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WRL Hiroshima-Nagasaki Exhibit


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These historical panels, developed by the War Resisters League in 1995 and updated in 2012, are used in street displays each year on the anniversary of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (Our apologies for the transcript, which is autogenerated by Slideshare and apparently cannot be edited, omitted, turned off or deleted.)

Published in: News & Politics
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WRL Hiroshima-Nagasaki Exhibit

  1. 1. HIROSHIMA, NAGASAKI, AND 7 DECADES 0F NlIClEAR TERROR BACKGROUND T0 W. W.II 8. THE ATOMIC BOMBINGS a _ _ On Dewmbar 7, 1941, 111e Japanese alla United Slales into World War II. «. .,_ od Pa wl Harbor, Hawaii, killing 2,403 Americans and plunging 111e um m: wncim» he Worldwide Depres- sion of the 1930s led to the New Deal in the Unit- ed States-but in Germany and Italy it led to the rise of Fascism, and in Japan, ofa strongly nationalistic mili- tarísm. This “war party” destroyed trade unions and all socíalist and democratic opposition. ln 1931 Japan ínvaded Manchuria and in 1937 they began a bru- tal war in China. The 1940 Japanese attack on Indochi- na threatened raw materials needed by the U. S. and the colonial interests of France, Holland, and Great Britain. In July 1941 President Roo- sevelt ordered a total embar- go on all trade with Japan. On December 7, 1941, the Japanese military ordered a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
  2. 2. he war in the Paciñc was marked by bit- terlightingandhighca- _W tim-M** ' ' “AMA sualties on both sides, 'IOKYQ. KEEL r, as the U. S, fought, is- idi? ? ` ' `. land by island, toward a Japan. On the American side there was a strong element of racism- soon after the war be- gan all Japanese-Amer- '- -V , g mans on the West Coast : i: - -55- l' i i -__ ^ Japbnese bamílune amxlr on Ille 1.155 ; na ofthe U. S. were rounded up and placed in concen- tration camps. The Japa- nese, their cities destroyed by heavy American air raids that started late in 1944, launched the kamikaze raids-suicide missions where Japa- nese pilots aimed their aircraft directly at U. S, military ships, T"? g ` @n August 6, 1945, as Japan was already asking for the terms of surrender, the U. S. Air Force dropped a single atomic bomb on Hiroshima, destroying the city in an instant. Three days later, alter the Soviet Union had entered the war against Japan, the U. S. de- stroyed Nagasaki . ` . th h . 'gz-é 33m? i? : $135 JlãPS llElllllllE F; z age had begun and "pp I * I g _World War H ended 'i u_ s_ ü - *n H( _ w, ,gwn nm_ M_ m a convulsion of 5.. ... lrii-? Tr-Irvñ 1945. barbarism. a; rs; .. aaminin *eii “ April 1942. **7:^ . ..un. .. '- 1.7319.” 51.. .,. -. / Nouu acrAu _n_ Enricled area repreírls 'extent ol lqsanese empire in 1943. moa MM! sn wsnmilw 15mm Montano _A_ _ mo: ;Nwvw sn "* ' 5.4 r. f* ' l: Q. . American prisoner: ol wu will! bands belind llreir badu during ! be llalaan "Deallr Martir, " llpri 1941. _ qapeared la Western press daring World War II. ' Note Ibat ! be aanooa above appewed ln lily Residents ol Gavile, Plriippires, eviraiaííler Japanese n" Ho" me lq' mud( o' pauwi” air nid, Dec. 1941.
  3. 3. DEVELOPING THE BOMB 8g THE DECISION T0 DROP I'I' r1 193 9, Albert Einstein, concemed about Germa- ny”s work with uranium, wrote to President Frank- lin Roosevelt about Leo Szilard”s atomic bomb idea. In 1941, before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the atomic bomb program, code named The Manhattan Project, was under way. The proj- ect employed 130,000 people in secret sites across the country and cost $2 billion, The first atomic explosion, called the “Trinity Test” took place in New Mexico on July 16, 1945. The bombings of On lily 14, 1945, tlre completed bomb-except lor detonars-was connected to a IDO-loot tower and lilted into tiring position in preparation lor tlre lirsl detonation ol a nuclear weapon. Hiroshima and Nagasaki took place on Aug. 6 and Aug. 9, 1945. The decision to drop the bomb was based not on saving American lives and ending the war, since Japan was already trying to surrender, but on impressing the Soviet Union. Besides the U. S. had spent all this time and money on the bomb and wanted to test it on a city. Furthennore, the use of the second bomb (over Na gasakD-constructed with plutonium~would show how it was diiferent than the uraniurn one used on Hiroshima. Aaorvaoovi ! mamu ; aww 901 í 0.053 SEC. Mting ol rniitwy and srientili( lreads oi Tlro Manhattan Prolezt, Gen. leslie Graves lleltl and Dr. J. Robert Oppenlreinrer. 100 MEYERS The lirst nuclear explosion orrlrred 5:29 un, July 16, at llle 'lririty let Site ir New Mexico. nmwwoa ; anaa IXVSVSVINVWMSWIN moinom wnorrm www 901
  4. 4. "IT IS MY OPINION iiiri THE usr or THIS BARBAROUS weapon ri Hiirosiiinr AND HAGASAKI WAS or no MATERIAL ASSISTANCE iii our WAR AGAINST JAPAN. THr JAPANESE WERE ALREADY nrmiiro AND error TO SURRENDEII. .. Mr 0Wll FEELING wrs THAT lN BEING THE FIRST T0 IJSE IT, WE HAD ADOPTED AN 'w - A E KNEW THE WORLD WOULD N01 BE THE SAME. FEW LIIJGHED, ETHK” smmm) Comm" To THE “JWAAJMJS ol "JE A rrw (RIED. Mosi WERE sirriii. I irirriiirriiin THE LINE raon ni: DARK Ams_ | wAs "or ; Mmm To m” w” m m” HIllDU SCRIFTUIIEn/ HOW I rin BKOME Drriii, THE nrsiiiorrii or 'THis is iiir ciiuirsi THING Itl iiisioiii. " our worms! " -Persinziir tlriiirr Tnuriieii FASHION, run WARS CANNOT rr won BY DESTROYIIIG _m_ J_ nam, o, ,,, ,,, ,,, ,,, ,_ wow" Am) çmlpppm” ott SEEING TIIE FIISI Illlcllllt EXPLOSIOII -Anriiiiur Wirrirni D. lraiir, Ciiaiirniiin, Joinr Ciiiers or Srirrr . i 'à r ê E ; mumoo 33m IXVSVENN/ VWHSCIN ammo) azmd msvswwmnsouu "HE SAID WE HAD SPENT TWO Bllllotl DOLLARS oii DEVElOPING THE ronn, AND (oiiciirss wourn WANT T0 KNOW wiirii wr HAD GOT ron THE MONEY SPENT. Hr sun, 'How wouin YOU GET (oiiciirss io APPROPRIATE MONEY roii ATOMI( ENERGY RESEARCH IF YOU oo noi siiow RESULTS FOR THE noun wiiicii HAS BEEN SPEIIT rriirrnr? ' . ..Hr wrs coiicriiiirn ABOUT Russiri's rosrwrir BEHAVIOR. .. RUSSIA iiiiciii BE iiioiir marami: IF IMPRESSED rr America's ttlllllllllY MIGHT, AND THAT r DEMONSTRATIOII or THE BOMI MIGHT IMPRESS RUSSIA. " aauwwoo 317434 msvom/ vveiisoun ; mumoo 17m WSVSVNNMWOIN K ~ i . 1 . « ' l. r "I wes AGAINST ii oii TWO (OUNTS. First, THE 'Ciiunciiiir 8. I ATE ALONE. Discussrn MANHAITAN (rr is A _ "EO Suu", s couvüsulo" JAPANESE WERE imi io SURRENDEII riro ii sutrrss). Drcinro T0 TELL Siriiiii riroui ii. Sirriii nrn TOLD w| '|'| | SECREIARY or STA! ! JAMES BYRNES wrsii'i NKESSARY io iin iiiriii wriii THAT rwrur (iiuiiciiirr or TElEGRAM FROM Jrr Eiiirrroii ASKING FOR mits. THING. Srcoiiii, l IIATED io srr our couiiiiir rr Sirriii rrso mas iiis riiswrii io nr. li wrs SATISfACTOIIY. THE FIRST i0 us: sutil r WEAPON. ' Brrirvr Jri>s WIlL rorn ur iirroiir llussir coirrs iii. ' o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o -GEtIERAl DWIGIII I). EISEIIIIOWEI -PIIESIDEIII HARRY Tlllltnltl, Jurr II, l945,lolllllllll1lt
