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Modern gas-fueled power generation

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Learn about the possibilities created by using modern gas-fueled on-site generation for both backup and primary power supply for data centers. Solution in collaboration with Schneider Electric.

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Modern gas-fueled power generation

  1. 1. IN DATA CENTER CRITICAL APPLICATIONS
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. The future of data centers – why gas technology? 3. Development of gas engine technologies for data centers 4. Optimal solutions for electrical design 5. Gas-powered energy centers creates revenue
  3. 3. THE FUTURE OF DATA CENTERS – WHY GAS TECHNOLOGY? 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä3
  4. 4. AN INCREASE IN DATA CENTER ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND NEW SUSTAINABILITY REQUIREMENTS MEAN THAT DATA CENTER OWNERS NEED TO ACT NOW. Gas-fueled power generation is a cost-effective, highly efficient, and sustainable choice for forward- thinking data center owners.
  5. 5. NATURAL GAS – THE CLEANEST OF ALL FOSSIL FUELS GAS-FUELED POWER GENERATION IS CLEANER THAN THE GRID 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Coal power plant Diesel oil plant Natural gas plant U.S. average grid power EU grid power (average) CO2 Emissions (kg/MWh) GAS – A CLEANER FUEL 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä5
  6. 6. GAS – A CLEANER FUEL NATURAL GAS – THE CLEANEST OF ALL FOSSIL FUELS 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 NOx Diesel oil Natural gas 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 SOx PM Diesel oil Natural gas NOx emissions (g/kWh) SOx & PM emissions (g/kWh) May be reduced further with SCR technology 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä6
  7. 7. A CHOICE FOR YOUR NEXT DATA CENTER GAS-FUELED POWER GENERATION Eliminates “dead assets” from the data center with the ability to tie into the grid Reduces environmental footprint with cleaner burning natural gas Enables a data center where no grid is available through self- generation 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä7
  8. 8. DEVELOPMENT OF GAS ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES FOR DATA CENTERS 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä8
  9. 9. GAS ENGINE ENERGY CENTERS
  10. 10. • Medium speed engines (720 rpm for 60 Hz) • Medium voltage generators • Multi-megawatt outputs (typically 5…10 MW) • High efficiency GAS ENGINES FOR DATA CENTERS GENERAL TECHNOLOGY FEATURES • Ready to load in 15 seconds • Start-up time to full power < 1 minute • Block loads of 25% of nominal capacity • Capable of full load rejection 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä10
  11. 11. RELIABLE AND FAST START-UP Engines start with an injection of compressed air into cylinders (no electrical starters) Each engine has its own dedicated compressed air storage Faster start-up enabled by: • Optimal combustion chamber design • Improved mixture control • Air assist system to cover the “turbo lag” SPEEDING UP A GAS ENGINE Plains End Power Station, Colorado. Starts up to a thousand times per year backing up wind power generation – in operation since 2001. 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä11
  12. 12. KEEPING GAS UNDER CONTROL THE CHALLENGE OF CONTROL Rapid load changes require extremely fast combustion control with individual cylinder- specific fuel injection BMEP(bar) Air / Fuel ratio Thermalefficiency(%) Noxemissions(g/kWh) Optimum performance for all cylinders 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä12
