Chapter02 Managing Hardware Devices


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Chapter02 Managing Hardware Devices

  1. 1. Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment Chapter 2: Managing Hardware Devices
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Understand the importance of managing hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the purpose of device drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Configure hardware resource settings and resolve resource setting conflicts </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Configure driver signing options </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize server processor and memory usage </li></ul><ul><li>Create and configure hardware profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Configure server power options </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction to Managing Hardware <ul><li>Managing and maintaining hardware is a primary responsibility of a network administrator </li></ul><ul><li>A wide variety of internal and external hardware components available </li></ul><ul><li>Key concepts to be discussed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device Manager </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Hardware Compatibility <ul><li>Server hardware must meet minimum system requirements for Windows Server 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft maintains information about compatible hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous Windows versions: Hardware Compatibility List </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003: Windows Server Catalog </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Windows Server Catalog Web Site
  7. 7. Understanding Device Drivers <ul><li>A device driver is a software interface between an operating system and a hardware device </li></ul><ul><li>Generally want to use the specific recommended driver for a device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects stability and performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Driver updates are frequent and usually available from manufacturer </li></ul><ul><li>Driver signing is used to verify that a driver has been tested </li></ul>
  8. 8. Device Manager <ul><li>Primary tool for managing device drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Allows administrator to view and modify hardware device properties </li></ul><ul><li>Should be used soon after Windows Server 2003 installation to verify device detection and functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible from Control Panel or Computer Management tool </li></ul>
  9. 9. Accessing Device Manager <ul><li>Control Panel  System  Hardware Tab </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Management  System Tools  Device Manager </li></ul>
  10. 10. Device Manager (continued) <ul><li>Displays non-functioning devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow exclamation point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Displays manually disabled devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red x </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allows you to update drivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Download driver and install through Device Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Hardware Update Wizard </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Hardware Update Wizard
  12. 12. Activity 2-1: Exploring Device Manager <ul><li>Objective is to explore the use of Device Manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>View properties of existing hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore different views of information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start  My Computer  Properties  Hardware Tab  Device Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Follow directions in book to complete exercise </li></ul>
  13. 13. Adding New Devices <ul><li>Two main categories of devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plug and Play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plug and Play devices typically installed and configured automatically </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy devices typically configured manually </li></ul>
  14. 14. Plug and Play Devices <ul><li>Windows Server 2003 is Plug and Play compliant </li></ul><ul><li>New hardware is usually Plug and Play </li></ul><ul><li>Installed devices detected automatically </li></ul><ul><li>Detected devices configured automatically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May need to locate or update device driver </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Activity 2-2: Installing a Plug and Play Hardware Device <ul><li>Objective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uninstall device using Device Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinstall using Add Hardware Wizard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start  Run, type devmgmt.msc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New method for accessing device manager </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Follow instructions in book to complete uninstall </li></ul><ul><li>Check uninstall completed </li></ul><ul><li>Reinstall using Add Hardware Wizard </li></ul>
  16. 16. Legacy Devices <ul><li>Many older devices not Plug and Play </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus devices not Plug and Play </li></ul><ul><li>May or may not be detected by Windows Server 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Typically must be configured manually </li></ul><ul><li>Add Hardware Wizard used to install and/or configure </li></ul>
  17. 17. Hardware Resource Settings <ul><li>Four main types of resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input/Output (I/O) ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory address ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupt request (IRQ) lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource settings configured from Resources tab of properties of hardware device in Device Manager </li></ul>
  18. 18. Hardware Resource Settings (continued) <ul><li>Manually configured resource settings may have conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Resource conflicts can cause device malfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts determined using Device Manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources tab for a device </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Resources Tab for Network Adapter Card <ul><li>Conflict list  </li></ul>
  20. 20. Direct Memory Access Channels <ul><li>Allow hardware devices to access system memory (RAM) directly </li></ul><ul><li>Information transfer bypasses CPU </li></ul><ul><li>Common devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard and floppy disk controllers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM drives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DMA channel used by a device can be determined from Device Manager </li></ul>
  21. 21. Input/Output Ranges <ul><li>Small dedicated memory areas </li></ul><ul><li>Allocated specifically for data transfer between computer and hardware device </li></ul><ul><li>Type of device dictates size of memory area </li></ul><ul><li>I/O ports can be determined from Device Manager </li></ul>
  22. 22. Interrupt Request Lines <ul><li>Used to gain attention of the system processor to handle some event </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, each device had dedicated line </li></ul><ul><li>Trend is toward sharing lines, Windows Server 2003 supports sharing among some Plug and Play devices </li></ul><ul><li>IRQ lines can be viewed and managed from Device Manager </li></ul>
  23. 23. Memory Addresses <ul><li>Used for communication between a hardware device and the operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Devices configured with dedicated, unique memory address ranges </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003 will automatically allocate memory addresses for Plug and Play devices </li></ul><ul><li>For legacy devices, address ranges usually specified in documentation </li></ul>
  24. 24. Activity 2-3: Viewing Resource Settings Using Device Manager <ul><li>Objective is to use Device Manager to explore hardware resource settings </li></ul><ul><li>Open Device Manager in one of the ways described in earlier activities </li></ul><ul><li>Observe the resources on a display adapter, keyboard, and communications port </li></ul><ul><li>Configure settings and observe properties on communications port according to explanation in book </li></ul>
  25. 25. Troubleshooting Resource Setting Conflicts <ul><li>Manual configuration of devices can lead to resource conflicts (overlaps and duplication of assignments) </li></ul><ul><li>Two methods for checking for resource conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources tab in properties of device using Device Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Information tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To open, type msinfo32.exe in Run command </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Troubleshooting Resource Setting Conflicts (continued) <ul><li>System Information tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting rather configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware Resources section displays summary info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts display conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced Hardware allows identification of manually configured devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Components displays resource settings plus driver info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Devices shows devices with known problems </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Viewing Problem Devices using the System Information tool