  5. 5. GROUND ZERC A1' H I ROSH IMA AN D NAGASAKI ; Naim asim: : . .Afàiíkr ' Xk`-, I,D_. U.- . 7-3 - "' 77-. ;llnhAtollit Duma" ol Hirosliinn, the rulIIIIe next to it was the Halinaw: : Elanentuy Sdiocl, which was IuII ol chikka: : and teachers unhe tine ul the III 'ng. on August 6, 1945, the Hiroshima bomb, equivalent to 13 thousand tons of TNT, killed 130,000 civilians by ñash, blast, ñre, and radiation, destroying 90 percent of the city. On August 9, the more powerful Naga- saki bomb, equivalent to 22 thousand tons of TNT, killed 70,000 civilians and resulted in greater physical desnuction than in Hiro- shima. In both cities, two to three hours añer the blast, ñrestonns created 40-mile-per-hour winds that lasted for six hours. Tempera- tures climbed to 5500” F. Many people near the hypocenter were instantly cremated, oth- ers had their clothes burned off, skin hung peeling from bodies. Wood and fabric burst into spontaneous ñames. Steel structures and wooden buildings were ñattened, glass and stone objects were melted and fused. Within an hour of the bombings "black rain” (made up of highly radioactive debris thrust up from the ground to mix with moisture in the air) fell on the city contaminating food and wa- ter. People ñeeíng to the river to escape the ñrestorm became countless floating corpses. Tens of thousands of Hibakusha-suivivors of the atomic bombings-suffered radiation poisoning, birth defects, permanent keloid scars, increased cancer rates, psychological traumas, and social ostracism.
  6. 6. :noum mlmn 'v.4. : i " ~*": '« Nogiilsohi on August IO, burned : IHI the remains oi homes with Alespuiring nind rs «, v , gr lt. ' ãllWmoaiWiíuVWmN/ VWHSKJIN Ground zero in Hiroshima, o city Aoojodà Q. . sNouvN naim mesnfchidrert, :IMI men, rod: : : ed to ribbit.
  7. 7. GROUND ZERO AT HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI QUOTES FROM SIIRVIVORS "THos: wHo warm: : : H: : LAH: HA: :H: I: : r: GROUHDS : u:H: :.. .TH: :LAsH o: LIGHT APPAREHTIY w: HI : H:0ucH THEIR PUPIlS. ..EYE : :ouno : u:Hs A: : IHI: : : :rm: : so cu: : is IMPOSSIBLE. " - D: . IIovAAHA "TH: sirin o: :H: I: A: His is : ::L: : o: : AND DRIPPING : :o: : : H:I: FINGER 11:5." - IO-v: A:-oLo ci: : "IH: i: : Acrs w: :: : r: AH: swoLL: H so YOU couL: HA: :Lv I: LL wH: :: : H:I: :v: s AH: nouiHs w: ::. ” - 5-v: AiI-oLo GIRL "AHo: H:: MAH : :rssmc wIIH : o:H HAH: s : H: w0uH: :: o:: WHICH : Loo: is s: :A: iLv DRIPPING, RIJSHING A: ouH: As THOUGH H: HAs GONE MAD AH: CALLING : H: HAn: s o: His wi: : AH: amo. ” -I I-v: A:-oLo oov "ScnrAriiinc : :Hiioiisn wHo HAv: Los: sioH: o: :H: I: MOTHERS, v0ic: s o: Hio: H:: s SEARCHING : o: : H:I: LIIIL: oH: s, : :o: L: wHo CAN Ho LoHc: : : :A: :H: H: AI COOLING : H:I: nom: : IN cIsI: :Hs, :v: :voH: AMONG : H: FLEEING : :0:L: is or: : : :: wi: H noon. ” -JuHioiI CoLL: o: WouiAH SNOIIVN armin A Iirst aid worker tries to save a small hoy with a body : rushed and Iiuriied head. He geritly tries to push the boy's brain bath into plate. Aww sn Rig iuuslirooiu : loud a Iew : :tesalter theNagascdri hoiahing, Aug. 9, 1945. 9:40am nnmn Women who survived the boialiings had babies born horribly delorriied even years later. These hahíes died young. Alter autopsy, their hodies were : ireserved to study the geneti( dunage by niirlear radiation. -ru-sw. - . . . .' . ~ Ho” staring u; a "w" o' u. mga_ EISVLVMS waiting lor medical treatment in Hiroshima three hours alter the salri bombing. I, 3.4 `
  8. 8. TH: 5:0:: o: l2-v: A:-oL: SA: A:o : :<AN: THE STORY 0F SADAKO w: ::: : : NowH, NucH : H: sAN: WAY : H: 5:0:: o: g "I E PEACE c M" Es AHH: F: AN: :: cAN: KNOWN IN Eu: o:: AH: AMERICA. OTHERS TOOII UP HER UNFINISHED TASII. A JA: AH: s: : :A: I:IoH SAYS : HA: ANYONE wHo SINCE H: : : :A: H NILLIoHs o: ORIGAMI c: AN: s : oL: s A : H0usANo : A:: : <: AN: s Wlll. HAv: A wIsH HAv: :: :N : oL: ::, ESPEGAllY : v (HIlDREH IH JAPAN. coN: :: u:. SA: A:o SAsA: I wAs A IouNo GIRL IN SIN: : 1958, cHIL: ::N HI: osHINA wH: N : H: : :oN ALL ov: : JA: AH : oN: wAs : :o: ::: . : oN: :o HI: osHINA's T: N v: A:s A: I:: ?: A:: : PA: : BRINGING CRANES T0 THE SADARO MEMORIAL WHERE A STATUE OF A GIRL WHO DIED IN THE BOMBING AND A STATUE 0F A GIRI. HOLDING UP A (RANE : H: wA: sH: :: v:Lo: :: : AoIAnoH SICKNESS. SA: A:0's IIEMAINING : Avs w: :: s: :H: IN A Hos: I:AL. F: oN H: : : ::, sH: BEGAN : o : oL: p_ A f, A IHousAH: :A: :: s: AH: su: :ouN: :: : v The wounded, some with clothing ripoed to slireds Iay the blast, tluee hours (RANK A5 A PRAYER FOR . - . , _ , THOUSANDS 0F (RANK- : IRIHHSVH “'"= “m~ PEACE. As H: : ILLN: ss TH: cHIL: ::N Nou: N : H: "ONLY : Hos: wHo HAv: H: v:: :: :H : ::s: H: A: :H: :I: :H o: :w wo: s: I: BECAME : :A: Hs o: :H: ATOMI( o: A 05:01am) may, H: v:: ; wrmzsszp ni: wmmpziuuc VERY DIFFICULT T0 F0lD 'tHE PAPER. WHEN SHE DIED IN IOMB VICTIMS- STILL CONTIHUING T0 DIE o: RADIATIOH mg( o; n; “emm, pm m ; Ay m; mmm 1m; 1956 sH: HA: coN: I:: :: 644. F: oN H: : DEATHBED ILLN: ss No: : : HAN six : :cA: :s A: I:: :H: BOMBING. SHOULD n; (onnuuíb/ I sH: HElD u: oN: CRAME AH: sAIo, "I Wlll w: ::: OH : H: : As: o: :H: N: No: IAL A: : cA: v:: :H: 'RR- AM" SEHWFITIER PEACE oN YOUR WINGS AN: YOU wiLL ELY ALL ov: : : H: wo: :s, "THis Is ou: (RY: :His Is ou: TASK; :o WORLD. " ESTABIISH PEACE IN THE WORLD. ” Iniured policeuuan on dy ln Híroshina íssuing certificates to SIITTHEIS, Aug. b, WAS. y. Ngasalci, Aug. i0, !945
