English grammar by Dr.Larik for MBA Students


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English grammar by Dr.Larik for MBA Students

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English grammar by Dr.Larik for MBA Students

  1. 1. Sentence <ul><li>A group of words with a verb, making sense. Assertive/affirmative/positive/Declaratory sentence: making statements and assertions, Interrogative sentences, asking questions, Imperative sentences, expressing commands/requests, Exclamatory sentences, expressing feelings/emotions/sentiments. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Subject and Predicate <ul><li>In a sentence, we have a subject to speak about and we predicate or say about the subject (Predicate). Subject sometimes comes at the end: Here comes the bus . In imperative sentences, the subject is left out: Thank him (You). </li></ul><ul><li>Phrase gives no complete sense: e.g. in the corner. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Clause <ul><li>It is a group of words in a sentence, containing subject and predicate but making no sense independently: we can’t start, while it is raining . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Parts of Speech <ul><li>Noun, Pronoun, adjective, adverb, preposition, verb, conjunction, interjection. Some grammarians include articles as parts of speech and some consider them as adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Noun is a word including all objects/persons/things we can see, hear, taste, touch, smell and things we think of but cant see as, wisdom, ignorance etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Common Noun : a name given to in common to every person, place or thing of the same class. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper Noun: a name of particular person, place or thing. They are also used as common nouns; as, He is the Shakespeare of Pakistan.( a great dramatist) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Collective noun : name of number/collection of persons/places/objects; as, crowd, jury etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract Noun : is the name of a quality, action or state of things and objects; as goodness, (quality), growth (action) childhood, music (state) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Countable nouns : books, chairs etc. Uncountable : milk, sugar etc. Plural of countable nouns is made by adding s,es,en etc., y is changed to ies. Some plurals remain same fish - fish and fishes, sheep, deer remain same, some nouns are used as plural - scissors, spectacles etc. Maths, electronics is used as singular. Formula is formulae or formulas, index-indices </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Crises – crises, thesis – theses, basis – bases, criterion –criteria, radius – radii, bandit – banditti, brother – brothers/brethren, madam – madame, die – dies, air – atmosphere, good (benefit) goods, respect –respects (regards) iron has no plural, Irons means chains. Abstract nouns have no plural –kind –acts of kindness, mercy – acts of mercy.s </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Some plurals have different meanings: means ( method, way of living), colors – flags of a regiment, customs – duty levied on goods. effect (result) effects –property, manner (method), manners ( moral behavior, numbers – verses, pains –suffering, premise – proposition, premises – building, quarters – lodging, letters – literature, grounds – enclosed land, dregs –impurities in liquors </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Noun: Case Nominative Case: When a noun or pronoun is used as the subject of a verb, it is a nominative case; as: Ajmal threw a stone The horse kicked the boy
  11. 11. Objective or Accusative case: <ul><li>The boy broke the window ( direct object) </li></ul><ul><li>I bought Arjun a ball (Indirect object) </li></ul><ul><li>Possessive or Genitive Case: </li></ul><ul><li>This is Roshan’s umbrella (belonging to) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Objective/Genitive case does not always denote Possession. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Shakespeare’s plays (plays written by Shakespeare) For goodness’ sake, Boys' school, Goldsmith’s and Cooper’s poems etc. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Nouns in apposition <ul><li>Rashid, our captain , made fifty runs. When one noun follows another to describe it, the noun which follows is said to be in apposition. (apposition means placing near). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Adjective: <ul><li>Adjective: A word used with a noun to describe or point out, the person, animal, place or object, is called an adjective: </li></ul><ul><li>The lazy boy was punished, The boy is lazy . </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Adjective of quality or Descriptive adjective : It shows the kind or quality of a person, object or thing: He is an honest man. These adjectives show ‘of what kind?’ Adjectives formed from proper nouns is called Proper adjective : This is a grammar of the English language. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Adjective of quantity shows ‘How much’? of a thing is meant as, I ate some ice. It answers the question: ‘How much’? </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Adjective of number or numeral adjective shows how many persons or objects are meant as, The hand has five fingers. It answers the question : How many? </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Definite numeral adjective: denotes cardinals as: one, two, three etc. and ordinals as: first, second etc. I ndefinite numeral adjectives do not denote any definite number as: all, some, certain etc. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Distributive numeral adjective refer to each one of a number as: Each boy must take his turn, either pen will do, every thing is wrong here. