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Collection of Crime Scene Evidence Chapter 4
Crime Scene Evidence <ul><li>Physical evidence: </li></ul><ul><li>-any/all objects </li></ul><ul><li>-establish that a cri...
Forensic Science <ul><li>Begins at the crime scene:  </li></ul><ul><li>-evidence not recognized </li></ul><ul><li>-cannot ...
Types of Physical Evidence <ul><li>Blood, semen, and saliva </li></ul><ul><li>Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs </li></ul>...
Procedures for Collection <ul><li>Evidence: </li></ul><ul><li>-clearly visible </li></ul><ul><li>-others detected through ...
Procedures for Collection <ul><li>Prevent: </li></ul><ul><li>- contamination </li></ul><ul><li>-breakage </li></ul><ul><li...
Packaging <ul><li>Separate containers </li></ul><ul><li>-individual items </li></ul><ul><li>-similar items found at differ...
Packaging <ul><li>Disposable forceps: </li></ul><ul><li>-small items </li></ul><ul><li>-(why disposable?)  </li></ul><ul><...
Packaging <ul><li>Druggist fold: </li></ul><ul><li>-small trace evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Arson scenes:  </li></ul><ul><l...
Packaging <ul><li>Biological/bloodstained materials: </li></ul><ul><li>-air dry </li></ul><ul><li>-paper packaging </li></...
Packaging <ul><li>DNA: </li></ul><ul><li>-contamination is key concern </li></ul><ul><li>-DNA-containing specimens </li></...
Chain of Custody <ul><li>Chain of Custody: </li></ul><ul><li>-must be established for evidence admitted into court  </li><...
Obtaining Reference Samples <ul><li>Standard/Reference Sample: </li></ul><ul><li>- evidence whose origin is known </li></u...
Submitting Evidence <ul><li>Evidence submitted to the laboratory: </li></ul><ul><li>-personal delivery </li></ul><ul><li>-...
Crime Scene Safety <ul><li>Crime scenes: </li></ul><ul><li>-biological specimens of unknown origin </li></ul><ul><li>-no w...
Crime Scene Safety <ul><li>Particle mask/respirator, goggles, face shield when potentially infectious dust or mist are pre...
Search and Seizure Protocols <ul><li>Fourth Amendment: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The right of the people to be secure in their p...
Search and Seizure Protocols <ul><li>Supreme Court ruled search and seizure without a court-approved warrant is justified ...
Search and Seizure Landmark Cases <ul><li>Mapp v. Ohio (1961) </li></ul><ul><li>Terry v. Ohio (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Chi...
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Fs Ch4