  9. 9. EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR TESTING AND PRODUCTICN uclear weapons have done more to poison than protect. While nuclear bombs have been used in anger only twice, nuclear weapons testing and production have contaminated the earth and exposed uncounted millions to ra- diation and other poisonous prod- ucts of the nuclear age. A cloud of secrecy oñen followed the ra- diation cloud, as those exposed to radiation were not told of its dangers in the name of “national be' Mushroom (loud itara m rrraspheri( test ol a llS. nIKlerI weapon an an island in the Parilit. smin/ IA A Pacific islmd's radioartive test site is covered in (ancrote to stop the spread ai radiation. security. ” Those exposed include atomic veterans, forced to witness nuclearweapons tests; downwind- ers from tl1e Nevada test site, the Hanford nuclear site, and Pacific Island tests never warned as radia- tion was deliberately released; and medical patients deliberately iira- diated in unethical experiments. These victims and uranium min- ers, the workers and neighbors of nuclear weapons production fa- cilities, and those who as children ; na IuM 1000 . rman-rum r. .. .nc-nim in the 1950s and early 60s drank milk contaminated by nuclear weapons tests all face cancer and other radiation-iuduced ilhiesses. Indigenous peoples have been at paiticularrisk in places as far Hung as the Nevada desert, Polynesia, and the Australian outback. The environmental and health costs of 1200 800 r 600 400 200 0 ILs. IIrsR n. .. rina. tllKlEAll DETONATIONS: 1945-2009 din lulu Minu ru. - The U. S. Nuclear Weapons Facilities the nuclear age remain with us. The estimated price tag to clean up contaminated nucle- ar weapons production and testing sites runs into the hun- dreds of billions of dollars in the United States alone. 'EEE. _ - 1 ? gym . ' Map shows the areas ai the U. S. rrassed by rmlear (loads lrarl alrovegralnd detonations (wlirh ended in l9b3) ni nutlear weqrons at the Nevada Test Site. fter decades of lobbying, the U. S. in 2001 began compen- sating radiation Workers who suf- fered ilhiesses or deaths resulting from exposure to radiation. Pay- ments of $l50,000 to workers or certain survivors of beiyllium dis- ease, silicosis, or a cancer-related illness contracted at a covered facility. Over 34,000 individuals ` have received more than $4 bil- lion.
  10. 10. NIIClEAR POWER 8. NlIClEAR WEAPONS: TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN ach year a typical IOOO-mega- watt cormnercial power reactor will produce 300 to 500 pounds of plutonium ~ enough to build be- tween 25 and 40 Nagasaki-sized atomic bombs. he same nuclear fuel cycle - mining, milling, emichment, and fuel fabrication stages - pre- pares the iuanimn ore for use in reactors, whether these reactors are used to create plutonium for bombs or generate electricity. In the end, both reactors produce the plutonium. The only difference between them is the concentra- tion of the various isotopes used in the fuel. "THERE Is No rEcHHIcAI nEMARcAn0H BErwEEN THE MIlITARY AHD cIwIIAN REAcroR ANB rHERE NEVER wAs oNE. WHAT HAs PERsIsrEB ovER THE BEcAoEs Is JUST THE MIscoNcEP110N THAT sucH A LIHKAGE BOEs HOT ExIsr. " -los Alamos IIATIOIIAE lan, 1981 In 1953 Pres_ Eisenhower an- nounced his “Atoms for Peace” program TO PIOIIIOIS the “P6306- ful" uses of the atom by offering nuclear technology to the rest of the world. A year later the Atomic Energy Act was amended to allow commercial rltilities to receive uranium fuel in exchange for the plutonium they produced, which was to be shipped to Rocky Flats in Colorado. which made plutoni- um triggers for nuclear weapons. PROLI FERATION. France, Chi- na, India, Pakistan, North Korea, Iraq (before 1981), and presurn- ably Israel have pieced together nuclear weapons from the fuel of “peaceful research reactors. ” It is feared that other countries, such as Iran, are doing the same. Elizabeth Catalan lived in lltrdr, downwind iron the Nevada Test Site. "I am one ol the women who can conceive a child lrut rey body dissolves them as a result ofthe radiation. .. My hest lriend hod a hairy last year who hod iust all kinds ol hírth delects. .. all lrindsmShe suliered a IIlIIltE ol miscarriages also. " ; mumoo Dma; :manu mamam aaur/ mo) ; owns sauna mamaw Joe Hardirg was a Irrarium enrichrlent warlrer who died al cancer. Haring and lellow worlrers were ex- posed to unsale worhíng conditions at the Paducdr, lientuchy, plant. Oi the 100 employees at the plant in the 1950s lay the early 1980s over 50 had tied ol leukemia, cancer, md other oiments thought to ln worl: related. THEFT. Bomb-grade nuclear ma- terials that are frequently rmac- counted for may have been stolen. In addition, nuclear waste could be stolen and used in a bomb” - not a nuclear weapon but a way to spread radioactive material in a military or terrorist attack. HEALTH EFFECTS. The mining and production of uranium along with the “normal” operation of corrmiercial nuclear power plants releases harmful radiation every day to the enviromnent. Because such radiation causes cancer in humans as well as deformities in developing fetuses, extraordinary "lN ESSENG, A NUClEAR REACTOR IS JUST A VERY SOPHISTICATED AND DANGEROUS WAY T0 B0|l WATER - ANAlOGOUS T0 (UTTING A POUND 0F BlITTER WITH A cHAIN sAw. " -IIELEN Cuorcorr, 2006 care must be taken to minimize contamination. REACTOR ACCIDENTS. There have been about 100 nuclear ac- cidents worldwide (most in the U. S. ), seven of Which were consid- ered severe, including Three Mile Island in Pemisylvania (1979), Chernobyl in the Ukraine (1986), and Fukushima in Japan (2011), ATTACKS. Nuclear reactors are targets dining wars and from ter- rorists. Since 1980, reactors have been repeatedly attacked by bom- bardrnent, occupations, and inva- sions. In the Middle East alone, A tmli carrying nuclear irel crushed into the median barrier on l-9l 'Ir Springlield, Mass. , in 1991. The speed ol the truclr threw nuclea containers over the edge ol the highway and some contriners crashed onto the road helow the lighway. l swnsM mawi/ Imus um
  11. 11. REACTOR ACCIDENTS nin: : nm. : ISLAND (1979) was the worst commercial accident in U. S. history (rated 5 on the 7-point "nudear event" scale, while Chernobyl end Fulrushimo wore rated 7), resulted In a oore meltdown and the release of 2.5 million arrios of radioactive gasos and 15 curies ol I-13i, dumping of 40,000 gallons of radioactive water into the Susquehoma River, and the evaaration of 140,000 pro-sdiool children and pregnant women. 