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Demonstrative adjectives point out which person or thing is meant and answer the question: which? as This boy is correct. Interrogative adjective asks questions as: Which way shall we go? </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Degrees of adjectives : Positive or first degree involves no comparison as, He is a good boy. Comparative or Second degree: When two objects are compared as, He is better than the other. Superlative or third degree: when an object, a person or thing is compared with the entire class: He is the best of all boys. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The use of article: A,an,the <ul><li>The adjectives a, an and the are usually called articles. They are demonstrative adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>A or an is called indefinite article because they refer to indefinite persons, things. e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>a doctor, an elephant ( any doctor, any elephant). </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The’ is definite article pointing to a definite thing. e.g. The book I borrowed. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Pronoun <ul><li>It is a word used instead of a noun. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal pronouns : </li></ul><ul><li>Ist person masculine or feminine </li></ul><ul><li>Nominative case: I, We </li></ul><ul><li>Possessive case: my, mine, our, ours </li></ul><ul><li>Accusative cssase: me, us </li></ul>
  24. 24. Second Person: masculine & feminine <ul><li>Nominative: you, you </li></ul><ul><li>Possessive: your, yours </li></ul><ul><li>Accusative: you. </li></ul><ul><li>Third person: </li></ul><ul><li>Nominative: He, she, it, they </li></ul><ul><li>Possessive: His, her, hers. its. They </li></ul><ul><li>Accusative: him, her, it , them </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Reflexive pronoun : When the action done by the subject turns back or reflects upon the subject: I hurt myself. Emphatic pronoun : When compound pronouns are used for emphasis as: I will do it myself . </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrative pronoun : Pointing to objects to which they refer as: This is my book. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Indefinite pronoun : refers to persons or objects in general, as: Did you ask anybody . </li></ul><ul><li>Distributive Pronoun : refers to persons, things, one at a time, as: Each of the boys gets prize. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Reciprocal pronoun : The brothers quarreled with each other . </li></ul><ul><li>Relative pronoun : I met Ajmal who had just returned (nominative), These are the boys whose exercises are done well (genitive), These are the boys whom all praise ( accusative), few and short are the prayers (which ) we said. (omission), who so digs a pit shall fall therein. (compound) </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Verb (Transitive and intransitive) <ul><li>A verb is a word that tells or asserts something about a person or thing. It comes from the Latin word, verbum, a word. It is so called because it is the most important word in a sentence. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>A transitive verb is that which denotes an action which passes over from the doer or subject to an object; ( The boy laughs at him , The boy walks the horse ); whereas an intransitive verb denotes an action which does not pass over to an object, or which expresses a state or being: The boy laughs loudly, The horse walks. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Adverb <ul><li>It is a word that modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another verb. It shows the time, frequency, degree or quantity, place, affirmation or negation, reason and manner in which the action has taken place, as: I have heard it before (time), I have told you twice (frequency), He was too careless. (degree) He works over here ( place), Yes , I did, No, I didn’t (affirmation and negation), </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>He, therefore, left the school (reason), He solved the sum quickly. All these adverbs are known as simple adverbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogative adverbs : Where is Abdul? </li></ul><ul><li>Relative adverb : Show me the house where (in which) he was assassinated. Here the word ‘where’ relates or refers to its antecedent house. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Sometimes the two forms of adverbs have different meanings and are same as adjectives, as Ajmal works hard ( diligently), I could hardly (scarcely) recognize him. </li></ul><ul><li>Some adverbs are used as nouns after prepositions as: He lives far from here (this place) </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Some adverbs sometimes seem to be used as adjectives when some participle or adjective is understood; as: the then King ( the king then reigning). ‘The’ is not used as definite article, but an old demonstrative pronoun used as an adverb as: The more the merrier ( how much the more by so much the merrier. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Nouns expressing adverbial relations or time, place, distance,weight,measurement, value, degree, or the like, are often used as adverbs: The siege lasted a week . This is known as adverbial accusative. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes verbs are used as Adverbs: Smack went the whip. </li></ul>
  35. 38. It shows the relation between two nouns, adjective and noun and verb and noun: There is a cow in the field, he is fond of tea, the cat jumped off the chair . Simple prepositions are: at, by. for, from, etc. Compound prepositions are: within, outside underneath etc . Phrase preposition: In course of time , he saw his mistake. Participle prepositions: Concerning (about) yesterday’s fire, there are many rumors in the bazar. Special prepositions: I cannot accept less than forty rupees for this article, What can he do but (except) die.