  28. 28. Configuring Device Driver Signing <ul><li>Every built-in driver in Windows Server 2003 is digitally signed by Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>Signing ensures compatibility, quality, authenticity, verified to work with hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Three possible driver signing verification options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignore: install any driver whether signed or not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warn: show warning if attempt is made to install unsigned driver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Block: don’t allow installation of unsigned driver </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Configuring Driver Signing Options
  30. 30. Activity 2-4: Configuring Driver Signing Options <ul><li>Objective is to explore and configure settings for device drivers using Device Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Start  My Computer  Properties  Hardware tab  Driver Signing </li></ul><ul><li>Explore help topics on driver signing </li></ul><ul><li>Complete assignment to explore and configure settings using Device Manager </li></ul>
  31. 31. Activity 2-5: Using the File Signature Verification Utility <ul><li>Objective is to use the File Signature Verification utility to ensure that all installed system files and device drivers have been digitally signed </li></ul><ul><li>Start  Run  sigverif.exe  Advanced  Logging </li></ul><ul><li>Scan files and log results following directions </li></ul><ul><li>View log </li></ul>
  32. 32. Advanced File Signature Verification Settings
  33. 33. Roll Back Driver Feature <ul><li>Common for vendors to release new or updated drivers for hardware devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fix known issues, take advantage of updated features </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Driver updates sometimes result in system stability problems </li></ul><ul><li>When update causes problems, roll back allows going back to a previous version </li></ul>
  34. 34. Activity 2-6: Using the Roll Back Driver Feature <ul><li>Objective is to use Roll Back Driver feature to return to a previous version of a device driver </li></ul><ul><li>Start  My Computer  Properties  Hardware  Device Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Follow directions to change to a new driver and then roll back to previous driver for display adapter </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Driver Tab in the Properties of a Display Adapter
  36. 36. Configuring Processor and Memory Settings <ul><li>Three basic areas to configure for optimal performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processor scheduling and memory usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory for network performance </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Processor Scheduling <ul><li>Allows you to configure how processor resources are allocated to programs </li></ul><ul><li>Default is Background services (all running applications receive equal processor time) </li></ul><ul><li>Can set to Programs (foreground application receives priority processor time) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Processor Scheduling (continued) <ul><li>Memory usage options used to configure amount of system memory allocated to executing programs versus other server functions </li></ul><ul><li>Default is System cache option </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer is acting as network server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Running programs that require considerable memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Programs option </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer is acting as workstation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Running programs at console </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Virtual Memory <ul><li>Disk storage used to expand RAM capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Slower than RAM </li></ul><ul><li>Uses paging technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocks (pages) of information moved from RAM to virtual memory on disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On Pentium, pages are 4KB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paged out when not in use, reloaded into RAM when needed </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Virtual Memory (continued) <ul><li>Area allocated is called paging file </li></ul><ul><li>Default amount allocated when operating system installed but should be tuned by administrator </li></ul><ul><li>Name of paging file is pagefile.sys </li></ul><ul><li>Location of paging file important </li></ul><ul><li>Two important parameters: initial and maximum size </li></ul>
  41. 41. Activity 2-7: Viewing and Configuring Virtual Memory Settings <ul><li>Objective is to explore and configure virtual memory settings </li></ul><ul><li>Move the paging file to a new drive </li></ul><ul><li>Start  My Computer  Properties  Advanced tab </li></ul><ul><li>Follow instructions to move the paging file </li></ul>
  42. 42. Memory for Network Performance <ul><li>Memory used for both server functions and network connectivity functions </li></ul><ul><li>Server functions use RAM and memory </li></ul><ul><li>Network connectivity uses only memory </li></ul><ul><li>If performance is poor, may need to tune network memory parameters </li></ul>
  43. 43. Configuring Server Memory for Network Optimization
  44. 44. Hardware Profiles <ul><li>Set of instructions defining which devices to start and drivers to load when computer starts </li></ul><ul><li>Profile 1 created when Windows Server 2003 installed, every device enabled </li></ul><ul><li>Portable computers change set of hardware device available at different times </li></ul><ul><li>Can create additional profiles to match situation </li></ul>
  45. 45. Activity 2-8: Creating a Hardware Profile <ul><li>Objective is to create a new hardware profile for a set of hardware devices </li></ul><ul><li>Start  My Computer  Properties  Hardware tab  Hardware Profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Follow directions to create a new profile with no CD-ROM drive or floppy drive </li></ul><ul><li>Test that devices are disabled when using new profile </li></ul>
  46. 46. Configuring Power Options <ul><li>Default power scheme is Always On (monitor off after 20 minutes, hard disks never off) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can select other predefined schemes or create custom scheme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standby mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Components shut down and memory is not written to disk (if power goes out, memory information is lost) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power supply and CPU remain active </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Configuring Power Options (continued) <ul><li>Hibernate mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory contents saved before shutting down disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can restart with previous applications running </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery backup device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best fault-tolerance method to prevent damage with power loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can only sustain power for a limited time </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Activity 2-9: Defining a Power Scheme <ul><li>Objective is to configure a new power scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Start  Control Panel  Power Options </li></ul><ul><li>Follow directions to create a power scheme to supplied specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Also explore configuring UPS (uninterruptible power supply) to provide battery backup for critical equipment </li></ul>
  49. 49. Summary <ul><li>Device drivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driver signing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driver roll back </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Device Manager tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary tool for device management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plug and play versus legacy devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installation and configuration </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Hardware Resource Settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input/Output (I/O) ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory address ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupt request (IRQ) lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processor Scheduling and Memory Usage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware Profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Power Options </li></ul>