111e official figures claim 480,000 terabecquerels gases were released. The demup lasted 14 years md cost Si billion. CHERNOIYI. (1986) and the graphite fire (i 00 times worse than Three Mile Island) released large quantities of radioactive oontamination - 14 million terabecquerels - that spread over much of westem Soviet Union and Europe. Cleanup involved over 500,00 worlrers and an economically crippling amount ol money. it was estimated that 4,000 additional cancer deaths would eventually accur. FIJKUSHIMA (2011), caused by the 9.0 ewthqualre, i5-meter tall tsunami, and oatastrophic lailure of the cooliig systems in three reactors, resulted in the evaaration of 140,000 residents within i2 miles ol the plant. Dangerous levels ol radiation (2 million torabecguerels so fu) were released into the air and sea - including 12,000 tons of oontaninated water - with radioactivity detected thousands ol miles away. The continuing long- temr dangors are the 10,000 spent fuel essemblies with over 300 million curies precariously sining in vulnerable above- ground pools. It has been estimated that it might talre 100 yews before the melted fuel rods cal be safely removed. Final oontaínment will probably involve concrete ontembmont of the reactors and setup ol eo exdusion zone. y. i . ,ay __ a _. llnit 301 the hiroshima Daiich u, , Iran, Israel, iraq, and the U. S. have bombed nuclear facilities in Iraq, Iran, and Syria. ireacter pidlred six months alter the Mar. 11, 2011, core meltdown. riched uranium, plutonium, fuel assemblies, low-level to high-lev- el nuclear wastes, nuclear weap- ons - are routinely transported TRANSPORTATION. Radioac- tive materials ~ uranium ore, en- connmxnarcluae lane (imu-v m som, .. um- nmemmvtrnmñnir; m 'came, Permanent Control zan. snwuuw anuman! varied! : comm! 2m( 5 . . u umi . q : m.. . m unnamed rane r. . holiarvolczsmvv m Ukraine , 1 m. , , - nmam' I) 25 50 T5 m IIlEi A 1986 map ol the radioactive contarlination zones following the Chernobyl accident. on public roads, railways, and ships. The Depamnent of Energy reported in 1996 that there have been over 70 accidents irrvolv- ing nuclear waste in the U. S. NUCLEARWASTE. Besides its connec- tion to nuclear weap- ons, the Achilles Heel of nuclear power is managing the waste, which occurs dur- ing mining and mill- ing (piles of tailings), enrichment (deplet- ed uranium, some of which is used in mili- tary artillery), nuclear ANvawm am04 amam amor i' i t _n I (ivilion i T “f, , : u ng yum. SOURCES 0F HIGH-LEVEL NUCLEMT WASTES 111 U. S. reactors (spent but extraordinari- 1y radioactive fuel rods), and re- processing to extract usable fuel by separating ñssion byproducts. While some waste decays rela- tively quickly, other waste re- mains dangerously radioactive and thus must be safely stored for thousands or millions of years. In the United States alone, the DOE states there are “millions of gallons of radioactive waste, ” as well as “thousands of tons of spent nuclear fuel and material, ” and “huge quantities of contami- nated soil and water. ” The United States has at least 108 sites des- ignated as areas, some of them many thousands of acres, that are contaminated and unusable. " , itama-mam
  12. 12. THE ENOLA n 1995, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the atomic bomb- ings, the Smithson- ' ian institution restored and put on display the fuselage of the Enola Gay - the plane that dropped the Hiroshima bomb. Originally, the exhibit was to be ac- companied by photos of grorurd zero at Hiro- shima and Nagasaki, the legacy of the nuclear arms race, the debate surrounding the bombings, and World War Iibattles. However, the script, considered balanced by his- torians, was labeled “anti-Ameri- can" and too sympathetic to the Japanese by the American Legion and some members of Congress. Consequentiy, the Srnitlrsonian tossed out the entire script, say- ing it Would simply have a plaque and video displayed with the fuse- lage. As a result, several protests were organized by the Errola Gay Action Coalition. r i. ' o . . . 4 . Protesters during the June 28, 1995, opening day el the Enola Gay exhibit at the Smithsonion's Ai 8. Spore Museum 'II Waslingtorr, DC, wlích resulted in 21 arrests. xrunow 3342135 NIIISIIND aur bra-zamora for u mushroom cloud arw ~ . g . .p ; :3 ". ..J W” " Aton-le Hmm” WHAT WAS CUT: X All quotes b U. S. officials or military leo ers who opposed or criticized the atomic bombings X Any mention of "sending a signal to the Soviets" in the decision to drop the atom bombs X All military information or liticol documentation of the fact t ot Japan was close to collapse and making diplomatic moves to surrender before August 1945 X Recognition that at the end of the war, the U. S. accepted o surrender which wos not "unconditional" x Information that the S2 bIlion spent on the Manhattan Project was a factor in usirg the bomb x Medical statistics about bombing survivors havin five times the normal chance o getting leukemia x All references to officials questioning the bombing of Nagasaki x All information about the nuclear arms roce, nuclear testing, radiation experiments, and anti- nucleor activity x The photos ol the dead and wounded victims of the bombings, uotes from survivors, artifacts of llhe children, discussion of racism against the Japanese storm of criticism sed: Is n. . u. s. Postal Sorvin dlndoud , Im postage tillllp nur. .. n. .. n. . "Aterrrichonrhshnr tari vrafs el hum ms' ofter_o this : tuwid unom (tryin). ummm m: WLWAUKEE iouaiuu reflect-d ra WHAT WAS Anon): © Japanese peace-feelers were not worth pursuing © Many veterans soy that the atomic bombings saved their lives © Scientists did not know much about radiation effects before the bombs were used © An invasion of Japan wos "inevitable" without the atomic bombings, and that would have cost many more American lives than the 31,000 maximum predicted by General Marshall, Army Chief of Staff © Japan wos not close to collapse and the war might have gone on into 1946 © Since school children and women did do some activities to su rt their count 's war eflorlisljo therefore oll cliryrilions were "soldiers" and it wos then acceptable to kill them with an atomic bomb © Enrico Fermi, Manhattan Project Physicist, opposed those scientists who protested the use of the bomb © An incorrect statement that worninguleoflets were dropped on Nagasa ` before it was bombed