  36. 39. <ul><li>‘ a’ is a weakened form of the preposition on: Her wages are ten rupees a day, I meet him once a week. We should not use infinitive as: He is addicted to gambling (not to gamble) exception: He is afraid of telling the truth, he is afraid to tell the truth. Prepositions may not be inserted where they are not required: Where have you been to (‘to’ is not required). </li></ul>
  37. 40. Conjunction <ul><li>It joins two words, two sentences: she must weep or she will die, God made the country and man made the town. Conjunctions may be distinguished from relative pronoun and relative adverb: </li></ul><ul><li>This is the house that Jack built ( pronoun) </li></ul><ul><li>This is the place where he was born (adverb), take this and give that (Conjunction) </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>Conjunction shows time: I would die before I lie, he may enter, as he is my friend( reason), we eat so that we may live ( purpose), he was so tired that he could scarcely stand ( result), Ajmal will go if Ashraf goes ( condition), a book is a book although there’s nothing in it ( concession), he is stronger than Ali (is). </li></ul>
  39. 42. <ul><li>Certain words are used both as prepositions and conjunctions: </li></ul><ul><li>Stay till Monday (prep.), we shall stay till you return ( conj), he died for his country (prep.), I must stay here, for such is my duty (conj), He stood before the painting (Prep), look before you leap ( conj), the dog ran after the boy (prep), we came after they had left (conj), </li></ul>
  40. 43. Interjection <ul><li>It is used to express sudden feeling or emotion, joy: hurrah!, huzza!, grief: </li></ul><ul><li>alas!, surprise: ha!, what!, approval: bravo! Some other examples are: Ah me!, for shame!, well done!, good gracious! </li></ul>
  41. 44. Tenses <ul><li>There are three main tenses: </li></ul><ul><li>Present tense : I write this letter, The boy writes the letter, The boys write letters. </li></ul><ul><li>Future Tense : I shall write this letter. </li></ul><ul><li>Past tense : I wrote this letter </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes a past tense may refer to present time, as: I wish I knew the answer ( I’m sorry I don’t know the answer). </li></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>A present tense may express a future time: Let's wait till he comes. ( giving a future </li></ul><ul><li>sense). </li></ul><ul><li>The present tense has four forms: </li></ul><ul><li>I write the letter (Present simple) </li></ul><ul><li>I am writing … (Present continuous) </li></ul><ul><li>I have written… (Present Perfect Tense) </li></ul><ul><li>I have been writing ( Present per cont. T) </li></ul>
  43. 46. <ul><li>A past tense has four forms: </li></ul><ul><li>I wrote the letter (simple past) </li></ul><ul><li>I was writing a letter (past continuous) </li></ul><ul><li>I had written a letter (past perfect) </li></ul><ul><li>I had been writing a letter (Past perfect cont.) </li></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>The future tense has four forms: </li></ul><ul><li>I shall/will write a letter (simple future) </li></ul><ul><li>I shall/ will be writing … ( future cont.) I shall/will have written… ( future perfect) </li></ul><ul><li>I shall/will have been writing..( future per.cont.) </li></ul>
  45. 48. Infinitive Mood <ul><li>It is the base of the verb often followed by ‘to’ </li></ul><ul><li>1. To err is human (like a noun, it is the subject of the verb) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Birds love to sing (like a noun, it is the object of the verb </li></ul><ul><li>3. To respect our parents is our duty (like a noun, it is the subject of the verb, but like a verb, it also takes an object) </li></ul>
  46. 49. <ul><li>4. Like a noun, it is the object of the verb, but like a verb, it takes an object. He refused to obey the orders. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Like a noun, it is the object of the verb, but like a verb, it also takes an object and is modified by an adverb: Many men desire to make money quickly. </li></ul>
  47. 50. <ul><li>The word ‘to’ is prefixed, but in case of some verbs, like bid, let, make need, dare, see, hear, it isn’t: </li></ul><ul><li>Bid him go there I bade him do </li></ul><ul><li>Let him sit down I will not let you go </li></ul><ul><li>Make him stand I made him run </li></ul>
  48. 51. <ul><li>We need not go there, you need not do it, </li></ul><ul><li>You dare not do it, I saw him do it, </li></ul><ul><li>I heard him cry. </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitive without ‘to’ is also used after some verbs: You should work hard, He can speak five languages You must come in time. You had better ask permission, I had rather play than work, I would die rather than suffer so. </li></ul>
  49. 52. Simple Infinitive <ul><li>1. The infinitive with or without adjuncts (enlarging the subject or predicate) may be used, like a noun: </li></ul><ul><li>To find fault is easy To reign is worth ambition </li></ul><ul><li>2. As an object of the transitive verb: </li></ul><ul><li>I do not mean to read He likes to play cards </li></ul><ul><li>3. As the complement of a verb: </li></ul><ul><li>His greatest pleasure is to sing . </li></ul>
  50. 53. <ul><li>4. As the object of the preposition: </li></ul><ul><li>He had no choice but (except) to obey . </li></ul><ul><li>The speaker is about to begin . </li></ul><ul><li>5. As an objective complement: </li></ul><ul><li>I saw him go I made him do it. </li></ul>
