Citations and referencing m sc_civil eng


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Understanding referencing and plagiarism

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  • UK universities are research environments. Most lecturers do research and base their writing on the style used in the books, articles and reports they read for their research. So, studying at the university, you are expected to develop the “academic” writing style. It is important to show evidence for the statements you make. You provide the evidence by telling the reader about the source of your information. The reference is the link between what you write and the evidence on which your writing is based.The purpose of referencing is to make the process of tracking back to previous research as clear as possible. Point your reader to where they can find the source or support for your statements. Concept closely associated with Intellectual property – about the ownership of ideas; that is, all thoughts, ideas and writings belong to an individual so any use by anyone else should be acknowledged.
  • It is essential to provide references to works (books, e-books, journal articles, websites, newspapers, etc. ) that you have consulted for your assignments. You need to acknowledge your sources. It is a courtesy to the person whose ideas you have used.Demonstrate breadth of reading. Show that you haven’t got all the information from one or two authors, but that you have consulted more widely in order to consider different points of view and reach a balanced viewpoint on a topic.You need to demonstrate that your information has come from trustworthy sources, reputable scholarly books and journals. This can only be verified by tutors if you provide a bibliography of the materials which you have used. Your work will be taken more seriously if your sources can be tracedReferencing is also part of avoiding plagiarism. As long as you acknowledge the source, using brief quotations in your work is fine in order to support your arguments. However, copying chunks of text from articles, books, Internet and passing it off as your own work is plagiarising the original source.
  • Intentional plagiarism Friend offers you a paper he wrote for a similar classBuying a paper from InternetPaying someone to write a paper that you then hand in as yoursHanding in a paper that someone else has heavily rewritten or revised
  • Don’t plagiarise – Don’t break the rules Your work should reflect your own efforts. It should acknowledge and value others’ work, which means citing and referencing their work truthfully and showing how your own work builds on theirs.Fabrication: The falsification of data, information, or citations Deception: Providing false information to an instructor e.g., giving a false excuse for missing a deadline or falsely claiming to have submitted work.Cheating: Any attempt to give or obtain assistance in a formal academic exerciseBribery: or paid services. Giving assignment answers or test answers for money.Sabotage: Acting to prevent others from completing their work. This includes cutting pages out of library books or willfully disrupting the experiments of others.
  • Whenever you use information, facts, statistics, opinions, hypotheses, graphics, or ideas from outside sources – whenever you use and words or ideas that you have not thought up yourself – you need to identify the sources of that material. Brief (abbreviated) details of the work that you are quoting from, or to which you are referring in your text.Citing in the text you give a signal at the point of your writing, it is a link which will tell the reader that the idea or information comes from elsewhere, and where to look for more information on that source.Summary – the author’s original words are rewritten into a substantially shortened form that captures the most important elements.Paraphrase – the authors original words are substantially rewritten, but the original meaning is retained.Direct quotation – usually a short phrase where the original wording is very important. It is essential that the words quoted verbatim are clearly indicated using quotation marks (“”) and/or by using italics, indented paragraphs etc. 
  • You can find and read the source mentioned yourself and check the accuracy. You can refer directly to this author because you have read the source yourself.You don’t list something in your references if you haven’t actually read it. You list a text where you found it,
  • Citations and referencing m sc_civil eng