  13. 13. or decades, the United States and the Soviet Union (now Russia) steadily built more nu- clear weapons, long range bombers, and inter- continental missiles. The world lived, every day, with the fear of a final conflict in which by accident, insanity, or political miscalcula- tion, a nuclear war would begin. Each side felt its “protection" was the power to make sure that, even if its own nation were destroyed, it could destroy the other nation. Known as “Mutual Assured Destruction" (MAD), an en- tire generation grew up fearing that at any m0- ment diplomacy would fail and a final flash of light and terrible rush of wind would signal the end. Both sides, not satisfied with MAD, began work on “first strike” weapons. For sev- eral years there was a serious danger that one side or the other side would strike first, hop- ing to destroy the other side totally, while los- ing “only” a few maj or cities of its own. he closest the world came to deliberate nu- clear war was during the 1962 Cuban Mis- sile Crisis, but there were many times when a war almost started by accident. American radar once detected a flock of geese that was interpreted as “incom- ing” Soviet missiles. A final counterattack was nearly ordered. Sev- àeral times the U. S. has ; secretly threatened to êuse nuclear weapons in order to give weight to ãits diplomacy. The So- êviet Union also made ãsnch a threat in 1956 MrssIe silos on U. S. nuclear su duiiiíg the combined . ..mim British, French and Is- Tlre closest that the world has come to a deliberate nudeca wi! was d of missile silos in (ubo to the Uli Security (ouncil. rael invasion of Egypt to try to regain control of the Suez Canal. he dangers of nuclear diplomacy far out- weigh its effectiveness at maintainingpeace, given the hundreds of conventional wars and millions of lives lost since the end of World War II. In addition, the economics of the U. S. and Soviet Union (now Russia) were devas- tated by the arms race, and the world is left with a legacy of secrecy, nuclear waste, and steadily lower standards of living. maam namn amrwwéã my nvsvovQ/ vwusom . _ 5.5, 3 Armed with nuclear weapons, B-52 bombers have been cm essen ial el - ment to the U. S. nuclear strategy.
  14. 14. INSTANCES 0F U. S. THREATS T0 USE - 1948: Atomic-capable B-29s were sent to Berlin at the start ol the Berlin Bloclrade. - 1950: Truman threatened China when Chinese troops surrounded U. S. Marines at the Chosin Reservoir, Korea. - 1953: Eisenhower threatened China with nuclear weapons to lorce a settlement in Korea. - 1954: Secretary ol State John Foster Dulles secretly ollered France three nuclear weapons to assist French troops in Vietnam. - 1958: Eisenhower directed preparation for the use ol nuclear weapons to prevent Iraq lrom seizing Kuwaiti oil lields during the Lebanon Crisis. A 191 rton showing Stalin and Mao heirg knocked all their leet lry the 11.5. atmospheric testing ol nuclear weapons. SMJN Aamo: ) NOJENHSVM NllClEAR WEAPONS: , t? : . ,i v. - latcíígooez _r ~ a malou maN ; sNvw naman 'mms ; ans ASV! Nirita Khrushdtev md ! ohh F. llcnnedy, 1961. - 1958: Eisenhower approved use ol nuclear weapons against Chinese troops il China attempted to invade Ouemoy island. - 1962: The Culran Missile Crisis (President John Kennedy). - 1968: I(he Sanh, Vietnam (President lyndon Johnson). -1969-1972: Sec. ol State Henry Kissinger SNOHVN cmmn In 1960 at the height o( the Cold Wu tension, Soviet leader Nikita llhrush- drev adchesses the UN General Asserrdrly. later, he and President llennedy came very close to starting a thid World Wu during the Cuban Míssle Crisis in 1961. threatened North Vietnam with possihle use ol nuclear weapons. - 1980: The Carter Doctríne on the Middle East threatened the use ol nuclear weapons to protect American interests. Realfírmed lry President Ronald Reagan 1981. - 1980: Use of nuclear weapons hinted at to deter Soviet troops massing on the Iranian border. - 1991: President George H. W. Bush reluses to rule out use ol nuclear weapons in Persian Gull War. ldegxgan says it again: Limited nuclear war is still a 'possibility' ummm. " 17%. 1:'A{. . j E', '_'EL“^ U(l('('l. ~l0lt l llt-(lhlrlllcs . ... _.m. .__. .ur_, ,_. í _ ' ' _t-l nJLUJJ-. u - 1996: An Asst. Sec. ol Delense announces that il the U. S. decided to destroy an (alleged) underground chemical weapons facility, it would use nuclear weapons. The existence ol a specilic plan lor this was later denied. - 1997 : A Clinton Presidential directive allows targeting ol "rogue states” with "prospective access" to nuclear weapons. Regarding Iraq, the administration relused to rule out any option. (Adopted lrem a list compiled lIy lorrler Pentagan mllyst Duiel Hlslnrg) rmvmoa aavan WSVSWN/ VNNSOMM
  15. 15. ince the beginning ofthe nuclear era, the un- precedented threat to all life on earth posed by nuclear weapons has motivated uninter- rupted opposition. Hundreds of thousands- and even millions-of people at a time have Ccdling for an end to the arms race and a re-ordering of government spend- ing priorities towwds domestic programs, the Continental Wcdlt lor Disar- mament annd Social Justice nIrived in Washington, DC, in October ol 1976 alter starting in California nine months earlier. They Iinlred rp in Wash- ington with mmchers Irom two other main routes-one went through the deep south beginning In llew Orleans nind the other Irom llew Endand that began in Iostan. snsansmasauvm taken to the streets to demonstrate against The Bomb, carrying their message to the Penta- gon, weapons factories, research facilities, test sites, and military installations where nuclear weapons are stored or deployed. While the U. S. role in irritiating the arms race received primary attention, the anti-nuclear Weapons movement has been global. Moreover, many thousands have risked arrest and have been jailed for acts of civil disobedience demand- ing an end to the nuclear threat. En the 1950s and 60s people marched in the l streets against atmospheric testing, refused to participate in mandatory air-ra id drills, crossed onto military bases, sailed boats into Pacific Ocean test areas, and interrupted launchings of nuclear submarines by swimming to the subs with barmers and signs. In the 1970s and 80s people engaged on a global scale in mass matches, sit-ins, die-ins, blockades oppos- ing nuclear weapons, and well-publicized lo- cal and statewide referenda. Some undertook individual acts of direct disarmament called plowshares actions, often receiving long pris- on terms because they accepted responsibility for these acts. Wo this day efforts ranging from letter writing campaigns urging congressional legislation to thousands of acts of civil disobedience have annually voiced the increasing demands of millions of people for a world without nuclear weapons and, indeed, for a world without any weapons at all. EM? Nonnrnoo Ima HOVMIMASIJNVS r V '-' u A dnId reads the 1962 "Dr. Spoclr is worried" llew Yorln Times ad placed by the anti-nuclear group Sane. The wel-known child-nearing specialist said, "I am worried nnot so madn aboat the effects of past tests but at the prospect ol endless future ones. As the tests multiply, so wil the damage ta clildren - here and wound the world. ' i E 3 5 . 2 _ ` 1 , v , In one of England@ lcrgest london@ Trafalgw Square from the nudenl' weapons site in Aldermastonn, 1962.