  13. 13. SPARK-IGNITED GAS ENGINE • Otto Process • Ignition by spark • Electronically-controlled fuel injection to inlet ducts of individual cylinders • Prechamber with richer mixture • Short control loop enabling accurate mixture control WORKING PRINCIPLES 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä13
  14. 14. SPEEDING UP A GAS ENGINE FAST STEP LOAD START RESULTS FROM THE BERMEO ENGINE TEST FACILITY 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä14
  15. 15. SPEEDING UP A GAS ENGINE FAST STEP LOAD START RESULTS FROM THE BERMEO ENGINE TEST FACILITY 2017426.M3.5 – Load steps of 1550kW plotted on ITIC curve 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä15
  16. 16. LNG storage with truck unloading and regasification systems ON-SITE LNG STORAGE • Prefabricated steel bullet tanks • Integrated regasification station • LNG supply by trucks, barges or railroad • Technology proven on land and sea Standardized modular solutions for LNG truck unloading, LNG storage, and regasification, which are fully integrated to the energy center LNG-TO-POWER SOLUTIONS FOR DATA CENTERS 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä16
  17. 17. OPTIMAL SOLUTIONS FOR ELECTRICAL DESIGN 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä17
  18. 18. STAND-BY DIESEL GENERATOR PLANT GAS POWER AS MAIN SOURCE MOVING FROM ACTUAL SOLUTION TO ON-SITE PROPER GENERATION Impacts on the plant design Needed redundancy G G LV MV Mechanichal Load IT Load Office/Building Load Data Center Building Utility /Grid LV MV G MV MV G Mechanichal Load IT Load Office/Building Load Data Center Building 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä19
  19. 19. Generation set reliability • Redundancy A SUFFICIENT RELIABILITY/AVAILABILITY LEVEL SUITABLE FOR DATA CENTER APPLICATION # of Gens Availability MTBF N+3 99.99992% 557 N+2 99.99173% 10 N+2 and18MVA Grid back-up 99,99999% 3060 N+2 and10MVA Grid back-up 99.99993% 715 All common parts and auxiliaries are designed without SPOF (single point of failure) : 2N redundancy Gas piping and pressure reduction system Electrical Distribution SCR (Agent Reduction Unit) Control Unit Gas Storage system Set of N Engines Generator Unit Generator/Alternator Auxialiry Systems Cooling Instrument Air Starting air unit Exhaust Gas unit Control unit … Generator Unit Generator Unit Generator Unit Power Plant common Systems 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä20
  20. 20. Block1 IT load MV Secondary Dist. SWG A MV Secondary Dist. SWG B 5 mins 5 mins Reliability target BUILD A FAULT TOLERANT AND CONCURRENTLY MAINTAINABLE Unexpected Event in Data Center “Power blackout of the servers during more than 20 ms” At MV (medium voltage) Level “Power blackout of both redundant medium voltage feeder during more than 5 min” Target Availability : > 99.999% Unavailability < 5 minutes per year 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä21
  21. 21. PROPOSED ARCHITECTURE FOR A 50MW+ DATA CENTER Design choices with 10 MW, 15 kV Generator units: One Voltage level 15kV (no transformer needed). Number of generators in parallel ELECTRICAL DESIGN EG EG EGEG EG The IEC MV circuit breakers standard defines the following characteristics for the breaking capacity: Short circuit calculation: I sym I peak %I DC(t=55ms) 25kA 62kÅ 30% 31.5kA 80kÅ 30% 40kA 100kÅ 30% NB of gens I peak (kA) I sym (kA) 1 9.95 3.9 6 59.7 23.5 <25kA 8 79.6 31.3 <31.5kA 10 99.49 39.2 <40kA Cost effective IEC design: 8 Units in parallel , 70MW site 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä23