  51. 54. Qualifying infinitive <ul><li>1.Qualifying a verb to express purpose: </li></ul><ul><li>He called me to see my mother (purpose) </li></ul><ul><li>We eat to live purpose) I wept to see the destruction (cause) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Qualifying an adjective: Figs are good to eat , the boys are anxious to learn. He is too ill to do any work. </li></ul>
  52. 55. <ul><li>3. Qualifying a noun: This is not the time to play , This house is to let </li></ul><ul><li>4. Qualifying a sentence: To tell the truth. I quite forgot my promise, He was petrified, so to speak . </li></ul>
  53. 56. <ul><li>Infinitives may be active or passive: </li></ul><ul><li>When active, it may have a present and a perfect form: Present - to eat, perfect - To have eaten - present cont - to be eating, perfect cont. - To have been eating. </li></ul><ul><li>When passive the infinitive has present and perfect form. Present - to be eaten perfect - to have been eaten. </li></ul>
  54. 57. Participle <ul><li>Present participle: It partakes of the nature of both verb and adjective. In other words, it is partly a verb and partly an adjective: Hearing (verb) the noise, the boy woke up, He needs hearing (adj.)aids. </li></ul><ul><li>Past participle: It represents a completed action or state of the thing spoken of: </li></ul><ul><li>Deceived by his friends, he lost all hope, time misspent is time lost. </li></ul>
  55. 58. Participle adjectives <ul><li>It is used as simple qualifying adjective: </li></ul><ul><li>A rolling stone gathers no mass. </li></ul><ul><li>A burnt child dreads the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Education is the most pressing need today. </li></ul><ul><li>Used adjectively, the past participle is passive: A burnt child ( a child who is burnt); whereas present participle is active: Rolling stone ( a stone which rolls). </li></ul>
  56. 59. <ul><li>Continuous tenses are formed from the present participle; whereas perfect tenses are formed from the past participle. </li></ul><ul><li>Correct use of participle: Dangling modifier </li></ul><ul><li>Standing at the gate, a scorpion stung him ( as if the scorpion was standing), standing at the gate, he was stung by a scorpion. </li></ul><ul><li>Going up the hill, an old temple was seen. </li></ul><ul><li>When we went up the hill, we saw the temp.. </li></ul>
  57. 60. Gerund <ul><li>It is used as the subject of a verb, and hence does the work of a noun. it is a verb-noun or gerund: Reading is his favorite pastime. Like a noun, is the object of a verb: I like reading poetry. Like a noun,it is governed by a preposition, but like a verb, it takes an object: He is fond of hoarding money. Def: A gerund is that form of the verb which ends in ‘ing’ and has the force of a noun and a verb. </li></ul>
  58. 61. Gerund and Infinitive <ul><li>Since gerund and infinitive have the force of a noun and a verb, they have the same use: To see is to believe, Seeing is believing. Compound gerund is formed by placing a past participle after the gerund: I heard of his having gained a prize. </li></ul>
  59. 62. Since present participle and gerund end in ‘ing’, their use be distinguished: <ul><li>He is fond of playing cricket (Gerund) </li></ul><ul><li>Playing cricket, he gained health.( participle) </li></ul><ul><li>I hope you will excuse my leaving early (possessive case) I hope you will excuse me leaving early. (objective case). </li></ul>
  60. 63. <ul><li>A gerund being a verb-noun, may be used: </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing is believing (subject of the verb) </li></ul><ul><li>Stop playing ( object of the verb) </li></ul><ul><li>I am tired of waiting (Object of a preposition) </li></ul><ul><li>What I most detest is smoking . (Complement of a verb) </li></ul><ul><li>Playing cards being his aversion, we did not play bridge. (Absolute) </li></ul>
  61. 64. Transformation (Passive) <ul><li>General rule: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Only transitive verbs have passive </li></ul><ul><li>2.The object takes the place of the subject </li></ul><ul><li>3 Main verb becomes past participle. </li></ul><ul><li>4. ‘be’ is changed to the tense of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The subject takes place of object, preceded by ‘by’ </li></ul>
  62. 65. <ul><li>active-passive equivalents: </li></ul><ul><li>Tense active Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Present simple sells is sold </li></ul><ul><li>Pre cont. tense is selling is being sold </li></ul><ul><li>Simple past sold was sold </li></ul><ul><li>Past cont. Was selling was being sold </li></ul><ul><li>Present perf has sold has been sold </li></ul><ul><li>Past perf had sold had been sold </li></ul>
  63. 66. <ul><li>Future will sell will be sold </li></ul><ul><li>Conditional would sell would be sold </li></ul><ul><li>Perf cond would have sold would have .. </li></ul><ul><li>Present Infin. To sell to be sold </li></ul><ul><li>Perf Inf. To have sold to have been- </li></ul><ul><li>-ing form selling being sold </li></ul><ul><li>Perf. Participle having sold having been… </li></ul><ul><li>Can/may/ must etc. Can/must be sold </li></ul>
  64. 67. Some examples <ul><li>Boys were helping the wounded man </li></ul><ul><li>(P) The wounded man was being helped … </li></ul><ul><li>The guard refused him admittance </li></ul><ul><li>(P) Admittance was refused by the guard </li></ul><ul><li>He was refused admittance by the guard </li></ul><ul><li>(A) The mangoes taste sour (P) The mangoes are sour when they are tasted. </li></ul>