  16. 16. nnnrbnanrn 33 _ Eli NnPDLbv , ,j-p 'lTDLbIüHM vi. : uuunrrupuunr ' _ , E53 Pnruwxnnuca 1 vu ; p , _1 Ccdlíng for unílateral disarmarnent and t nonvialennt resistance lor defense, the 1961 San Fran- cisco to Moscow Walk for Peace enters Moscow after waIcing ten months nand almost 6000 miles across the U. S. and Europe. March in Michigan agninst atmospheric nudeai boirdr tests, 1958. mervin aalaga : nvm , as' NonrvrnNoasa i0 cnnnews/ anuman rn [n mna] This guidance connpnnter for a Trident nudenrr sub- marine was disarmed by imJivinhraIs wlno lncunnnered upon the computer and paared blood on it lrorn a bday bottle to symboize its deadly oqnabiities. Since 1980 over 200 individuds, aning singly or in groups, lnave nnrndertndcen about 100 cIrect acts of disarmament. These are olten called PLOWSHAIIES ACTIONS because the particinants are enacting the prophecy of Isaiah to "beat swords into plowslnues. " Jcil terms have averaged one e to two years. Declanin: "Nuclear Uisarmamennt Begiins at Name" nind calling on the . S. to begin unIaterd nuclear disarmamennt, demonstrators nnardn to the UN@ Nudear Nonpro- Iileration Treaty Review Conference in NYC, May 2010. In 1978, the New Zealand Peace Scpn a fleet of 80 boats, canoes, and launches to blodn the arrival of the U. S. nuclear subnnarine Pintado. Though temporarIy impeded, the sub id make it to the hnIbar but not without considercdrle publicity. . .na. . inuusisa u "B7 f I n" During the 1982 United Nations Second Specind Session on Disarmnmennt, people came to Now York City lronn around the world. Demonstrations, relgious gather- ings, and cultural events were held callinng lor nuclear discrmnunent. The lnugest gathering was the mcuch and mlly on June 12, attended by one nnillion people. On June 14, almost 1700 people were arrested during a nonviolennt blockade of the five UN Missions repre- senting countries (U. S., USSli, Britain, France, drim) known to possess nuclear weqnns. U. S. xit. 1 ATOMIC ENERGY __ '- COMMISSION NEVADA resr SITE MERCUWvSeWADA , ni' . üfPüíã 4; nmna ! r sma In 1962 Women Sfrlike for Peace dennonstrators protested atmospheric tests of nu- clear weapons In Nevada. inom missin rvM : nam naunawaan; saman mlm
  17. 17. HE NEED FOR DIS "EVERY GUN THAT IS MADE, EVERY WARSHIP lAUNCHED, EVERY ROCIiET FIRED, SIGIIIFIES IN A FINAl SENSE A THEFT FROM THOSE WHO HUNGER AND ARE NOT FED, THOSE WHO ARE COlD AND ARE NOT CLOTHED. ” -PRESIDENT DWIGHT EISENHOWER EARLY 70 YEARS since Hiroshima bombing there remain about 20,000 nuclear warheads in the United States, Russia. Britain, France, Isra- el, China, India, Pakistan, and North Korea. Just one of these bombs can destroy an entire city. There are other dangers: ' PROLIFERATION. Iran (and likely others) has been eager to get nuclear weapons to balance the threat it feels fronn Israel. In Asia, Pakistan. fearful be- cause India had nuclear weap- ons, developed its own. North Korea has The Bomb and South Korea has the technology. 'NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS. Dining the Cold War both the U. S. and the Soviets nearly went to war because of false alarrns and technological er- rors_ ' NUCLEAR WASTE gener- ated by nuclear production can- not be safely stored anywhere. 'THE EXPENSE. In a world where even rich countries, such as the U. S., are facing cutbacks in essential services, nuclear arms are too expensive. 'FINALLY, it is not enough to move toward a world free of nuclear weapons. Since World War II_ “conventional” weap- ons - the U. S. is the world”s #l arms merchant ~ have killed millions of people in hundreds of wars. Getting rid of nuclear weapons is only the first step toward general and complete disarrnament by all nations. ARMAMENT TOTAL NUClEAR WEAPONS RUSSIA (10,000) UNITED STATES (8,000) : soso-sworn or ! iM cm stiENrirs_ . France (300), (hina (140) Irítainn (225). Pakistan (1 I 0h knia 11001, Israel (80), North Korea (d0) Extent ai destruction from an unr burst of na lãdnegatorr 0., .. drogerr bomb nver New York , l CIty or (mounts 'ground , r . xercforver nhattan Cnrcles 3 Aana a show me nnmn: of se- L K i ver: and moderate damage r g _ to buildings The Inmrl nnman l w" 'i P" “i mal bums to people externds 5 scams. ., ' beyond this map , . f: Yenkars = Faitensan gl' Mount o The effects of one IS-rnegaton nuclear bomb on llew Yorln City. People as la away as Bridgeport, Conn. , would be burned.