  22. 22. PROPOSED ARCHITECTURE FOR A 50MW+ DATA CENTER 67 MW X-large site • 4 Buildings (blocs)/ 4 Floors each • 54000 sqft x4 • 4 steps of 17.5 MW • 2N redundancy at MV level • MV Grid connection for 1 block as an option ELECTRICAL DESIGN Block1 Block4 Block3 Block4 Mechanichal Load IT load 1250A, 15kV MV Secondary Dist. SWG A MV Secondary Dist. SWG B G LV MV LV MV (7+3)x 12MVA units Genset SWG GG LV MV LV MV (7+2)x 12MVA units ATS Mechanichal Load IT load ATS Genset SWG Block1 1250A, 15kV 1250A, 15kV MV Secondary Dist. SWG A MV Secondary Dist. SWG B Block4 Block3 Block4 KWh MV 18MVA Utility A Back up for Block1 G 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä24
  23. 23. DOUBLE-FED ARCHITECTURE WITH AUTOMATIC RE-CONFIGURATION CLOSE RING TOPOLOGY MV DISTRIBUTION ARCHITECTURE : FAULT TOLERANT Voltage transformer Current transformer ATS Automatic Transfer System Normally opened circuit breaker NO Switching device (could be disconnector, switch or circuit breaker) Normally opened switching deviceNO Mechanical or electrical interlock Powered paths Path BPath A BackupMain G1 Auto. Transfer NO G2 NO G3 NO G4 NO NO NONO NO Auto. Transfer Auto. Transfer Auto. Transfer Loadbank Loadbank ATS ATS G G G G G1 G2 G3 G4 Path A NO Path B NO G G G G • Higher capex • Need complex automatic reconfiguration in case of MV(medium voltage) failure • Cost optimized: Reduce the amount of MV products • In case of MV failure, automatic disconnection by MV protections 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä25
  24. 24. Data Center Building 4 17.5 MW Data Center Building 3 17.5 MW Data Center Building 2 17.5 MW Data Center Building 1 17.5 MW Generator power plant – units (7+2 redundancy) MV substation A3 - 15 kV MV substation B3 - 15 kV MV substation A1 - 15 kV Gas generator 1 10MW unit 15 kV Gas generator 2 10MW unit 15 kV Gas generator 4 10MW unit 15 kV Gas generator 5 10MW unit 15 kV Gas generator 6 10MW unit 15 kV Gas generator 7 10MW unit 15 kV Gas generator 8 10MW unit 15 kV Gas generator 9 10MW unit 15 kV Gas generator 3 10MW unit 15 kV MV substation B1 - 15 kV Gen4 SWB 15 kV, Icu 31,5kA Incomer 1250 A Ring feeder 2500 A Load feeder 1250 A Gen5 SWB 15 kV, Icu 31,5kA Incomer 1250 A Ring feeder 2500 A Load feeder 1250 A Gen1 SWB 15 kV, Icu 31,5kA Incomer 1250 A Ring feeder 2500 A Load feeder 1250 A Gen2 SWB 15 kV, Icu 31,5kA Incomer 1250 A Ring feeder 2500 A Load feeder 1250 A Gen3 SWB 15 kV, Icu 31,5kA Incomer 1250 A Ring feeder 2500 A Load feeder 1250 A Power plant auxiliary A Power plant auxiliary B Gen6 SWB 15 kV, Icu 31,5kA Incomer 1250 A Ring feeder 2500 A Load feeder 1250 A Gen7 SWB 15 kV, Icu 31,5kA Incomer 1250 A Ring feeder 2500 A Load feeder 1250 A Gen8 SWB 15 kV, Icu 31,5kA Incomer 1250 A Ring feeder 2500 A Load feeder 1250 A Gen9 SWB 15 kV, Icu 31,5kA Incomer 1250 A Ring feeder 2500 A Load feeder 1250 A MV grid connection substation 15kV 1.5 MVA 0.4kV 15kV 1.5 MVA 0.4kV MV 18 MVA 15 kV MV substation A2 - 15 kV MV substation B2 - 15 kV MV substation A4 - 15 kV MV substation B4 - 15 kV FAULT TOLERANT DESIGN: CLOSE LOOP RING TOPOLOGY Pros No control system required Less medium voltage cubicles Fault tolerant Cons Zone protection system RING TOPOLOGY 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä26
  25. 25. PROTECTION SYSTEM Reliability constraints: • Differential protection is required • ANSI 87G (generator) • ANSI 87 L (line) • ANSI 87 B (busbar) • Fault isolated • Continuity of service provided G1 EG 87B G2 87B G8 87B Path A NO Path B NO 87L 87L 87L G9 87B 87L 87L 87L EG EG EG G1 EG 87B G2 87B G8 87B Path A NO Path B NO 87L 87L 87L G9 87B 87L 87L 87L EG EG EG G1 EG 87B G2 87B G8 87B Path A NO Path B NO 87L 87L 87L G9 87B 87L 87L 87L EG EG EG TRIPTRIP TRIP 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä27