  65. 68. <ul><li>(A) At least the play reads well (P) the play affects the reader when it is read. </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted them to delay the train. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) He wanted the train to be delayed. </li></ul><ul><li>She liked us to water the flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) She liked the flowers to be watered. </li></ul><ul><li>we’ll invite him to eat dinner. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) He will be invited to eat dinner. </li></ul>
  66. 69. <ul><li>(A) We agreed to take him </li></ul><ul><li>(P) We agreed that he should be taken </li></ul><ul><li>She advised finishing the job </li></ul><ul><li>(P) She advised that the job should be ... </li></ul><ul><li>(A) She suggested driving the car </li></ul><ul><li>(P) She suggested that the car should be… </li></ul><ul><li>He makes Jamil rest </li></ul><ul><li>(P) Jamil is made to rest </li></ul>
  67. 70. <ul><li>They said that he is a genius. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) He is said to be a genius. </li></ul><ul><li>It is said that he is a genius. </li></ul><ul><li>One assumes that they are innocent. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) It is assumed that they are innocent. </li></ul><ul><li>They are assumed to be innocent. </li></ul><ul><li>They looked for him everywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) He was looked for everywhere </li></ul>
  68. 71. <ul><li>He had to write to his parents daily. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) His parents had to be written daily. </li></ul><ul><li>He told her a lie . </li></ul><ul><li>(P) She was told a lie – A lie was told her. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) The warehouse was entirely flooded. </li></ul><ul><li>( When the agent is unknown, unimportant). </li></ul><ul><li>You should forgive him. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) He should be forgiven. </li></ul>
  69. 72. <ul><li>Good cooks use the best ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>(P) The best ingredients are used by … (P) The house was built by the mason. </li></ul><ul><li>The house was built with stone by the… </li></ul><ul><li>(P) Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da </li></ul><ul><li>Vinci - The drawings were painted with water colors. </li></ul>
  70. 73. <ul><li>Our teacher wanted us to prepare the next chapter. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) Our teacher wanted the next chapter to.. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) We understand that the problem has been solved – It is understood that the problem has been solved. </li></ul><ul><li>(A) The Board of directors agreed to hire him. The BoD agreed that he should be.. </li></ul>
  71. 74. <ul><li>They sent him two warnings. </li></ul><ul><li>The two warnings were sent to him - </li></ul><ul><li>He was sent two warnings. </li></ul><ul><li>They turned on the beeper after the signal (P) The beeper was turned on… </li></ul><ul><li>(P) It is midnight. All the lights must be turned off. </li></ul>
  72. 75. <ul><li>Ajmal has not been compensated for his work yet. (A) They have not compensated Ajmal for his work yet. (P) (P) They say the auditors are dissatisfied with him. </li></ul><ul><li>One should do one’s duty. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) One’s duty should be done. </li></ul>
  73. 76. <ul><li>Who called you names? </li></ul><ul><li>(P) By whom were you called names? </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks expected to win the trophy </li></ul><ul><li>(P) It was expected by the Greeks that they would win the trophy </li></ul><ul><li>Pay this bill today (P) Let the bill be paid- </li></ul><ul><li>This is too good for us to expect. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) This is too good to be expected. </li></ul>
  74. 77. <ul><li>Men must endure what they can’t cure. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) What cannot be cured must be endured. </li></ul><ul><li>Some one has discovered our plan. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) Our plan has been discovered by … </li></ul><ul><li>He walked the horse up the hill. </li></ul><ul><li>(P) The horse was walked up the hill by him. </li></ul>
  75. 78. Indirect speech <ul><li>Indirect speech also called reported speech is used to relate another person’s words. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic categories of indirect speech are: </li></ul><ul><li>Statements 2. Questions 3. Commands </li></ul><ul><li>Statements: The passage from direct statements to indirect requires some changes: a) verb tenses both regular and modal b) pronouns and adjectives c) adverbs. </li></ul>
  76. 79. <ul><li>Verbs: Regular verbs change tense only when the reporting verb is in past tense. There are no changes when the reporting verb is not past: </li></ul><ul><li>He always says, “Jane works hard.” </li></ul><ul><li>He is saying, “Jane works hard.” </li></ul><ul><li>He will say, “Jane works hard.” </li></ul>
  77. 80. Tense changes <ul><li>Dir speech: He said, “ John works hard.” Indir: He said that John worked hard.” </li></ul><ul><li>Dir: He said, “John is working hard.” </li></ul><ul><li>Indir: He said that John was working hard. </li></ul><ul><li>Dir: He said, “ John has worked hard.” </li></ul><ul><li>Indir: He said that John had worked hard. </li></ul><ul><li>Dir: He said, “ John has been working hard.” Indir; …that John had been working hard. </li></ul>