  18. 18. ram33 IDNOISIH mm sn sport the Fourth and linal hyàogen bomb teravrred by U. S. Navy Task Force 65 lrom a depth ol 2,850 leet all Prdomrres, Spill, in 1966. "BROKEN ARROWS" OR ACCIDENTS INVOLVING NIJCLEAR WEAPONS 'MARCH `I I, IDSC. I-47 accIdentaIy dropped a nuclear bomb on South Carolina, a ronventionrd explosive used as a "trigger" loc the nuclear bondt rid explode leaving a 75-loot wide cratur, 35 loot deep. Roportedly ao radiation leakage was detected. luckily no nuclear explosion occurred and na one was killed. -JIINE 1, 'I 960. Tie at McGuie Air Force Base led to a soties ol explosions. One llomcuc nuclear missIe was destmed. No nuclem explosion occurred, tlrto there was leakage ol radioactivity. - 'I 96I. I-SI over Goldsboro, North Carolina iottisorted a ZA-rnegaton bomb, l800 times more powerlul than the Hiroshima bomb. Five ol the six solely devices were set oll. The one rentcinirg switch ptevented a horrible explosion. 'JAN. I 1, 'I 966. B-Sí collided with another plane causing the deaths ol 5 cruwmen and the acciderttal dropping ol 4 N-bombs into the ocecur oll ol the coast ol Spain. Radiation leaked out. 'JAN. II, 'I 968. In making an emergency lrIrding at Thule Air Farce Base in Greenland, a D-SZ crushed and burned, producing a plutorium- contcuninoted area ol at least 2200 feet long and mote than 300 leet wide. -OCIL 3, 'I 986. An explosion 'Ir one al the lb nuclear nissile tubes al a Soviet Submarine kiled at least three. Tluee days later it sank in the Atlantic whIe under tow. -AIIG. 2000. A Russimr submarhe Ilursk smk in the Barents Sea alter an explosion in a torpedo, ttiggetirg the detonrttion ol llrther torpodo warheads about two minutos later. AI I IB aboard died. "I Ant AwArtt ot tnt txrsttnct ot U. S. tActrcAr nucrtArr WARHEADSmIN GREKLnAttD rn Turnrtr. Grrttct AND Turnrtt snouro cont to : rows Ano sttrr to oArn tnt ADVANTAGE BY FORGBLY tArrrnc rntst wArtntAns to ust upon tnt otntn, rt wouro LINDOUBTEDLY cost MANY AntrncAn rwts Ano PlUNGE tnt U. S. Into An UNTENAILE rosrtronmNo nort rnAn 4 to 6 U. S. sorortrts ouAro tnt BUNKERS wnrcn storrt tnt nurrtsl Most ot tnt trrornts-Artnut 4D ? ER nttrcnntnt-Arrt nousto Atout A oumtrt ot A nrrt FROM tnt runrrtrts Ano COULD tAsrrr BE rsorAtta FROM tnt wrrrntros. ' - Lttttu Front a Conctrtnto U. S. Sorortn to Senator Srnnnotorr : ammo: ;xmas sama; Naam 'mooouvr ! N39 '. ng; A "Wt strrAttorc PLANNERS rn tnt PtntAoon DEVELOPED A srsttn wnrcn wAs nrcnrt AutorrrAtto Wt nAvt Arr out rnstrructrons on TAPES Sont nontns AGO tnt TAPE wAs rnAovtrrttntrv PI. II' Into tnt rAAcnrnt, rr wAs A TAPE wnrcn ActuArrr stnt Arott sorrrt 0F OUR strrAttcrc ArrrcrtAttmAnt srsttn As conrrrcAtto As tnt ont wt atsronto Anu PUT Into OPERATION cAn tAsrrt rAArtunctron ttcAust ot ttarnrcAr arttrcurnts ort rrtcAust ot A PERSONNEL trnrort BY srnrrr tnrtowrno A waono srmtcn. ” -AarrrrtrAr Gtnt Lullocout In the U. S. done, there are nearly I20,000 people working closely with nuclew weapons. (ongressional records shaw that 'Ir one year over 3,500 ol these people were removed lrotn thai iobs because ol mon- td Ilness, drug abuse, alcohol, or discipline problems. NUMBER 0F JOIS CREATED WITH SI IlILlION 20m, . 151300 airs o . . . Shiltlng Federal Govecmnent spending priorities From the míitmy would produce mmy mare civilian iolts. E WHERE YOUR INCOME TAX MONEY REALLY GOES 20I3 U. S. FEDERAL FUNDS EXPENDITURES ; noun naman um ! br-nhunndaihdmdyíunàulüaüníthembtndexcàwnnmrüdwu mrs. .a. t.. r.c. ¢.. ... .,. ... ,.. ... _.r. m.. mouse-umm, .. uab. ._u. ..a. .a. rsn. r,rm_. . Idç-lqàà” aaurwwo: ) : arms sama; Nvaruawv nocum s nm IO! ;nam maumuma ; unom "T nt sAnt curturtt ot wortnct tnAt nAs LED tnt U. S. to tuno tnt LARGEST MILITARY srsttn rn HISTORY SUPPORTS tnt nAnutAcrurrt, sArt AND ust or nAnocuns Ann AssAurt rntrts rn U. S. conrrrunrtrts. " -Ftrrowsnrt ot IltconcrrrAtron IN ONE YEAR. GUNS MURDERED ttreoerzermurn HIMIISIIALIA SQIIEDIENIDMIIWALB IGIISMIII IIIIIGEIAMII matuman AMJIAHINTKUMTESIITB GOD BLESS AMERICA. : rudy Campaign -I-_ç e 't-_aà hhmm( a. .. wr. .. _. .u. _.. _. ONE BILLION DOLLARS - ian0196 0F the Afghanistan war cast - COULD PAY FOR: I 300,000 schools with desks, chais, tables I 700,000 family homes G I mIIion Vocational scholarsldps 0 3 mllion World Response Medicine boxes 0 4 mIlion adult litercuy classes I 25 nrillion school desks and supplies 0 3I nrillion (hid immunizations I B9 ntillion health worker training courses I 2 billion meals lor hungry people I I00 billion chlorine tablets to mrdre water sale i "Sorrrtnow wt nust trrAnstortn tnt ovnArArcs or tnt wortro POWER STRUGGI. ! FROM tnt NEGATIVE nucrtAn ARMS rrrct, wnrcn no nrAn cAn wrn, to A POSITIVE conttst to HARNESS rAAn's CREATIVE GENllIS tort tnt PURPOSE ot MAKING PEACE Ano PROSPERITY rorr Arr tnt wortro. " -Drr. MArttrn Lutntrr Ilrnc Jn.
