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A451 introduction to cpu (2-12)

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A451 introduction to cpu (2-12)

  1. 1. Introduction to the CPU A451 – 2.12 Computer Hardware (GCSE Computing)
  2. 2. Today’s tasks <ul><li>Do NOT log on </li></ul><ul><li>Open your GCSE Computing exercise book and write title “ Central Processing Unit ” and put today’s date . </li></ul><ul><li>Look at “ Get your brains logged on ” activity whilst register is being taken. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Get your brains logged on! <ul><li>Compare the PC specs below – which would you buy? </li></ul>1 2 3 4
  4. 4. Computer Performance Number of cores Clock speed Cache size RAM (Random Access Memory)
  5. 5. By the end of this lesson: <ul><li>All of you will be able to explain what the CPU does in a computer system </li></ul><ul><li>Most of you will understand how the CPU performance is affected by clock speed , cache size and number of cores . </li></ul><ul><li>A few of you will be aware of how “bottlenecks” can slow down performance. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What does it do? <ul><li>C entral </li></ul><ul><li>P rocessing </li></ul><ul><li>U nit </li></ul>Fetches and Executes Instructions
  7. 7. Copy in your books and fill in the blanks using the words below: <ul><li>CPU stands for _______ _____________ ______. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the _______ of the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of the CPU is to ______ and ________ instructions. </li></ul>Keywords: brain, execute, central, fetch, processing, unit
  8. 8. Clock speed
  9. 9. Clock speed Slow Less cycles per second = less instructions processed per second Fast More cycles per second = more instructions processed per second Cycles per second are measured in Hertz (Hz). A gigahertz (GHz) is 1000 million cycles per second!
  10. 10. Copy in your books and fill in the blanks using the words below: <ul><li>The Clock speed is the number of ___________ the computer can carry out per second. </li></ul><ul><li>A 1 ____ processor can process 1000 million _____________ per second. </li></ul><ul><li>More _______ ____ _________ means more instructions per second can be processed by the CPU. </li></ul>Keywords: instructions, cycles per second, cycles, GHz
  11. 11. Cache size RAM CPU Count the number of unused (missed) cycles whilst the CPU waits for data to arrive from the RAM.
  12. 12. Cache size RAM The Cache acts like a holding area for instructions from the RAM ensuring that the CPU is always busy. Cache CPU
  13. 13. Copy in your books and fill in the blanks using the words below: <ul><li>The cache acts as a buffer between the ____ and the ____. </li></ul><ul><li>The RAM cannot always provide instructions fast enough to the CPU. This results in lost cycles and ______ performance. </li></ul><ul><li>The cache stores multiple ____________ at once from the RAM and then passes them one at a time to the CPU. </li></ul><ul><li>This way the CPU is always busy and ________ performance by reducing the number of lost cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>A ________ cache can store more instructions at once. </li></ul><ul><li>Cache size is measured in __________. </li></ul>Keywords: larger, megabytes (MB), instructions, improves, RAM, lowers, CPU
  14. 14. Number of Cores RAM Core 1 Core 2 Dual-core processor Two instructions can be carried out in the same cycle. The cores work simultaneously and share the processing load.
  15. 15. Copy in your books and fill in the blanks using the words below: <ul><li>A single core processor can only carry out ____ instruction at once. </li></ul><ul><li>However, a multi-core processor can carry out ________________ instruction at once. </li></ul><ul><li>By carrying out the processing of ___________ instructions simultaneously, the CPU can share the load of running the __________. </li></ul>Keywords: more than one, one, programs, multiple
  16. 16. Research <ul><li>Research computer specifications on the following websites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.pcworld.co.uk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.dell.co.uk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.novatech.co.uk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Find out the common CPU and RAM specifications for the latest gaming and business computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify any bottlenecks in the specifications. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Exam Practice <ul><li>Answer both examination questions related to CPU performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Each question has a number in brackets after it. This is the maximum number of marks available. If a question has 2 marks then you need to make two points in your answer. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Exam Questions <ul><li>2(a) Mary’s computer has an 800Mhz CPU and 1GB of RAM. Describe the purpose of the CPU. [2] </li></ul><ul><li>2(b) Mary wants to upgrade this computer so that she can play the latest games. Explain two ways by which the computer can be upgraded to improve its performance. [4] </li></ul>
  19. 19. Exam answers <ul><li>2(a) Mary’s computer has an 800Mhz CPU and 1GB of RAM. Describe the purpose of the CPU. </li></ul><ul><li>Controls the operations of the computer [1] </li></ul><ul><li>Fetches [1] and executes instructions (to allow software to run) [1] </li></ul><ul><li>Max 2 marks. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Exam answers <ul><li>2(b) Mary wants to upgrade this computer so that she can play the latest games. Explain two ways by which the computer can be upgraded to improve its performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher processor speed [1] to increase the number of instructions the processor can carry out in a given time [1] </li></ul><ul><li>CPU with more cores [1] which share the load of running the game [1] </li></ul><ul><li>More RAM [1] to increase the number of programs/amount of data that the computer can handle at the same time [1] </li></ul><ul><li>2 marks per bullet. Max 4 marks. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Play your CPUs right Nice to see you, to see you nice! I’m going to show you a series of computer specifications and I want you decide whether they are higher or lower performance than the previous computer.
  22. 22. Play your CPUs right 900MHz 1MB Cache Single Core Processor 1GB RAM 1 GHz 1MB Cache Single Core Processor 1GB RAM
  23. 23. Play your CPUs right 1 GHz 1MB Cache Single Core Processor 1GB RAM 1 GHz 0MB Cache Single Core Processor 1GB RAM
  24. 24. Play your CPUs right 1 GHz 0MB Cache Single Core Processor 1GB RAM 900MHz 1MB Cache Dual Core Processor 2GB RAM
  25. 25. Play your CPUs right 900MHz 1MB Cache Quad Core Processor 2GB RAM 900MHz 1MB Cache Dual Core Processor 2GB RAM
  26. 26. Lesson Objectives recap: <ul><li>All of you will be able to explain what the CPU does in a computer system </li></ul><ul><li>Most of you will understand how the CPU performance is affected by clock speed , cache size and number of cores . </li></ul><ul><li>A few of you will be aware of how “bottlenecks” can slow down performance. </li></ul>

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