  78. 81. <ul><li>Dir: He said, “ John worked hard.” </li></ul><ul><li>Indir: … John worked hard. </li></ul><ul><li>Dir: He said, “ John will work hard.” </li></ul><ul><li>Indir: …that John would work hard. </li></ul><ul><li>Dir: He said, “ John will be working hard.” </li></ul><ul><li>Indir: … John would be working hard. </li></ul><ul><li>But: He said, “ John would/would have … </li></ul><ul><li>He said that John would / would have … </li></ul>
  79. 82. <ul><li>Reported conditional sentences: </li></ul><ul><li>Dir. John said,” If I listen, I will learn.” </li></ul><ul><li>Indir: John said that if he listened, he would learn/would have learnt. </li></ul><ul><li>Dir: John said, “if I listened, I’d learn.” </li></ul><ul><li>Indir:Jo said that if he listened, he’d learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Dir: Jo said, “ If I had listened, I’d have … </li></ul><ul><li>Indir: Jo said that If he had listened, h’d .. </li></ul>
  80. 83. Modal verbs <ul><li>Can – could, may –might, will – would, shall – should, must – must/ had to, could – could, might – might, should – should, ought to – ought to, would – would, Used to – used to. </li></ul><ul><li>Pronouns and adjectives: I – he/she, my – his/her, mine – his/hers, </li></ul>
  81. 84. <ul><li>I – he/she, my – his/her, mine – his/hers, you – I/he/she/we/they, your –my/his/her/our/their, yours – mine/his/hers/ours/theirs, we – they, our – their, ours – theirs, this/these – that those. </li></ul><ul><li>Dir: Jo said, “I am angry _ Indir: Jo said that he was angry. Dir: Jo and Ted said, “ These seats are ours - … were theirs </li></ul>
  82. 85. <ul><li>Dir: Jo asked, “ How are you? Indir: Jo asked how I was. Dir: I said, “ I am angry.” </li></ul><ul><li>Indir: I said that I was angry. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbial changes: here – there/ in that place, now – then/at that time, today – that day, yesterday – the day before, the day before yesterday – two days before, tomorrow – the day after, the day after tomorrow – in two days, </li></ul>
  83. 86. <ul><li>An hour/a week/a month/ a year ago - an hour… year before, next day/ week/ month/year - the following day …year, last week/month/year … week/month/year before. </li></ul><ul><li>Dir: Ted said, “It is raining now.” – Ted said that it was raining then. </li></ul>
  84. 87. <ul><li>Dir: Ann said, I saw her yesterday.” – indir: </li></ul><ul><li>Ann said that she had seen her the day before. </li></ul><ul><li>The main reporting verbs are tell, say. agree, refuse, offer, promise, carry an infinitive: Harry said, “ I shall invite them.” – Harry agreed to invite them. Accuse, admit, apologize for, deny carry ‘ing’ form: </li></ul><ul><li>He admitted doing that. </li></ul>
  85. 88. <ul><li>Some of the reporting verbs are: add, answer, argue, complain, explain, object, protest, reply, remark etc. Ted said,&quot; It is very late.” Ted complained that it was very late. </li></ul><ul><li>In case of question, there is affirmation: Ted said, “ Where do you live? – Ted asked where I Iived. </li></ul>
  86. 89. <ul><li>In an indirect question, use ask, inquire or wonder. Ted said, “Why is he going to do it.” – Ted wondered why he was going to do it. </li></ul><ul><li>We use ‘if’ in an indirect question not using question words like why, where, what, when, how: Ted asked, “ Is John at home.” Ted asked if John was at home. </li></ul>
  87. 90. <ul><li>Commands/requests/advice take infinitive: </li></ul><ul><li>Ted said, John, “stand up.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ted ordered John to stand up. </li></ul><ul><li>The word ‘not’ is used before the infinitive in sentences reporting negatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Ted said, “Don’t touch.” Ted forbade him to touch/ Ted told him/her not to touch. </li></ul>
  88. 91. <ul><li>Verbs used in indirect: commands/requests/advices are: tell, ask, advise, command, forbid, invite, order, remind, request, warn etc. </li></ul><ul><li>I said to him, “Please tell the truth.&quot; I advised him to tell the truth/ I said to him, “Don’t do this.” I forbade him to do that/ He said to him, “ Don’t call her.” - He warned him not to call her. </li></ul>
  89. 92. Transformation of sentences <ul><li>He is too good to do such an act. </li></ul><ul><li>The news is too good to be true. </li></ul><ul><li>It is never too late to mend. </li></ul><ul><li>She is too proud to beg for favors. </li></ul><ul><li>Too many cooks spoil the broth. </li></ul>
  90. 93. <ul><li>He is so good that he cannot do such an act. </li></ul><ul><li>The news is so good that it cannot be true. </li></ul><ul><li>It is better to mend at a late hour than not to mend at all. </li></ul><ul><li>She is so proud that she cannot beg for favors. </li></ul><ul><li>When there are so many cooks, they are likely to spoil the broth. </li></ul>
  91. 94. <ul><li>She deserves too little praise. </li></ul><ul><li>It is too hot to work. </li></ul><ul><li>He is too old to learn or unlearn things. </li></ul><ul><li>The fact is too evident to require proof. </li></ul><ul><li>He is too honest to be a successful man. </li></ul>
  92. 95. <ul><li>She is so great that she needs no praise. </li></ul><ul><li>It is so hot that it is very difficult/impossible to work. </li></ul><ul><li>He is so old that he cannot learn or unlearn things. </li></ul><ul><li>The fact is so evident that it needs no proof. </li></ul><ul><li>He is so honest that he cannot be a successful businessman. </li></ul>
