Social Media Analytics
Wasim Ahmed (wahmed1@Sheffield.ac.uk)
(Twitter: @was3210)
Department for Work and Pensions
Social M...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
2
About me
• Second Year PhD student in the Health
Informatics Research Group, In...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
3
PhD Background
• PhD project examines infectious disease
outbreaks on Twitter (...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
4
Overview
• Part 1 – Outlines Twitter as a platform,
and the popularity of Twitt...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
5
Part 1
Part 1 of the seminar will outline:
• Twitter as a platform
• Popularity...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
6
Twitter
• Twitter allows brief <140 character text
updates, know as ‘tweets’, t...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
7
Popularity of Twitter
• Twitter is the most popular platform in regards
to acad...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
8
Popularity of Twitter
• Twitter is a popular platform in terms of the
media att...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
9
Popularity of Twitter
• Twitter has hashtags which make it easier
gathering, so...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
10
Popularity of Twitter
• The Twitter API is more open and accessible
compared t...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
11
Why are these applications
important?
• When it became clear that Twitter was
...
Toyota
• Toyota had to recall a number of its cars in
2009 and 2010 due to a serious safety
fault which resulted in the de...
• As soon as the recall crisis start getting
media attention Toyota quickly put
together an ‘Online Newsroom’ and a
‘Socia...
Sony PlayStation Network
• In mid-April 2011 the Playstation Network was
suddenly shut down without explanation
• Frustrat...
Sony PlayStation Network
• The lack of regular updates and
information from Sony served to incense
users
• Users struggled...
• “I think It is pretty disgusting that Sony have waiting 7
days to tell users that their Credit Card details may have
bee...
Toyota
• While there was still anger and negative
viewpoints shared through social media
services,
• Company was able to m...
Brand Management
• The two cases have highlighted brands
need to know how they are being
mentioned across social media pro...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
19
API
• An API in simple terms is a set of requirements which
dictate how one ap...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
20
Different types of API
• Application Programming Interface: Three types of
Twi...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
21
Different types of API
• Application Programming Interface: Three types of
Twi...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
22
Different types of API
• Application Programming Interface: Three types of
Twi...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
23
Legality
• Sharing Twitter datasets is prohibited under
Twitter’s terms and co...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
24
Examples of Methods Used to
Analyse Twitter Data
• Sentiment analysis has the ...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
25
Types of Analysis
• Time series analysis can be used to
examine tweets overtim...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
26
See Example of DWP
Types of Analysis
• Network analysis is used to visualize the
connections between users and visually
display the connectio...
Types of Analysis
• Machine Learning
• Example: Manually coding a subset of
data e.g., 100 tweets in a dataset of a
1,000 ...
Types of Analysis
• Content Analysis/Thematic Analysis
• Example: Manually placing tweets into
predefined categories and/o...
Part 2
• Part 2 of the seminar will provide an
overview of some of the most popular
social media analysis and analytical
s...
Visibrain
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
31
Visibrain
• Visibrain is a powerful media monitoring
tool which has access to the Twitter
Firehose
• Therefore, it is not ...
Visibrain
• Explore and filter tweets, links, users,
hashtags, expressions, mentions,
countries, languages, genders,
audie...
Possible uses
• Security teams, organisations, and/or
government
• For example you could monitor
Twitter/social media for ...
Visibrain
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
35
Visibrain
• Receive reports produced and delivered
almost instantly displaying tweet content,
actors, URLS, and so forth.
...
Visibrain
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
37
Echosec
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
38
Echosec
• Many citizens now carry mobile devices
connected to the Internet capable of
taking video and pictures
• Emerging...
Echosec
• For example, those whom are affected by
a flood may post information and media
with location information such as...
Echosec
• Echosec has removed the difficulty of
identifying relevant content by providing
the ability to search for locati...
Echosec
• Echosec allows you to navigate to almost
any location in the world and examine the
social media activity around ...
Possible uses of Echosec
• Crisis events:
• Floods
• Earthquakes
• Situational awareness:
• Concerts
• Sports events
• Sec...
Possible uses of Echosec
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
44
• Geographically searching social media
data in an ar...
Possible Use Case
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
45
• Security services e.g., NSA examining
content shared from ...
Dashboard layout of Echosec
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
46
NodeXL
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
47
NodeXL
• Social media analysis that looks at the
structure of networks
• Produces analytics such as most
frequently occurr...
NodeXL
• Social media analysis that looks at the
structure of networks
• Produces analytics such as most
frequently occurr...
NodeXL
• Essentially NodeXL allows you to take
pictures of crowds
• Graph Gallery – a “Flickr for network
graphs” – Marc S...
