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Fs Ch 7

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Fs Ch 7

  1. 1. Fingerprints Chapter 7
  2. 2. History <ul><li>Alphonse Bertillon: </li></ul><ul><li>-anthropometry/father of criminal identification </li></ul><ul><li>1892 Francis Galton published classic textbook Finger Prints </li></ul><ul><li>-British government adopted fingerprinting as a supplement to Bertillon system </li></ul><ul><li>-classification systems needed to file thousands of prints in logical/searchable sequence </li></ul>
  3. 3. History <ul><li>Dr Juan Vucetich (Arentina): </li></ul><ul><li>-classification system </li></ul><ul><li>-used in most Spanish-speaking countries </li></ul><ul><li>-1892 single f/p solved homicide </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Edward Henry (UK): </li></ul><ul><li>-classification system using the fingerprint pattern/ridge counts </li></ul><ul><li>-Henry system used in English-speaking countries </li></ul><ul><li>-uses a formula to assign numerical values to types of print patterns </li></ul><ul><li>-filed under that numeric system </li></ul>
  4. 4. History <ul><li>1850’s: </li></ul><ul><li>-photographing inmates for ID purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Allan Pinkerton: </li></ul><ul><li>-rogues gallery </li></ul><ul><li>NYPD Detective Thomas Byrnes: </li></ul><ul><li>-NYPD gallery </li></ul><ul><li>-“mug” shots </li></ul>
  5. 5. History <ul><li>Will West/William West (1903) </li></ul><ul><li>-Leavenworth prison </li></ul><ul><li>-2 inmates/same name/same anthropometrical measurements </li></ul><ul><li>-fingerprints distinguished them </li></ul><ul><li>1904 World’s Fair: </li></ul><ul><li>-Scotland Yard introduces fingerprinting to US Police </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mug shots <ul><li>NYPD: original collection of mug shots </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mug shots <ul><li>Collection of mug shots </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mug Shots <ul><li>John Dillinger </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mug Shots <ul><li>Alphonse Capone </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mug Shots <ul><li>James Brown </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mug Shots <ul><li>Nick Nolte </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>What are fingerprints? </li></ul><ul><li>Friction ridge skin pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Found on fingers, palms, toes, soles of feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of ridges (hills) and furrows (valleys) </li></ul>Black = Ridges White = Valleys Fingerprints
  13. 13. <ul><li>What are fingerprints? </li></ul><ul><li>Develop in early embryonic development. </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern based on genetics, detail somewhat random </li></ul><ul><li>Identical twins do not have identical fingerprints </li></ul>Fingerprints
  14. 14. There are 3 types of fingerprints <ul><li>Visible – left by dirt, grease, blood, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not need processing </li></ul></ul>Fingerprints
  15. 15. There are 3 types of fingerprints <ul><li>Impression – indentation in soft material (butter, putty, tar, etc.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not need processing </li></ul></ul>Fingerprints
  16. 16. There are 3 types of fingerprints <ul><li>Latent – requires processing to make visible and suitable for analysis </li></ul>Fingerprints
  17. 17. What are the invisible components? Multiple sweat glands secrete onto fingers, palms, etc. Sweat contains: <ul><ul><li>Inorganic ions (Na + , Cl - ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins, amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul></ul>Fingerprints > Analysis
  18. 18. Visible prints
  19. 19. Fingerprint Principles <ul><li>Fingerprints: </li></ul><ul><li>-reproduction of friction skin ridges found on the palm side of the fingers/thumbs </li></ul><ul><li>3 principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness: </li></ul><ul><li>Permanence: </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns: </li></ul>
  20. 20. Principle One <ul><li>Millions of fingerprint comparisons: </li></ul><ul><li>-no two fingerprints have been found to be identical </li></ul><ul><li>-identification is based on ridge characteristics (minutiae) </li></ul><ul><li>-identity/number/relative location of minutiae </li></ul><ul><li>-imparts individuality to a fingerprint </li></ul><ul><li>-as many as 150 minutiae on the average finger </li></ul>
  21. 21. Principle One <ul><li>Points? How many required for ID in US Courts? </li></ul><ul><li>-“no valid basis exists for requiring a predetermined minimum number of friction ridge characters which must be present in two impressions in order to establish positive identification” </li></ul><ul><li>-sufficient number of friction ridge details present for conclusion 100% </li></ul>
  22. 22. Principle One <ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><li>-Subject made the print </li></ul><ul><li>-Subject could not have made the print </li></ul><ul><li>-Print had insufficient detail to be evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>In a judicial proceeding, an expert must demonstrate a point-by-point comparison in order to prove the identity of an individual. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Principle Two <ul><li>Epidermis: </li></ul><ul><li>-outer layer of the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Dermis: </li></ul><ul><li>-inner layer of the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Dermal papillae: </li></ul><ul><li>-layer of cells between the epidermis and dermis/determines form and pattern of the ridges on the surface of the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>-develops in the fetus/remains unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>-skin ridge is populated with pores leading to sweat glands from which perspiration is deposited on the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>-finger touches a surface, </li></ul><ul><li>-perspiration transferred onto that surface, leaving the finger’s ridge pattern (a fingerprint). </li></ul>