  93. 96. <ul><li>If a king rules justly, his subject love him </li></ul><ul><li>You will succeed, if you work hard. </li></ul><ul><li>Were I a rich man, I should be generous. </li></ul><ul><li>Had he been wise, he would not have come. </li></ul><ul><li>But that he is a good man, I should not have helped him. </li></ul>
  94. 97. <ul><li>Unless a king rules justly, his subjects do not love him. </li></ul><ul><li>Unless you work hard, you will not succeed. </li></ul><ul><li>If I were a rich man, I should be generous. </li></ul><ul><li>Had he been wise, he would not have come. (Use if also) </li></ul><ul><li>If he were not a good man, I should not have helped him. </li></ul>
  95. 98. <ul><li>Take care of the pence and the pounds will take care of themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>One more effort and you are sure to succeed. </li></ul><ul><li>Have you done your work? Then come in. </li></ul><ul><li>I shall buy the book, if it is cheap. </li></ul><ul><li>If it were true, how should we act? </li></ul>
  96. 99. <ul><li>If you take care of the pence, the pounds will take care of themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>If you make one more effort, you are sure to succeed. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have done your work, come in. </li></ul><ul><li>I shall buy the book, provided it is cheap. </li></ul><ul><li>Supposing it were true, how should we act. </li></ul>
  97. 100. <ul><li>He is poor but honest. </li></ul><ul><li>She is fair but not proud. </li></ul><ul><li>Although he gets more than he deserves, he is still discontented. </li></ul><ul><li>He is rich; at the same time he not proud. </li></ul><ul><li>He is strong but he is timid. </li></ul><ul><li>Although he is rich, yet his health is poor. </li></ul>
  98. 101. <ul><li>Poor as he is, he is honest. </li></ul><ul><li>Fair as she is, she is not proud. </li></ul><ul><li>He is still discontented, notwithstanding that he gets more than he deserves. </li></ul><ul><li>He is rich, all the same he is not proud. </li></ul><ul><li>Admitting that he is strong, he is timid. </li></ul><ul><li>Admitting that he is rich, his health is very poor. </li></ul>
  99. 102. <ul><li>He is as strong as Hercules </li></ul><ul><li>John is more intelligent than Jane. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron is more useful than any other metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Some boys are at least as industrious as Khalid. </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming is one of the healthiest exercises. </li></ul>
  100. 103. <ul><li>Hercules is not stronger than he is. </li></ul><ul><li>Jane is not so intelligent as John. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron is the most useful metal of all. </li></ul><ul><li>No other metal is as useful as iron. </li></ul><ul><li>Khalid is not more industrious than some other boys are/ some boys are not less… </li></ul><ul><li>Khalid is not the most industrious of all boys. </li></ul>
  101. 104. <ul><li>He walked the horse up the hill. </li></ul><ul><li>My father has obtained three days leave. </li></ul><ul><li>I will not allow you to say such things. </li></ul><ul><li>Who taught you such foolish tricks. </li></ul><ul><li>The road to hell is paved with good intentions. </li></ul><ul><li>His eloquent voice will never be heard. </li></ul>
  102. 105. <ul><li>The horse was walked up the hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Three days leave has been obtained by my father. </li></ul><ul><li>You will not be allowed to say such things. </li></ul><ul><li>by whom were you taught such foolish things. </li></ul><ul><li>Good intentions pave the way to hell. </li></ul><ul><li>No one will hear his eloquent voice. </li></ul>
  103. 106. Punctuate the following: <ul><li>he said to the shoemaker you are a big blockhead you have done the reverse of what i desired you i told you to make one of the shoes larger than the other and instead you have made one of them smaller than the other </li></ul>
  104. 107. Idioms <ul><li>Idiom is an expression peculiar to a language. There is always an idiomatic translation from one language to another. Literal translation is of no avail. </li></ul><ul><li>1.A.B.C 2.Above board 3. After a man’s soul or heart 4.To give one self airs 5. All in all 6. All and sundry 7. Alma mater 8.animal spirits 9.to keep up appearances 10.apple of one’s eye </li></ul>
  105. 108. <ul><li>11.An axe to grind 12.To turn one’s back upon 13.to the backbone 14.to go to the bad 15.bad blood, 16.bad debts 17.bag and baggage18. into the bargain19.to beard the lion in his den 20. To beat about the bush 21. Beau ideal 22. As you make your bed you must lie on it 23.a bed of roses 24.to have a bee in one’s bonnet, 25. to beg the question, 26. to bell the cat </li></ul>
  106. 109. <ul><li>27.To bid fair 28. to kill two birds with one stone 29. birds of feather 30. a black sheep 31.a wet blanket 32. a bit of one’s mind 33. to make one’s blood creep 34. once in a blue moon 35. to keep body and soul together 36. a bone of contention 37. in the good books of 38. to have a second string to one’s bow 39. bread and butter, 40.to break the ice </li></ul>
  107. 110. <ul><li>41.To make a clean breast of 42.To hold a brief for another 43.To bring the house down 44.New brooms sweep clean 45. To nip in the bud 46. To take the bull by the horn. 47. To burn one’s fingers 48. To burn the candle at both ends 49.To bury the hatchet. 50.To mean business 51.To mind one’s own business 52.Fine (or fit) words butter no parsnips </li></ul>