    1. 1. Understanding referencing and plagiarism MSc Civil & Environmental Engineering Edyta Krol Academic Support Librarian 1 February 2014
    2. 2. 2 February 2014 Referencing is ‘an acknowledgement of someone else’s work or findings’ Dunbar (2007)
    3. 3. • Acknowledge sources • Demonstrate breadth of reading • To give your work scholarly credibility • To allow you, you tutor and other readers to retrieve the documents cited • To signpost to the reader that this idea is not your own • To avoid accusations of plagiarism Why do we need to reference? 3 February 2014
    4. 4. Whenever you draw on a source of information: • As a general source of inspiration • As the source of a particular theory, argument or viewpoint • For specific information such as statistics, case studies or examples • For direct quotations • For text you have paraphrased or summarised When to reference 4 February 2014
    5. 5. • Copying another person‟s work, including the work of another student (with or without their consent), and claiming or pretending it is your own • Presenting arguments that use a blend of your own and a significant percentage of copied words of the original author without acknowledging the source • Paraphrasing another person‟s work, but not giving due acknowledgement to the original author Neville, C. (2007) The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. Maidenhead: Open University Press What is plagiarism? 5 February 2014
    6. 6. • A form of plagiarism where two or more students work together to produce a piece of work which is then submitted by each of them as their own individual work • If a student gets someone else to compose the whole or part of any piece of work • If a student copies the whole or part of someone else's piece of work with their knowledge and consent • If a student allows another student to copy material, knowing that it will subsequently be presented as that student's own work Collusion 6 February 2014
    7. 7. • To get a better grade – 59% • Laziness or bad time management – 54% • Easy access to material via the Internet – 40% • They do not understand the rules – 29% • „It happens unconsciously‟ - 29% • They do not think they will be caught – 16% Dordoy, A. (2002) Cheating and plagiarism: staff and student perceptions at Northumbria. Working paper presented at Northumbrian Conference: „Educating for the Future‟, Newcastle 22 Oct. 2003 Why do students plagiarize? 7 February 2014
    8. 8. •Plagiarism •Collusion •Other kinds of cheating?? Academic dishonesty 8 February 2014
    9. 9. Do not even think about it! 9 February 2014
    10. 10. You need to know about: • Identifying sources and information that need to be documented • Using material gathered from sources: summary, paraphrase and quotation • Staying loyal to the source material • Creating in-text citation • Blending quotations into your paper • Documenting sources in Reference list How to avoid plagiarism 10 February 2014
    11. 11. 11 February 2014
    12. 12. •The author‟s words are copied exactly – „verbatim‟ •Quotation marks (“…”) are added – where quote begins and ends •You need the author‟s surname, year of publication and page number in brackets at the end Direct Quotation 12 February 2014
    13. 13. Quotation marks “When you make a claim about the way things are in the world, you must offer the reader evidence and say where it comes from.” (Northedge 1999, p. 191) Author’s surname Year of publication Page number Example 13 February 2014
    14. 14. Direct quotes are useful when... 14 February 2014 The content is complicated and you cannot express yourself as well as the source You want to analyse or discuss/challenge a quotation You want to finish your essay with a particularly good quote which sums up argument or start with one which raises debate
    15. 15. •Writing out evidence in your own words •You still need to put a reference •Author‟s surname, date of publication are required •Its meaning is not changed Paraphrasing 15 February 2014
    16. 16. Topic sentence Many study skills guides include useful advice for helping a student insert references in his/her essay. For example, Northedge (1991) states that when you are presenting a point of view, you must support this with evidence and provide a reference. author surname date of publication paraphrased information to support statement Example 16 February 2014
    17. 17. •Many find it difficult •Not a case of just changing a few words •You need to understand what you have read •Take notes from books •Use notes to put things into your own words •Do not copy out whole sentences How to paraphrase 17 February 2014
    18. 18. Paraphrasing thoughts 18 February 2014 Your work flows better if you learn to put different authors’ ideas in your own words You can use some key words and phrases but the key is understanding meaning and significance Be careful not to change the odd word here or there. Direct quote if you can not paraphrase Always use a reference
    19. 19. 1. What is the difference between references and a bibliography? Some common issues 19 February 2014 Reference List Bibliography •The same format as a Reference List •Includes all material used in the preparation of your work Includes only sources cited in the text of your assignment as in-text citations
    20. 20. 2. How do I reference a source I found in a book or article but I haven’t actually read it myself? In text citation: Ivan Illich (1981), as summarized by Sherman (1995) has suggested… OR Sherman (1995) refer to the work of Ivan Illich (1981), that suggest… Reference List: Sherman, B. (1995) Licensed to Work. London: Cassell Some common issues 20 February 2014
    21. 21. 3. Referencing several authors who have expresses a similar view If you want to show that a number of authors hold a similar view for something which you have paraphrased, you can simply list them all with the date of publication Example It has often been argued that motivating staff is key to business success (Smith 2004; Jones 2009; Wilson 2010) Some common issues 21 February 2014
    22. 22. 4. How do I reference standards? Example BS 5605:1990 (1999). Citing and referencing published materials. London: British Standard Institution. ISO 14001:2004. Environmental management systems. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization. Some common issues 22 February 2014
    23. 23. 5. How do I reference a web page? Try to find an author and year – as you would for a book. Example - in text citation “50 years after being published, To Kill a Mockingbird is still devoured by students” (Geoghegan, 2010) Example - in List of References Geoghegan, T. (2010) Why is to Kill a Mockingbird so popular? [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 14 February 2013] Some common issues 23 February 2014
    24. 24. •Never cite the URL. Always put the name of an author, or the organization •Do not separate list of www sites in your “References”. Internet sites are incorporated alphabetically along with other sources •Do not paste in a URL address to a list of “References” without any other supporting information Web sites – Common mistakes 24 February 2014
    25. 25. 1. In-text citation Example Northedge (1999) argues that students need to be introduces early to good study skills. 2. List of references Example Northedge, A. (1999) The Good Study Guide. Milton Keynes: Open University Press Two kinds of references - recap 25 February 2014
    26. 26. Recording references •Record the full details of all resources you use during your research for any assignments and projects - use screen capture functions if possible, or photocopy •Databases / Summon/Library Catalogue provide tools to save, email or export to reference management software February 2014 26
    27. 27. • Consistent and accurate • Use a particular style University of West London has adopted the: In-text Citations and References 27 February 2014 UWL Harvard Referencing Style
    28. 28. The University subscribes to RefWorks which allows you to build „libraries‟ of references and also create reference lists or bibliographies already formatted in UWL Harvard and in alphabetical order. Using referencing software 28 February 2014
    29. 29. • Advice offered by Academic Support Librarians • FAQ available on Library website • Printed and online guides • Help with enquires  Online  By phone  In person – Help Zone Help Available February 2014 29