  24. 24. Principle Three <ul><li>Fingerprints classified based on patterns: </li></ul><ul><li>Loop: </li></ul><ul><li>-60 % </li></ul>
  25. 25. Principle Three <ul><li>Whorls: </li></ul><ul><li>35% </li></ul>
  26. 26. Whorls <ul><li>Double Loop Whorl </li></ul><ul><li>Accidental Whorl </li></ul>
  27. 27. Principle Three <ul><li>ARCHES: </li></ul><ul><li>Least common type of pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Only 5% of all patterns </li></ul><ul><li>2 subcategories: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Plain </li></ul><ul><li>b. Tented </li></ul>
  28. 28. Arches <ul><li>Plain </li></ul><ul><li>Tented </li></ul>
  29. 29. Developing Prints <ul><li>Latent prints hard/nonabsorbent surfaces (substrates):powder </li></ul><ul><li>Latent prints on porous surfaces: chemical </li></ul>
  30. 30. Detecting Prints <ul><li>Reflected Ultraviolet Imaging System (RUVIS): </li></ul><ul><li>-no chemicals or powder. </li></ul><ul><li>Powders: </li></ul><ul><li>-variety of colors </li></ul><ul><li>-brush/magnetic wand </li></ul><ul><li>-adhere to perspiration and/or body oils </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine fuming: </li></ul><ul><li>-heating iodine crystals release vapors </li></ul><ul><li>- not permanent and will fade </li></ul>
  31. 31. Detecting Prints <ul><li>Ninhydrin: </li></ul><ul><li>-reacts to amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>-produce a purple-blue color </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Developer : </li></ul><ul><li>-reagent used when other chemical methods are ineffective. </li></ul><ul><li>Super Glue ®: </li></ul><ul><li>- cyanoacrylate ester </li></ul><ul><li>-fuming chamber (for up to six hours) </li></ul><ul><li>-handheld wand </li></ul>
  32. 32. Developing Prints <ul><li>Fluorescence: </li></ul><ul><li>-prints treated with chemicals that induce fluorescence when exposed to lasers/high-intensity light sources </li></ul><ul><li>-permanently preserve comparison/court evidence </li></ul><ul><li>-photographs must be taken before attempts at lifting </li></ul>
  33. 33. Physical Development: Dusting <ul><li>Apply powder to latent print or area. </li></ul><ul><li>Powder adheres to print. </li></ul>Brush and Powder Fingerprints > Analysis
  34. 34. Physical Development: Dusting <ul><li>Apply powder to latent print or area. </li></ul><ul><li>Powder adheres to print. </li></ul>Magnetic Brush and Powder Fingerprints > Analysis
  35. 35. Powder <ul><li>Latent print developed with powder </li></ul>
  36. 36. Powder <ul><li>Print in dust: </li></ul><ul><li>Left-actual print </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-developed with powder </li></ul><ul><li>Right-photographed </li></ul>
  37. 37. Powder <ul><li>Shell casing </li></ul>
  38. 38. Chemical Development: <ul><li>Iodine Fuming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine sublimes (solid -> gas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine reacts with lipid components; becomes trapped in the print. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuming wand or chamber </li></ul></ul>Dirty Brown Color Fingerprints > Analysis
  39. 39. Chemical Development: <ul><li>Ninhydrin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reacts with amino acids; purple color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Painted or sprayed on area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heated to react </li></ul></ul>Fingerprints > Analysis
  40. 40. Chemical Development: <ul><li>Super glue fuming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fumes with heat or base (NaOH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fumed in cabinets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Off-white print </li></ul></ul>Fingerprints > Analysis
  41. 41. Chemical Development: Ninhydrin and super glue prints can be further processed: <ul><ul><li>Dusted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemically treated to fluoresce (using laser or alternative light) </li></ul></ul>Fingerprints > Analysis
  42. 42. Development <ul><li>Fingerprints on the inside of a rubber glove </li></ul>
  43. 43. Development <ul><li>Fingerprints developed on plastic bag </li></ul>
  44. 44. Development <ul><li>Inside of rubber gloves treated with ninhydrin </li></ul>
  45. 45. Development <ul><li>Ninhydrin </li></ul>
  46. 46. Development <ul><li>Ninhydrin-Note initials at top-CHAIN OF CUSTODY </li></ul>
  47. 47. Development <ul><li>Super glue developed prints </li></ul>
  48. 48. Super glue <ul><li>Heating unit </li></ul>
  49. 49. Super Glue <ul><li>Drops of glue added and heated </li></ul>
  50. 50. Super Glue <ul><li>Do it yourself super glue chamber </li></ul>
  51. 51. Developing <ul><li>Latent prints visulaized using fluorescent powder </li></ul>
  52. 52. Developing <ul><li>Different colored fluorescent powder </li></ul>
  53. 53. Development and Collection : <ul><li>No rule: Depends on situation </li></ul><ul><li>Fingerprint must be photographed after development (scene or lab) </li></ul>Fingerprints > Analysis Scene or Lab?
