature short time process 65 – 74C for 15second • In ultra high temperature milk is heated 87 - 240 for 1-2 second for both batch and continous process
  • 93. Batch holding • The milk is in the batch holding tanks is heated by a hot water spray on the tank liner a large diameter coil which circulates in the milk through which the hot water is pumped a flooded tank around which hot water or steam is circulated or by coils surrounding the liner through heating medium is pumped at high velocity .
  • 94. High temperature short time pasteurisers • The principal continuous flow process is the high temperature short time method . • The product is heated to at least 72 c and held at that temperature for not less than 15 sec .
  • 95. Cleaning systems • Both manual and automatic method of cleaning food processing equipment are used . • Even in a plant with advanced cleaning equipment some manual cleaning is involved .
  • 96. Cleaning in-place (CIP) systems • CIP system evolved from recirculating of cleaning solutions in pipelines and equipment of a highly automatic system with valves controls and timers . • In the early circulation system consider manual operation was required in assembly and disassembly of units. • Homogeniser and heat exchanger were cleaned manually or by a system of circulating solution.
  • 97. Manufactured product • Most of the milk production is used for manufactured products • Evaporated and condensed milk and dry milk is produced from milk 1.EVAPORATED MILK 2. CONDENSED MILK 3. SWEETENED CONDENSED MILK 4. CREAM 5. CHEESE 6.YOUGART
  • 98. EVAPORATED AND CONDENSEDMILK • Evaporated and condensed milk are produced by removing moisture from milk under vacuum followed by packaging and sterilizing In cans The milk is condensed to half its volume in single effect or multiple effect evaporators The products has a fats to solid not fat ratio is 1:2.3 and standardized before and after evaporation . It must have atleast 7.9% fats.and 25.9 of total milk solid
  • 99. SWEETENED CONDENSED MILK • Sweetened milk is different from condensed milk and not strirrlized . Sugar is added as a preservative which replaces sterilization as a means of maintaining quality . The equipment is similar to that used for evaporated milk except that sugar is added in hot well before condensing the liquid . According to standards ,sweet condensed milk must contain 8.5% fats minerals and 28% total milk solid inclide fat to snf 1:2.3. the product contain 43-45%
  • 100. CREAM • Cream is high fat product which is secured by gravity or mechanical separation through differential density of fats and serum . Fat content may range from 10-40% depend on use as per food laws. • Whipping cream has fat content of 34-40% for coffee • Light cream has fat content 20-25%. Half and half mixture of milk and cream contain10.5%milk fat, 10% eddible fats used as butter
  • 101. Cheese • Chease production is based on coagulation of casien from milk .with a minor milk protien . The casien is precipitated of milk by acidification which can be accomplished by natural source of milk.
  • 102. Yougurt • Yogurt is produced from fermented milk. Milk is fermented by lactobacillus bulgaricus and steptococus thermophilus organism producing lactic acid
  • 103. Poultry meat processing • The poultry production is also increased due to intensive agriculture system and increase the grain production • Poultry is the most efficient converter of grain and by products into meat with added of safe high productive • Poultry is good source of protine and little fats and high yield of moisture
  • 104. Manufacturing process • Poultry processing plant consist of two main processing zones . First processing zone consist of receiving , killing and defeathering units and second processing zone contain evisceration final processing and packing units. Separation of two zone is intended to facilitate sanitation by separating the inherently dirtier phases of processes from those involved in preparation of the final product.
  • 105. Poultry receiving Killing Scalding Washing Singeing Defeathering Pinning Eviscerating Washing Packing Cutting Chilling
  • 106. RECEIVING • Generally poultry meat processing plants are installed near poultry farms , poultry arrives at plant and convey to the shacking area . In shaking area poultry are shacked by their feet than it is transported to killing section.
  • 107. Killing • It is usually done manually . Many plants employ electric stunning prior to killing . This reduce struggling and also relaxes the feather papillac , thereby facilitating feather removal.
  • 108. Bleeding • After killing , blood comes approximately for 1.5 minutes . Incomplete bleeding cause discolouration of carcasses and consequent lowgrading .
  • 109. Scalding • It is done at 123-128F for 1.5-2 minutes commonly, it is sufficient to allow feather removal, yet the outer layer of skin on the carcass remain intact. Over scalding may lead to irregular removal of outer skin , causing an unattractive splotchy appearance.
  • 110. Defeathering • Defeathering of carcasses is completed in rotating drum. In the rotating drum carcasses are brought in contact with rubber finger, the feathers loosened by scalding are stripped away with little damage to skin.
  • 111. Singeing • After defeathering process all poultry contain some hair like feather which is removed by passing the carcass quickly through a flame .
  • 112. Washing • Spray washing is used to removed feather ,blood and other foreign materials from the outer skin of carcass.
  • 113. Pinning • Some times carcass contain developing feather that have just pierced the skin are removed manually by grasping protuding pin feather between the thumb and the edge of knife and giving a strong tugging motion . The carcass is transported to eviscerating room .
  • 114. Eviscerating • In the eviscerating process , first of all a vertical cut is made from the tip of the sternum to the vent , and with the vent still attached viscera and drawn out , but remain attached viscera is used for the postmortem inspection .
  • 115. Removal of varies parts • After inspection the liver and gizzard are removed and remaining viscera discarded .then lungs and kidney removed mechanically or by use of a strong vacuum aspirator . Head of bird is removed by using v shape knife . The skin is slit along the dorsal surface of neck to the shoulder .then skin is cut on the dorsal side to the shoulder and neck is cut or broken off at the shoulders manually.
  • 116. Washing • Carcasses are washed with cooled water to remove attached tissues , foreign materials, blood etc .
  • 117. Chilling • Chilling of carcasses is done to remove body heat and to protect from microbial action . Normally chilling is done below 40 F for 30 minutes.
  • 118. Packing • Sometime carcasses are cut into parts according to market demand , otherwise then are packed in frozen form .