NodeXL
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
51
NodeXL – 6 types of network structures
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
52
NodeXL – 6 types of network
structures
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
53
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
54
NodeXL
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
55
NodeXL interactive graph
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
56
NodeXL G1
MP for Ashford. Secretary
of State for Work and
Pensions.
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
57
NodeXL G2
DWP Twitter account
NodeXL
• [640] Words in Sentiment List#1: Positive
• [1544] Words in Sentiment List#2: Negative
• [4] Words in Sentiment L...
NodeXL
• Top Word Pairs in Tweet in Entire Graph:
[325] phone,lines
[319] lines,dwp
[214] scrap,rip
[196] rip,phone
[169] ...
NodeXL
• [160] Social Security Advisory Committee, Telephony in DWP and HMRC:
an update
https://www.gov.uk/government/uplo...
NodeXL
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
61
• Although the graph gallery contains a
number of network graphs from T...
DiscoverText
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
62
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
63
DiscoverText
• Useful for machine learning, de-
duplication, and collaboration...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
64
DiscoverText
• University of Sheffield Project
• Analysed the mentions of the ...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
65
Conclusion
• There is no best social media analytics or
analysis software – ea...
05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield
66
Questions?
To
Discover
And
Understand.
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Social Media Analytics Department For Work and Pensions Research Seminar

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A set of slides for a talk provided to the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) Government Offices in London, August 4th 2016. No social media data was captured and/or analysed by myself in the production of the slides.

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Social Media Analytics Department For Work and Pensions Research Seminar

  1. 1. Social Media Analytics Wasim Ahmed (wahmed1@Sheffield.ac.uk) (Twitter: @was3210) Department for Work and Pensions Social Media Research Seminars. 4th August 2016, London.
  2. 2. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 2 About me • Second Year PhD student in the Health Informatics Research Group, Information School, University of Sheffield. • Research Associate (Social Media Specialist), Management School, University of Sheffield. • Visibrain Blog Partner, Connected Action Partner, Echosec Advisor, SMRF Member, and NSMNSS member.
  3. 3. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 3 PhD Background • PhD project examines infectious disease outbreaks on Twitter (Ebola and Swine Flu). • PhD contains a chapter on tools, methods and software of capturing and analysing Twitter data. • Published articles on social media software on my research blog, on the LSE Impact blog, and for the MmIT journal.
  4. 4. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 4 Overview • Part 1 – Outlines Twitter as a platform, and the popularity of Twitter research, and some methods of analysis. • Part 2 – Examines tools available for real time social media analysis.
  5. 5. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 5 Part 1 Part 1 of the seminar will outline: • Twitter as a platform • Popularity of Twitter • Brand Awareness • Methods of analysis
  6. 6. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 6 Twitter • Twitter allows brief <140 character text updates, know as ‘tweets’, to be shared with other users as well as images, videos, and links. • Tweets can contain thoughts, feelings, activities, and opinions (Chew and Eysenbach, 2010).
  7. 7. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 7 Popularity of Twitter • Twitter is the most popular platform in regards to academic research and for companies producing social media analytics. • Why is Twitter so popular?
  8. 8. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 8 Popularity of Twitter • Twitter is a popular platform in terms of the media attention it receives and it therefore attracts more research due to its cultural status. • Twitter makes it easier to find and follow conversations (i.e., by both its search feature and by tweets appearing in Google search results).
  9. 9. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 9 Popularity of Twitter • Twitter has hashtags which make it easier gathering, sorting, and expanding searches when collecting data. • Therefore Twitter data is easy to retrieve as major incidents, news stories and events on Twitter tend to be centred around a hashtag. e.g..#Brexit
  10. 10. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 10 Popularity of Twitter • The Twitter API is more open and accessible compared to other social media platforms, which makes Twitter more favourable to developers creating tools to access data. This consequently increases the availability of tools to researchers. • Many researchers themselves are using Twitter and because of their favourable personal experiences, they feel more comfortable with researching a familiar platform.