  54. 54. Development and Collection <ul><li>Small objects: </li></ul><ul><li>-preserved/transported in entirety </li></ul><ul><li>Large immovable objects: </li></ul><ul><li>-develop prints with powder </li></ul><ul><li>-“lifting” with a broad adhesive tape </li></ul><ul><li>-tape is placed on labeled card providing good background contrast with the powder </li></ul>
  55. 55. Digital Imaging <ul><li>Digital imaging: </li></ul><ul><li>-picture converted into a digital computer file </li></ul><ul><li>-fingerprints enhanced for the most accurate/ comprehensive analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Compare function: </li></ul><ul><li>-two images side by side </li></ul><ul><li>-allows the examiner to chart the both images simultaneously </li></ul>
  56. 56. Collection of prints: Tape lift: <ul><ul><li>Tape placed over developed print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape then placed on white card. </li></ul></ul>Fingerprints > Collection
  57. 57. Collection of prints: Sometimes a photograph will be the only permanent record. Fingerprints > Collection
  58. 58. Fingerprint Kit
  59. 59. <ul><li>How are fingerprints analyzed? </li></ul>Categorized by pattern and minutiae Fingerprints
  60. 60. <ul><li>How are fingerprints analyzed? </li></ul>Patterns Loop Whorl Arch Fingerprints
  61. 61. <ul><li>How are fingerprints analyzed? </li></ul>Minutiae Dot Bifurcation Island Ridge Ending Fingerprints
  62. 62. AFIS <ul><li>Computer scans/digitally encode fingerprints </li></ul><ul><li>-aids in classifying and retrieving fingerprints </li></ul><ul><li>-converts image of fingerprint into digital minutiae </li></ul><ul><li>-contain data showing minutia </li></ul><ul><li>-produces a list of file prints </li></ul><ul><li>-must be examined by a trained fingerprint expert </li></ul>
  63. 63. Old system of fingerprints
  64. 64. AFIS
  65. 65. Modern Fingerprint Analysis <ul><li>Computer system stores patterns and minutiae of prints </li></ul><ul><li>AFIS: automated fingerprint identification system </li></ul>Fingerprints
  66. 66. Computer software compares the location of these minutiae. Fingerprints
  67. 67. AFIS <ul><li>AFIS highlights all the identifiable minutia. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Madrid Bombing Timeline <ul><li>March 11, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorists bomb several trains in Madrid, Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>March 13, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LPU receives electronic transmission of digital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>images (no info, scale, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 latent prints </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known exemplars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>March 19, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LPU identifies/verifies one latent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fingerprint as a result of an automated search </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>April 13, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish National Police (SNP) issues ‘negativo’ report regarding latent print </li></ul></ul><ul><li>April 21, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LPU rep travels to Spain to provide basis of identification to SNP </li></ul></ul>Madrid
  70. 70. <ul><li>May 6, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brandon Mayfield arrested by FBI Portland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 19, 2004 (in California) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense expert verifies FBI identification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 19, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SNP informs FBI they have identified the latent fingerprint with another individual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 20, 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judge releases Mayfield </li></ul></ul>Madrid
  71. 71. MADRID BOMBING

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