  26. 26. STANDARD ARCHITECTURE GAS ENGINE ARCHITECTURE COMPARISON WITH A STANDARD DESIGN G LV MV LV MV (7+2)x 12MVA units ATS Mechanichal Load IT load ATS Genset SWG Block1 1250A, 15kV 1250A, 15kV MV Secondary Dist. SWG A MV Secondary Dist. SWG B Block4 Block3 Block4 KWh MV 18MVA Utility A Back up for Block1 G G G LV MV LV MV 11x 2500 kVA units ATS Mechanichal Load IT load ATS Genset SWG Block1 1250A, <15kV 1250A, <15kV 1250A, <15kV MV Secondary Dist. SWG A MV Secondary Dist. SWG B KWh HV MV HV MV HV MV HV MV MV Primary Dist. SWG A1 MV Primary Dist. SWG A2 MV Primary Dist. SWG B1 MV Primary Dist. SWG B2 38MVA 38MVA 38MVA 38MVA 2500A <15kV 2500A, <15kV 2500A, <15kV KWh Utility A Utility B Block4 Block3 Block4 2500A, <15kV Path A 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä28
  27. 27. • Unexpected event “loss of A and B MV block n°2 switchboard” • Failure rates extracted from field experience from Wartsila and Schneider Electric • After a failure, the maintenance times are set according to • detection time, • diagnostic time, • spare delivery time • repair time • All planned maintenance operations have been taken into account MTBF (yr) Availability (%) Gas Engine design 587 99.99922 Standard case (N+1 Diesel) 174 99.99966 Standard case (N+1) Diesel 2024 99.99992 ASSUMPTIONS FOR RELIABILITY RELIABILITY COMPARISON 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä29
  28. 28. TCO, GAS PLANT, DISCOUNTED TCO, GRID+DIESEL PLANT, DISCOUNTED TCO COMPARISON 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 MUSD MEUR Years CAPEX OPEX Power Purchase 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 MUSD MEUR Years CAPEX OPEX Power Purchase 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä30
  29. 29. TCO COMPARISON, DISCOUNTED CASH FLOWS 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 MUSD MEUR Gas Plant Grid + Diesel Plant TCO comparison, discounted TCO COMPARISON 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä31 YEARS
  30. 30. GAS-POWERED ENERGY CENTERS CREATES REVENUE 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä32
  31. 31. GAS-POWERED DATA CENTER – BUSINESS MODELS Data center with gas power generation (inside or outside the fence) Engine power plant operates as the primary source of power, designed with required redundancy Excess electrical capacity may be sold to the local electricity market as additional revenue stream Site Fence Data center Backup Power Excess capacity sold to the market 1 2 3 Local Electricity Market (ERCOT, SPP, etc) Site Fence Data center Gas power plant Primary power supply + Emergency power 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä33
  32. 32. THE CASE FOR NATURAL GAS… MAIN BENEFITS OF GAS FOR LARGE DATA CENTERS GAS ENGINE DIESEL ENGINE THE ADVANTAGES Lower NOx and CO2 emissions Higher emissions, especially NOx and SOx Larger power output (5-10MW) Smaller power output (2-3MW) Larger capacity units ideal for 100MW+ deployments 720 rpm rotational speed 1800 rpm rotational speed Less maintenance, not prone to vibration issues Medium voltage generator output LV generator output No step-up transformers, can tie directly to utility substation Optimized distribution infrastructure. Better use of less electrical equipment. Sub-optimal distribution infrastructure. Under-utilized electrical equipment. Better cost effectiveness of the electrical distribution system. Easier interconnection with utility, if needed. Pipeline gas supply (onsite storage optional) Onsite fuel storage needed Storage tanks for diesel fuel not required Proven utility-scale application Typically used for standby applications Less reliance on the grid, additional revenue stream 02 December 2019 © Schneider & Wärtsilä34

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