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Fs Ch4

  1. 1. Collection of Crime Scene Evidence Chapter 4
  2. 2. Crime Scene Evidence <ul><li>Physical evidence: </li></ul><ul><li>-any/all objects </li></ul><ul><li>-establish that a crime has been committed </li></ul><ul><li>-provide a link between a crime/victim or a crime/perpetrator </li></ul><ul><li>-presence must be recognized at scene </li></ul>
  3. 3. Forensic Science <ul><li>Begins at the crime scene: </li></ul><ul><li>-evidence not recognized </li></ul><ul><li>-cannot be properly preserved </li></ul><ul><li>-has no use in the lab </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Physical Evidence <ul><li>Blood, semen, and saliva </li></ul><ul><li>Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Explosives </li></ul><ul><li>Fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Fingerprints </li></ul><ul><li>Firearms and ammunition </li></ul><ul><li>Glass </li></ul><ul><li>Hair </li></ul><ul><li>Impressions </li></ul><ul><li>Organs and physiological fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Paint </li></ul><ul><li>Petroleum products </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic bags </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic, rubber, and other polymers </li></ul><ul><li>Powder residues </li></ul><ul><li>Soil and minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Tool marks </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle lights </li></ul><ul><li>Wood and other vegetative matter </li></ul>
  5. 5. Procedures for Collection <ul><li>Evidence: </li></ul><ul><li>-clearly visible </li></ul><ul><li>-others detected through lab exam </li></ul><ul><li>Imperative to collect: </li></ul><ul><li>-possible carriers of trace evidence </li></ul><ul><li>-clothing/vacuum sweepings/fingernail scrapings </li></ul>
  6. 6. Procedures for Collection <ul><li>Prevent: </li></ul><ul><li>- contamination </li></ul><ul><li>-breakage </li></ul><ul><li>-evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>-improper/careless packaging </li></ul><ul><li>-keep in original condition </li></ul>
  7. 7. Packaging <ul><li>Separate containers </li></ul><ul><li>-individual items </li></ul><ul><li>-similar items found at different locations </li></ul><ul><li>-prevents cross-contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Well-prepared collector: </li></ul><ul><li>-assortment packaging materials </li></ul><ul><li>-tools </li></ul>
  8. 8. Packaging <ul><li>Disposable forceps: </li></ul><ul><li>-small items </li></ul><ul><li>-(why disposable?) </li></ul><ul><li>Unbreakable plastic pill bottles w/pressure lids: </li></ul><ul><li>-hairs/glass/fibers/trace evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Manila envelopes/screw-cap glass vials/cardboard pillboxes: </li></ul><ul><li>-most trace evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary mailing envelopes should not be used: </li></ul><ul><li>-powders/fine particles leak out corners </li></ul>
  9. 9. Packaging <ul><li>Druggist fold: </li></ul><ul><li>-small trace evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Arson scenes: </li></ul><ul><li>-airtight metal/glass containers </li></ul><ul><li>-prevent loss of accelerant vapors </li></ul>
  10. 10. Packaging <ul><li>Biological/bloodstained materials: </li></ul><ul><li>-air dry </li></ul><ul><li>-paper packaging </li></ul><ul><li>-prevents growth of mold/deterioration </li></ul>
  11. 11. Packaging <ul><li>DNA: </li></ul><ul><li>-contamination is key concern </li></ul><ul><li>-DNA-containing specimens </li></ul><ul><li>-coughing/sneezing </li></ul><ul><li>-evidenced placed in contact with each other during packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent contamination: </li></ul><ul><li>-face mask </li></ul><ul><li>-gloves </li></ul><ul><li>-disposable forceps </li></ul>
  12. 12. Chain of Custody <ul><li>Chain of Custody: </li></ul><ul><li>-must be established for evidence admitted into court </li></ul><ul><li>-adherence to standard procedures </li></ul><ul><li>-location of evidence </li></ul><ul><li>-marking for identification </li></ul><ul><li>-evidence submission forms for labs </li></ul><ul><li>Every person who handled or examined the evidence and where it is at all times must be accounted for. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Obtaining Reference Samples <ul><li>Standard/Reference Sample: </li></ul><ul><li>- evidence whose origin is known </li></ul><ul><li>-blood/hair from a suspect </li></ul><ul><li>-examination of evidence requires comparison with known standard/reference sample </li></ul><ul><li>-few investigators aware of necessity/importance of providing thorough sampling of standard/reference materials </li></ul>
  14. 14. Submitting Evidence <ul><li>Evidence submitted to the laboratory: </li></ul><ul><li>-personal delivery </li></ul><ul><li>-mail shipment </li></ul><ul><li>-packaging evidence to prevent breakage/accidental destruction </li></ul><ul><li>-laboratories require evidence submission form accompany all evidence </li></ul><ul><li>-case information analyst to make complete examination </li></ul>
  15. 15. Crime Scene Safety <ul><li>Crime scenes: </li></ul><ul><li>-biological specimens of unknown origin </li></ul><ul><li>-no way of gauging health hazards </li></ul><ul><li>-use caution and protection at all times </li></ul><ul><li>International Association for Identification Safety Committee: </li></ul><ul><li>-latex gloves (double gloved) </li></ul><ul><li>-masks </li></ul><ul><li>-protective shoe covers </li></ul>
  16. 16. Crime Scene Safety <ul><li>Particle mask/respirator, goggles, face shield when potentially infectious dust or mist are present </li></ul><ul><li>Be alert to sharp objects, knives, hypodermic syringes, razor blades, and similar items </li></ul><ul><li>Red biohazard plastic bag: </li></ul><ul><li>-disposal of contaminated gloves, clothing, masks, pencils, wrapping paper </li></ul>
  17. 17. Search and Seizure Protocols <ul><li>Fourth Amendment: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizure, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Search and Seizure Protocols <ul><li>Supreme Court ruled search and seizure without a court-approved warrant is justified in four cases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exigent circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent the immediate loss or destruction of evidence (plain view) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search a person/property within the immediate control of the person incident to lawful arrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consent of the parties involved </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Search and Seizure Landmark Cases <ul><li>Mapp v. Ohio (1961) </li></ul><ul><li>Terry v. Ohio (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Chimel v. CA (1969) </li></ul><ul><li>Mincey v. Arizona (1978) </li></ul><ul><li>Michigan v. Tyler (1978) </li></ul>

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