  108. 111. <ul><li>53. To butter one’s bread on both sides 54. To know the side on which one’ bread is buttered. 55.To hold a candle to any person 56.If the cap fits, wear it 57. To make capital out of anything 58. To play one’s cards badly 59. To play one’s cards well 60. To throw up the cards 61.To carry all before one 62. To carry the day 63. Carried away by one’s feelings </li></ul>
  109. 112. <ul><li>64. To put the cart before the horse 65.A casting vote 66.To build castles in the air </li></ul><ul><li>67.To let the cat out of the bag 68. A cat-and-dog life 69.To rain cats and dogs. 70.To make a cat’s paw of 71. By a long chalk 72.The chapter of accidents 73.To chew the cud 74.To count the chickens before they are hatched 75.A chip of the old block 76. Child’s play </li></ul>
  110. 113. <ul><li>77.To show a clean pair of heels 78.To be in the clouds 79. Under a cloud 80. To carry coals to New Castle 81.To heap coals of fire on one’s head 82. The coast is clear 83. To cut one’s coat according to one’s cloth 84. To turn one’s coat 85. A cock -and- bull story 86.To pay a man back in his own coin 87. To compare notes 88.To cool one’s heels </li></ul>
  111. 114. <ul><li>89.To keep one’s own counsel 90. To keep one’s countenance 91. His countenance fell 92. Crocodile tears 93. To cry over split milk 94.French leave 95. To take fancy to 96. To take up the cudgels on behalf of another 97. To cudgel one’s brains 98. In one’s cups 99.To cut the Gordian knot 100. To speak daggers 101.At daggers drawn. </li></ul>
  112. 115. <ul><li>102.The sword of Damocles 103. Between the devil and the deep sea. 104.Fair and square. 105.At a white heat 106. elixir of life 107.Equal to the occasion 108.To fall flat 109. To make both ends meet.110.A small fry 111. Out of bounds 112. To play second fiddle 113.To be on the horns of dilemma 114.To be in the field </li></ul>
  113. 116. <ul><li>115.Alpha and omega 116. To make a bee line for 117.To follow suit 118.In hot water 119.To lead by the nose 120. To turn over a new leaf 121. A left handed compliment 122.On its last leg 123. The lion’s share 124. Null and void 125.In a nutshell 126.By long odds 127.Pros and cons 128.To claim one’s pound of flesh 129. To settle an old score 130. To talk shop </li></ul>
  114. 117. <ul><li>131. The last straw 132.To face the music 133. Bad blood 134.To make both ends meet 135. To strike a bargain 136. To take by storm 137. To take the wind out of another’s sails 138. To win laurels 140.With flying colors 141. To keep the ball rolling 142.A fool’s paradise 143. To the letter 143.To be out of pocket 144. To fall foul of 145. To give ear to </li></ul>
  115. 118. <ul><li>146. Flesh and blood 147. A bar to148. To be behind the scene 148. To be at one’s beck and call 149.To clip one’s wings 150.In the nick of time 151. At one’s wit’s ends. 152. To turn a deaf year 153. A storm in a teacup. 154.To throw out of gear. 155. To spread like a wild fire 156.To blink the fact 157.To fake up 158. To give up 159. To fall to the ground </li></ul>
  116. 119. <ul><li>160. To carry through 161. To break down 162. To give out 163. To fall back upon 164. To give away 165. To go through 166. To look after 167. To give way 168. To take to 169. To take up 168. To run out 169. To put off 170.A bed of roses 171. To put up with 172. A voice in the wilderness 173. A chip of the old block 174. To eat a humble pie 175. A bone of contention </li></ul>
  117. 120. <ul><li>176. A fish out of water 177. To see eye to eye 178. A dead letter 179. A red letter day 180. To be hand and glove 181. To flog a dead horse 182. By fits and starts 183.A right hand man 184. A wet blanket 185. To steal a march 186. In cold blood 187. To fight shy of 188.To hit the nail on the head 189. To have too many irons in the fire 190. To talk through one’s hat </li></ul>
  118. 121. <ul><li>It is not luck but labor that makes men luck says an american writer is ever waiting for something to turn up labor with keen eye and strong will always turns up something luck lies in bed and wishes the postman would bring him news of a legacy labor turns out at six and with busy pen or ringing hammer lays the foundation of a competence luck whines labor whistles </li></ul>
  119. 122. Some important idioms <ul><li>1.To go to the bad 2. Bag and baggage 3 A bone of contention 4. After a man’s soul or heart 5 To the back bone 6. To bury the hatchet 7. To beg the question 8. To have a second string 9. To give oneself airs 10. to burn the candle at both ends 11. To have a bee in one’s bonnet 12. To take the bull by the horn 13.To turn one’s back upon 14.A bed of roses </li></ul>
  120. 123. <ul><li>15.An axe to grind 16.To make a clean breast of 17. A beau ideal 18. New brooms sweep clean. 19. Apple of one’s eye. 20. To bring the house down. 21.to nip in the bud 22.To beat about the bush 23.To keep up appearance 24. Into the bargain 25. Animal spirits 26 As you make your bed so you lie on it. 27. Alma mater 28. All and sundry. 29. To hold a brief for another </li></ul>
  121. 124. <ul><li>31. To bell the cat 32. To cut one’s coat according to cloth 33. To kill two birds with one stone 34. To take up the cudgels on behalf of another 35. To heap coals on one’s head 36. A wet blanket 37. A bit of one’s mind 38. To make one’s blood creep 39.Once in a blue moon 40. Body and soul together. </li></ul>
  122. 125. <ul><li>what do you want i asked as he came into the room its none of your business he replied rapidly walking across the floor i jumped to my feet and before he could escape i seized him by his collar come now i said you are going to answer my question respectfully or not </li></ul>