  11. 11. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 11 Why are these applications important? • When it became clear that Twitter was becoming an important social networking site and public communication platform a number of businesses and social media marketing professionals attempted to exploit the platform for commercial purposes
  12. 12. Toyota • Toyota had to recall a number of its cars in 2009 and 2010 due to a serious safety fault which resulted in the deaths of over 50 people 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 12
  13. 13. • As soon as the recall crisis start getting media attention Toyota quickly put together an ‘Online Newsroom’ and a ‘Social Media Strategy Team’ to coordinate all the media releases 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 13 Toyota
  14. 14. Sony PlayStation Network • In mid-April 2011 the Playstation Network was suddenly shut down without explanation • Frustrations quickly spread through social media sites such as Twitter as gamers around the world voiced their annoyance at not being able to access their online games 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 14
  15. 15. Sony PlayStation Network • The lack of regular updates and information from Sony served to incense users • Users struggled to determine what was fact and what was rumour on Twitter 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 15
  16. 16. • “I think It is pretty disgusting that Sony have waiting 7 days to tell users that their Credit Card details may have been compromised”. • “I bet the hacker will get emails out quicker than Sony!” 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 16 Sony PlayStation Network
  17. 17. Toyota • While there was still anger and negative viewpoints shared through social media services, • Company was able to minimise their impact by eliminating confusion and keeping the consumer base regularly informed of developments 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 17
  18. 18. Brand Management • The two cases have highlighted brands need to know how they are being mentioned across social media profiles • Social Media Analytics is now a huge market 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 18
  19. 19. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 19 API • An API in simple terms is a set of requirements which dictate how one application may talk to another • On the web APIs allow services such as Google maps or Facebook let other application ‘piggyback’ on their services • APIs allow outside programs to access specific sets of features thus saving developers time and resources i.e., accessing data See http://readwrite.com/2013/09/19/api-defined/
  20. 20. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 20 Different types of API • Application Programming Interface: Three types of Twitter API i) Search, ii) Stream, and iii) Firehose • i) Twitter’s Search API – similar to the search function in Twitter. It is focused on relevance and not completeness, some tweets and users may be missing from results (possible to go back in time 7 days from the query date up to 3200 queries)
  21. 21. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 21 Different types of API • Application Programming Interface: Three types of Twitter API i) Search, ii) Stream, and iii) Firehose • ii) Twitter’s Streaming API – Streaming APIs give developers low latency access to Twitter’s global stream of tweet data (a type of ‘live’ stream)
  22. 22. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 22 Different types of API • Application Programming Interface: Three types of Twitter API i) Search, ii) Stream, and iii) Firehose • iii) Firehose API – in theory, 100% of Twitter data (most software allows up to 30 days worth of historical tweets)
  23. 23. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 23 Legality • Sharing Twitter datasets is prohibited under Twitter’s terms and conditions see: https://dev.twitter.com/overview/terms/agreeme nt-and-policy • However, sharing Tweet IDs (to look up the tweets that are used is permissible).
  24. 24. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 24 Examples of Methods Used to Analyse Twitter Data • Sentiment analysis has the potential to work well with Twitter data, as tweets are short (i.e., <=140 characters) • However, sarcasm is difficult to detect within tweets. • See the SentiStrength algorithm (http://sentistrength.wlv.ac.uk/)
  25. 25. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 25 Types of Analysis • Time series analysis can be used to examine tweets overtime and to see when a peak in tweets may occur or have occurred.
  26. 26. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 26 See Example of DWP
  27. 27. Types of Analysis • Network analysis is used to visualize the connections between users and visually display the connections • Network analysis can also be used to cluster Twitter users into different groups 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 27
  28. 28. Types of Analysis • Machine Learning • Example: Manually coding a subset of data e.g., 100 tweets in a dataset of a 1,000 where the algorithm will automatically classify the remaining data. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 28
  29. 29. Types of Analysis • Content Analysis/Thematic Analysis • Example: Manually placing tweets into predefined categories and/or exploring tweets and developing categories. • Use Microsoft Excel/NVivo 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 29
  30. 30. Part 2 • Part 2 of the seminar will provide an overview of some of the most popular social media analysis and analytical software available to the public. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 30
  31. 31. Visibrain 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 31
  32. 32. Visibrain • Visibrain is a powerful media monitoring tool which has access to the Twitter Firehose • Therefore, it is not limited in the amount that can be retrieved unlike the Search and Stream APIs. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 32
  33. 33. Visibrain • Explore and filter tweets, links, users, hashtags, expressions, mentions, countries, languages, genders, audiences, occupations, interests, client types, content types, and domains. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 33
  34. 34. Possible uses • Security teams, organisations, and/or government • For example you could monitor Twitter/social media for mention of a bank and a hacking group and/or a city and ‘attack’ • If triggered you would receive an alert 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 34
  35. 35. Visibrain 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 35