  19. 19. LMOST 70 YEARS añer the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, opposition to the bomb remains strong. People continue to campaign for an end to funding for the weapons. Protests contin- ue at test sites, weapons research facilities, the Pentagon, and at the Smithsonian Institutions Enola Gay exhibit. People remain in jail for their participation in plow- shares/ disarmament actions. ow can you become involved? The first step might be to learn more about peace and dis- armament issues. Contact a peace , l I LEAFLEITING: With a shan text, simple graph- ic, clever headline, and a source for more information, any group-even one person-can create an effective flyer which con be copied, then distributed at street fairs, shopping aenters, políticcd rallies, town meet- ings, post offices, Federal buildings, outside movie theaters, or anywhere a lot of people congregote. wmsaauaa group in yo11r area and join their work. Letters-to-the-editor are simple and effective ways to com- municate your views. Visit your elected representatives to voice outrage at cuts in human services while massive spending on arma- ments and wars continues. Invite a speaker to address disarmament issues in your school. N ext consider organizing a boy- cott against stores that sell war toys or violent video games; protesting military recruitment on your campus or in your commu- nity; supporting plowshares ac- tivists at trial or in jail; organiz- ing demonstrations against the production, testing, storage, and deployment of nuclear weapons; participating in a civil disobedi- ence action at the Pentagon, White House, or nuclear power or weap- ons facilitíes; investigating how to IOYCOTIS: Ioycotting a maker of nuclear weapons or other military hardware will only be eHective if there is a consumer product the company also makes. lt also hebs if this consumer product is commonly used md easily given up or if another mmrufacturer mrdces a comparable product to wlidr consumers can be directed. For excInple, during the Vietnam War, Daw Gremical manufactured nqsalm. They also made Saraa Wrap, which was easily boycotted because of readily availdrle alternatives. NIICLEAR FREE ZOHES: (onunurities across the country have de- clared themselves "nuclear free. ' Of the estimated 130 HFZ conunurrities, some prohibit transport md storage of nuclear weapons, others ban invest- ments or contracts with corporations connected to the nuclecu weapons in- dustry. Often these ordinances cue merely symboIc lrut in other cases they have amoumed ta a consumer boycott of nuclem corporations. Examples of boycott campaigns ogrinst General Electric (rijrt) resist paying taxes to the military. and Handa" Packard (above) LOIIYING AND PETITIONING: lt often bebs to be rich oc pawerfrd when trying to influence cul dected official, however orrinary citizens can lurve cul impact. The most effective approach is to visit his or her office, write a persomd letter, or make a phone calL Useful, though less effective, would be to sign form letters ar online petitions. YOU CAN WRITE to your (ongressperson at U. S. House of Representatives, Washington, D( 205l5, your Senators at U. S. Senate, Washington, ll( 205l0, the President at The White House, Washington, D( 20500. The House (www. house. gov) and Senate (www. senate. gov) switchboard nurrdier is (202)224- Jill; for the President (www. whitehouse. gav) it is (NUNG-NI II. nur/ moa Dim: :mam Nvoaswr DEMONSTRATIONS: fflarches, rallies, card piclreting can sometimes be effective even if there are not large numbers of people participating. The photo above is from a protest at a nuclear weapons facility. Your group can malce an impact with a good location at the right time, a simple flyer, music, a dem' message commrrnicated by speakers (whether they are speak- ing on a sidewalk with a bullhorn ar on a stage with a sound system), and prior contact with the media. ãíhàníl EDIJ first step to action is educa- tian. Ordering literature from the groups listed below can begin the process. Having a discussion group with friends and neighbors is a sinple way to share read- ings and ideas. lnviting a speaker or having a panel for the first part of a meeting will aid in irritiatirg disars- slon and stimulate debate, something often lackirg in govemment. Nnwacrau as
  20. 20. WAR TAX RESISTANCE: Most of the financ- ing for nuclear weapons and the Pentagon comes from in ividud 'Income taxes. Some citizens have used this fann of civI disabecIence to say "not with my money you clon'tl" Those interested in exploring this means of protest should contact the National Wr Tax Resis- tance Coordinating Committee (wwwmwtrccor) or the War Resisters league lwww. wcuresisters. orgl. . e.- -~i STREET SPEAKING: A useful odiunnct to leaf- letting is speaking in well-trafficked areas. A short script and several pe le rotating between being s ealner and support au ience or leofletter will malce the process easier. Speaking without amplification encaurages ple to get closer and 'Interact, as was done on Wa l Street, NYC, In the photo above. ummm u; Nmvrxm cra . ' M TH EATER: Whether performed on a stage or in the street, with costume and props or urittnonrt, this cm be a powerful means of carmnuricatíonl. The people inn this ptnoto cue doing a "nie-'un' to criticize "Iundear weapons states" nand ckrunatize what lunwens during a nuclear bombing. fiecrnnse this was dining rusfn hour in lIYC's Grand Central Station 'un 2010, they were arrested. 2 m. --, .J _ . OWGIDJXNVH; . ,_ c _ . u_ , g gg. v s CIVIL RESISTANCE: At times citizens have felt so strongly cdnout an issue that they wiI nle- Iiberately break a law in order to call attention to tlnat issue in a way that cannot be ignored. Honr- uiolent ávil disobecience has a long tradition in this country. It has been used by outoworlrers to grin union recognition, African-Arnericans to fight ciscrininatian, farm workers to better work conditions and pay, peace activists to oppose the Vietnam Wr. Tlu's photo shows a goup of seven people wlno painted the word "WAR" on the sign at the enntrance of the Stratejc Air Command base in Oruoha, ll-ebraslna. They remained behind 'un a spirit of openness to talne responsiiility for the'u act. HERE ARE GROUPS YOU CAN CONTACT FOR INFORMATION ON ACTIONS AND LOCAL WORK: AMERIQN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE 1501 Cherry Süeet, Philadelphia, PA 19102 (215) 241-7000 - wwwafsc-. org i! CATHOLIC WORKER 55 E. 3rd Street, New York, NY 10003 (212) 777-9617 U CODE PINK 2010 Linden Ave, Venice. CA 90291 (310) 8274320 - vwwcodepinlmpeaceorg ti FELLOWSHIP OF RECONCILIATION 521 N. Broadway. Nyack New York 10960 (845) 358-4601 - wwwforusaorg 8 NATIONAL WAR TAX RESISTANCE COORDINATING COMMITTEE PO Box 150553, Brooklyn, NY 11215 (800) 269-7464 - wwwnwtrcc org ti THE NIICLEAR RESISTER PO Box 43383, Thcsou. , AZ 85733 (520) 323-8697 - wwwnnckeresistentorg I! NIJKE WATCH 740A Round Lake Road, Luck. W! 54853 (715) 472-4185 - www nukewatchinfoorg ü PEACE ACTION 8630 Fenton St, #524 Silver Spring, MD 20910 (301) 5654050 - wwwpeace-actnonorg IS PHYSICIANS FOR SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY 1875 CormectlcutAve. . NW. #1012 Washington. DC, 20009 (202) 667-4261; - wwwpsaorg WAR RESISTERS LEAGIIE 339 Lafayette Ave. , New York, NY 10012 (212) 228-0450 - wwnvwarresistersorg b WOMEN'S INTERNATIONAL LEAGIJE FOR PEACE AND FREEDOM 11 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116 (617) 266-0999 - wwwwilpíorg OIIGIHIILV PRODUCT) III 199! IV ENOLA GAY ACTION COALITION Sponsored o, War Iesisms lengua m lofayette sn. , lteurVork, nmam - (m) mauso coocarnunors: Tom Keaugh m ltticlnad Sprong carron11 comm: : (ms): Hanna leon Ruth Bean, lenny win. !tinale ttuta. sa ttedeamln. on levin. m» Levinson. an. . nous. David summoner» Miller, Carmen rm. UPDATE (2011): Ruth lean. Jonthan fviedmm, Walter Gaoünltl. Jerry Gordnillí. Ed ttedeuaenll. lib Levinsen. Inn tlosdnelitVidni IMGE. Maureen Shed IIIDII