  36. 36. Visibrain • Receive reports produced and delivered almost instantly displaying tweet content, actors, URLS, and so forth. • Possible to receive these alerts via email to almost any location in the world. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 36
  37. 37. Visibrain 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 37
  38. 38. Echosec 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 38
  39. 39. Echosec • Many citizens now carry mobile devices connected to the Internet capable of taking video and pictures • Emerging news stories of crisis events may be reported on social media before reported anywhere else. These posts may contain location information. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 39
  40. 40. Echosec • For example, those whom are affected by a flood may post information and media with location information such as video or pictures to social media which can then be utilized by the emergency services 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 40
  41. 41. Echosec • Echosec has removed the difficulty of identifying relevant content by providing the ability to search for locations as well as content 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 41
  42. 42. Echosec • Echosec allows you to navigate to almost any location in the world and examine the social media activity around that area • Currently Echosec Pro allows users to access at least the following social data feeds: Instagram, Twitter, Foursquare, AIS Shipping, Sina Weibo, Flickr, YouTube, VK, and Panoramio 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 42
  43. 43. Possible uses of Echosec • Crisis events: • Floods • Earthquakes • Situational awareness: • Concerts • Sports events • Security Teams: • Government security teams/ Local Authorities • Private Investigators 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 43
  44. 44. Possible uses of Echosec 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 44 • Geographically searching social media data in an area can show you what you are looking for in an emergency • Can examine locations of affected areas and see where people have stopped posting from
  45. 45. Possible Use Case 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 45 • Security services e.g., NSA examining content shared from building premises for security breaches • Echosec has found cases of employees working within secure buildings to be taking selfies with their ID badges
  46. 46. Dashboard layout of Echosec 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 46
  47. 47. NodeXL 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 47
  48. 48. NodeXL • Social media analysis that looks at the structure of networks • Produces analytics such as most frequently occurring URLs, domains, hashtags, keywords, overall and by group level. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 48
  49. 49. NodeXL • Social media analysis that looks at the structure of networks • Produces analytics such as most frequently occurring URLs, domains, hashtags, keywords, overall and by group level. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 49
  50. 50. NodeXL • Essentially NodeXL allows you to take pictures of crowds • Graph Gallery – a “Flickr for network graphs” – Marc Smith (Social Media research foundation) • DWP network graph by Connected Action Consulting Group 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 50
  51. 51. NodeXL 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 51
  52. 52. NodeXL – 6 types of network structures 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 52
  53. 53. NodeXL – 6 types of network structures 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 53
  54. 54. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 54 NodeXL
  55. 55. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 55 NodeXL interactive graph
  56. 56. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 56 NodeXL G1 MP for Ashford. Secretary of State for Work and Pensions.
  57. 57. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 57 NodeXL G2 DWP Twitter account
  58. 58. NodeXL • [640] Words in Sentiment List#1: Positive • [1544] Words in Sentiment List#2: Negative • [4] Words in Sentiment List#3: Angry/Violent 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 58
  59. 59. NodeXL • Top Word Pairs in Tweet in Entire Graph: [325] phone,lines [319] lines,dwp [214] scrap,rip [196] rip,phone [169] expensive,phone [169] ministry,labour [159] calls,dwp [139] scrap,dwp [137] dwp,minister [128] new,dwp 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 59
  60. 60. NodeXL • [160] Social Security Advisory Committee, Telephony in DWP and HMRC: an update https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/5 38834/telephony-in-dwp-and-hmrc-an-update-op17.pdf • [68] Benefit sanctions handed out to thousands of people ‘unlawful’ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/dwp-defeated-in-court-again- over-unlawful-retroactive-benefit-sanctions-a7006466.html • [32] Make all calls to the department for work and pensions free https://you.38degrees.org.uk/petitions/make-ian-duncan-smith-make-all-phone- communication-free?bucket=blast&source=twitter-share-button • [27] Owen Smith vows to scrap the DWP as ‘cold-eyed revolution’ in Labour leadership speech http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/owen-smith- labour-leadership-revolution-8502537 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 60
  61. 61. NodeXL 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 61 • Although the graph gallery contains a number of network graphs from Twitter - it is possible to import networks from other social media platforms such as Facebook and Instagram
  62. 62. DiscoverText 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 62
  63. 63. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 63 DiscoverText • Useful for machine learning, de- duplication, and collaboration. • Used with Sifter, it is possible to retrieve data going back in time more than 30 days • Data cost will range from not that expensive to very expensive depending on the query and time
  64. 64. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 64 DiscoverText • University of Sheffield Project • Analysed the mentions of the University over a 1 year period and classified tweets • Better understand who engages with the University on Twitter
  65. 65. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 65 Conclusion • There is no best social media analytics or analysis software – each offers something different. • I tend to use a number of software in combination to gain the best insight. • Thanks for listening.
  66. 66. 05/08/2016 © The University of Sheffield 66 Questions?
  67. 67. To Discover And Understand.

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